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Norton Media Library
WESTERN
CIVILIZATIONS
SEVENTEENTH EDITION
by
Judith Coffin
Robert Stacey
Joshua Cole
Carol Symes
The Greek World Expands,
400–150 B.C.E.
Chapter 4
Downfall of the Greek Polis
• The Peloponnesian War (431–404
B.C.E.)—Spartan dominance
• The Corinthian War (395–387 B.C.E.)
– Failed response to Spartan dominance
– Followed by pattern of Greek-on-Greek
violence
Map 4.1 The Inland Expedition of the Ten Thousand
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Downfall of the Greek Polis
• The struggle for hegemony
– Thebes and Sparta
– Epaminondas and the battle of Leuctra (371
B.C.E.)
• Development of “Theban Sacred Band”
– Spartan defeat
– Emergence of Athenian naval confederacy
– Strife between democrats and oligarchs
Downfall of the Greek Polis
• Social and economic crises
– Declining wealth
– Towns devastated
– Decline in the standard of living
– Increased taxes and widespread
unemployment
– The problems of mercenary armies
Downfall of the Greek Polis
• The Cultural and Intellectual Response
– Art and literature
•
•
•
•
Heightened sense of realism
Drama in decline compared to fifth century
The flight from social and political commentary
Art privately funded, control of message
Downfall of the Greek Polis
• The Cultural and Intellectual Response
– Drama as diversion and escape
• Focus on “safe” topics, avoid controversy
• Slapstick topics
• Menander (c. 342–292 B.C.E.)
– Most famous of the age
– Set precedents for literary forms that followed
Downfall of the Greek Polis
• The Cultural and Intellectual Response
– Philosophy and political thought in the age of
Plato and Aristotle
• Plato (c. 429–349 B.C.E.)
–
–
–
–
–
Strove to vindicate Socrates
Introduced more structured framework
The Academy
Wrote a series of dialogues
Social harmony more important that individual liberty
Downfall of the Greek Polis
• The Cultural and Intellectual Response
– Government by a superior group of “guardians”
– Wrote The Republic
» Idea of the Philosopher-King
» Elements of benign tyranny
» “Who will guard the guardians?”
• Aristotle and Aristotelian thought
– Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.)
– Trained as a scientist
– Trusted his senses and sense perception
Downfall of the Greek Polis
• The Cultural and Intellectual Response
– Objective reality of material objects
– Everything is purposeful and moves toward a perfected
form (telos)
– The highest good is the harmonious functioning of mind
and body
– The contemplative life
– “Man is by nature a political animal”
The Rise of Macedon and the
Conquests of Alexander
• The reign of Philip II (359–336 B.C.E.)
– Stabilized his borders: warfare and diplomacy
– Reorganized the army
– The phalanx as fighting machine
– Dynastic marriages
The Rise of Macedon and the
Conquests of Alexander
• The reign of Philip II (359–336 B.C.E.)
– Expansion brought conflict with Athens
• Demosthenes (c. 383–322 B.C.E.)
– Saw Philip as an aggressor
– Battle of Chaeronae (338 B.C.E.)
• League of Corinth
– Assassination of Philip
The Rise of Macedon and the
Conquests of Alexander
• The conquests and reign of Alexander
(336–323 B.C.E.)
– Visionary, genius, or butcher?
– Further expansion
– Difficulty in modern Afghanistan
– Queen Roxane
Map 4.2 The campaigns of Alexander
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
The Rise of Macedon and the
Conquests of Alexander
• The conquests and reign of Alexander
(336–323 B.C.E.)
– The new empire
•
•
•
•
New cities
Mass marriages
Breeding a new nobility
Installs no administrative apparatus
– Death of Alexander
The Hellenistic Kingdoms
• Ptolemaic Egypt
– Most durable kingdom
• Patronized science and the arts
– Alexandria
– Personal enrichment
– Alexander as pharoah
The Hellenistic Kingdoms
• Seleucid Asia
– Near Eastern traditions
– A Hellenized population
– Planted new cities
• Antigonid Macedon and Greece
– Antigonus
• Keeping Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Asia at war
– Aetolian and Achaean Leagues
• Model of federalism
Map 4.3 The Hellenistic World
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
From Polis to Cosmopolis—The
Growth of Trade and Urbanization
• Long-distance trade
– Spread east to Central Asia
– Harbors improved
– Encouragement of industry
– Explosive population growth
– Improved standard of living for some
• Cities
– Importation of Greek officials and soldiers
From Polis to Cosmopolis—The
Growth of Trade and Urbanization
– Alexandria
• Wealth and poverty
– Significant economic growth
– Primarily agricultural economy
– Manual laborers and artisans largely
impoverished
– All subject to “boom and bust” economic cycle
Hellenistic Worldviews
• Stoicism
– Founded by Zeno of Citium (324–270 B.C.E.)
– Cosmos is ordered and rational
– The individual is not the master of his own life
– Submit to the universal order of things
– Tranquility of mind
– Duty and self-discipline
– Duty of political participation
Hellenistic Worldviews
• Epicureanism
– Founded by Epicurus (c. 342–270 B.C.E.)
– Democritus and atomism
– There is no ultimate purpose of the universe
– Highest good is pleasure
– Serenity of the soul
– No such thing as absolute justice
– The wise man should abandon politics
Hellenistic Worldviews
• Skepticism
– Carneades (c. 213–129 B.C.E.)
•
•
•
•
•
All knowledge is limited and relative
Inability to prove anything
That which appears to be
Escape from incomprehensible world
Happiness—abandon quest for truth
Hellenistic Worldviews
• Religion
– A vehicle for escape
– Persistence of belief in gods who protected
the polis
– “Ordinary” Greeks and personal religion
•
•
•
•
Ecstatic mystical union with a deity
Cult of Dionysius
Egyptian cult of Isis
Zoroastrian dualism
Hellenistic Worldviews
• Religion
– Migration of gods to the Near East and Egypt
– Combination of Greek and non-Greek cults
– Greek influence on Jewish communities
outside Palestine
• The Septuagint
Scientific Revolution of
Antiquity. Science and Medicine
• Origins
– Mesopotamian and Egyptian science
– Hellenistic rulers patronized scientific
research
• Sole motive was prestige
Scientific Revolution of
Antiquity. Science and Medicine
• Astronomy, mathematics, and geography
– Aristarchus of Samos (310–230 B.C.E.)
• Heliocentric worldview
– Euclid (fl. fourth century B.C.E.)
• Wrote first geometry text
– Hipparchus (fl. 160–125 B.C.E.)
• Foundations of trigonometry
Scientific Revolution of
Antiquity. Science and Medicine
• Astronomy, mathematics, and geography
– Eratosthenes (c. 276–194 B.C.E.)
• Calculated circumference of the earth
• Developed a system of latitude and longitude
• Physics
– Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287–212 B.C.E.)
• Discovered law of floating bodies
Scientific Revolution of
Antiquity. Science and Medicine
• Medicine
– Herophilus of Chalcedon (c. 335–c.280
B.C.E.)
• Anatomist—practiced human dissection
• Detailed description of the brain
• Rejected notion of four humors
Scientific Revolution of
Antiquity. Science and Medicine
• Architecture and Sculpture
– Architecture drew on Greek models
influenced by Egypt and Persia
• The Lighthouse of Alexandria
• The altar to Zeus at Pergamum
– Sculpture—most influential of the arts
• Focus on extreme naturalism
Scientific Revolution of
Antiquity. Science and Medicine
• Architecture and Sculpture
• Extravagance
– Dying Gaul
– Winged Victory of Samothrace
– Laocoön
Scientific Revolution of
Antiquity. Science and Medicine
• Hellenistic Culture: Literature and Art
– Pastoral literature
• The pastorals of Theocritus (c. 310–250 B.C.E.)
– Prose
• Polybius (c. 205–123 B.C.E.)
– Historical development proceeds in cycles
Conclusion
• The Transformation of the Polis
– From polis to cosmopolis
• From Hellene to Hellenistic
• The breakdown of traditional values
– The Hellenistic Age as an age of transition
between Greece and Rome
Norton Art Slides
• Chapter 4
The Greek World Expands,
400–150 B.C.E.
Judith Coffin
Robert Stacey
Joshua Cole
Carol Symes
Chapter Opener
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Honoring the Theban Sacred Band
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Map 4.1 The Inland Expedition of the Ten Thousand
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Roman Copy of the Aphrodite of Knidos
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Second century C.E. Copy of the Aphrodite of Knidos
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Bronze Youth
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Plato and Aristotle
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Philip II of Macedonia
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Macedonian Phalanx
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Marble Head of Alexander
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Alexander Defeats King Darius of Persia at
the Battle of Issus (333 B.C.E.)
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Alexander’s World
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Map 4.2 The campaigns of Alexander
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Lesser Kings of Persia Approach the Great King to Perform
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
the Proskynesis
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Map 4.3 The Hellenistic World
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Portraits of Ptolemy I of Egypt
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Portraits of Ptolemy I of Egypt
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Hellenistic Earrings
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
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Surgical Instruments
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The Citadel of Pergamon
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
The Marble Streets of Ephesus
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Dying Gaul
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
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The Winged Victory of Samothrace
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Laocoön and his Sons
Western Civilizations, 17th Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
W. W. Norton & Company
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This concludes the Norton Art
Slide Set for Chapter 4
Western Civilizations
SEVENTEENTH EDITION
by
Judith Coffin
Robert Stacey
Joshua Cole
Carol Symes