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4th International Science, Social Science, Engineering and Energy Conference 11th-14th December, 2012, Golden Beach Cha-Am Hotel, Petchburi, Thailand I-SEEC 2012 www.iseec2012.com The Timeline of Zakah H. Fadella,e1, S. Sakdab,e2, R. Hasemc,e3 a School of General Education, Kasem Bundit University, Bangkok, 10250, Thailand b Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Rajabhat Bansomdejchaopraya University, Bangkok, 10600, Thailand c School of General Education, Kasem Bundit University, Bangkok, 10250, Thailand e1 [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Abstract This research aimed to (1) study the rates of different types of zakah and the time of their occurrence during the history of Islam (2) identify the rates and conditions of zakah according to the time period in Islam which is divided into the era of Prophet’s companions, the era of Followers (Tabieen), and the era of Tabi-id Tabieen (3) study the social conditions at that time and the reasons explained by the Prophet, the rulers, and the scholars of the time. The scope of this research includes the study of literature and evidences from the Qur’an, the Hadith, and the documents related to the rates and the duration for paying different types of zakah divided by the Islamic era. Another part of this research is the study of the different viewpoints of the leading Muslim scholars concerning the conditions and reasons in stipulating the rates of zakah in different period of time in Islamic history. This part of the research was conducted by applying qualitative methods, which used interviews as a tool in order to gain insight information for the research. The results demonstrated that there were differences in the types and the rates of zakah in each period of Islamic history. The alternation that occurred can be observed in the time of the era of the Prophet’s companions which is different from the era of the Prophet in the types and the rates of zakah for livestock. The rate of zakah for camel and horse, which were the types of livestock that required additional payment, were changed during the era of the Prophet’s companions. The distinctive changes can be seen in the era of the Tabieen and the Tabi-id Tabieen. There were different viewpoints from the scholars concerning the rates, the conditions, and the regulations of zakah that were added from the era of the Prophet’s and the era of the Prophet’s companions. This has shown the clear distinction for the types and the rates of zakah in Islamic history. The research also revealed the viewpoints of the Muslim scholars concerning the additional types and rates of zakah that were added after the era of the Prophet, the era of Prophet’s companions, the era of Tabieen, and the Tabi-id Tabieen, for example salary zakah, expertise wage zakah, partnership zakah, and so on. The information received from this research can be used for the development of additional research in zakah, the management of zakah, and the application of zakah money for the benefit of Thai Muslim development in the future. Keywords: zakah, rates and types of zakah, condition of zakah 2 Background Islam is the way of life for all Muslim. The principles and the teachings in Islam are what every Muslim must follow in order to live a peaceful life and create harmony for their family and society. They also assist society in developing peace according to the guidelines of Islam. There are 3 fundamental principles in Islam. The first principle is the main 6 beliefs. Muslim must believe in Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, the Angels of Allah (Malaikah), the Books of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, the messengers of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala (Rusulullah), the Day of Judgment (Akhirah), and the Supremacy of the Divine Will (Al-Qadâr). The second principle is the 5 acts of worship which are Al-Shahada (Declaration of Faith), Salat (Prayer), Zakah (Charity), Sawm (Fasting), and Hajj (Pilgrimage). The last principle is the primary virtue that is to perform religious activities regularly as if we see Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, as Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala always sees us. The three main principles in Islam are essential for Muslim to understand, and practice in their own daily lives. One of the Islamic practices or acts of worship that is being discussed in this paper is the principle of paying Zakah. Paying zakah is an obligation for Muslim when possessing assets that cover a specific amount according to Islamic rule (nisab) and reach the time period of a year (hol). Since zakah can be compared as a welfare fund or a source of funds that will help other Muslim in the society for a better life, therefore, people who possess enough assets can help people who are poor or have less. People who have possessions can help others in the society by giving zakah. This is the format that is hardly observed in other religions apart from Islam. There are 8 types of people who are able to receive zakah as stated in the Quran “all charity is for the poor and those who need and those officers who collect it and those whose heart are close to the freedom of slavery and those who have debts in the way of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, and those who are travelling. This is coming from Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, the omniscient and has comprehensive wisdom” (Surah Attaubah: 60) It is clearly seen that Islam emphasizes the importance of zakah, which is something that can be taken to solve the social and economic problems and reduce the inequality of people in the society which will lead to a peaceful and harmonious society. Therefore, the knowledge of zakah regarding to the rates, duration, and types is worth studying and understanding in details in order to proceed and manage accurately and meet the purpose according to the Islamic principles. Zakah is one of the Islamic principles and an important factor in solving social problems since many problems are caused by poverty, debts, the lack of liberty in living, the lack of faith, and the lack of morality. Paying zakah will help solve these problems effectively. If the wealthy people avoid paying zakah just as they avoid paying taxes or pay less than required, or do not pay in accordance to the purpose of Islam, problems such as social gap between the rich and the poor will arise. The poor will be envy of the rich. Society will be weak as poverty will increase. If there is an organization that takes an administrative role in managing zakah, it will certainly be tremendously beneficial for Muslim society. Social issues will be reduced as resources are allocated and distributed at all levels of society especially the poor. Therefore, zakah is an important factor in building strong society and nation. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala stated about zakah a lot next to the importance of praying. Zakah is the third principle of the five fundamental principles of Islam. It is important to understand as there are many philosophies beneath zakah, for example; 1) Paying zakah helps to clean the mind of the payer and is restrained from miserly and selfishness. 2) Paying zakah creates the spirit of love and unity among Muslims. 3) The payers of zakah are those who pay loyalty to Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala and follow the command of the Lord. 4) Paying zakah creates strong society from the mutual assistance. 3 Therefore, those who pay zakah for people who are entitled to receive with their clean mind and the aim of being thankful to Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala for giving numerous factors for their living, their assets will flourish both in this world and the next. For the type of zakah, it is divided into 2 main categories which are zakah for food )zakah fitr) and the zakah for asset (zakah mal). These zakah have time duration and conditions of amount for Muslim who possesses assets at certain amount. If the asset is less than required then there is no need to pay zakah. The amounts of possessed property required for paying zakah are as follow: 1 . Silver, gold, cash, money in bank account, funds, or goods if a person possesses equal to the value of 5.66 bath gold (1 baht gold is equal to 15 grams) or approximately 85 grams gold, he must pay zakah of 2 .5 % when possess reaching 1 full year. The statement reference of the Prophet reported by Ali (rod.) that “When you possess two hundred in one year, you must pay five dirham for zakah and nothing required for you to pay (gold) until you possess it twenty dinar. When you possess it twenty dinar for one year you must pay zakah for a half dinar and anything excess than that must use the same ratio. And there is no need to pay zakah until a year is reached,” report by Abu Dawud. 2. Products from agriculture 3. Livestock such as goats, sheep, cow, buffalo, and camel 4. Treasure found in earth The duration for paying zakat The beginning of the year for zakah starts on the date that a person pay zakah for the first time that is the day that person possess the amount of asset that cover the require amount. After that, if the person still possesses the asset when reaching one year or 3 5 4 days according to the lunar calendar, he must pay again with the same method because zakah is not calculated from the accumulation of assets. This is the fairness in the society and economy that people have demanded for ages. It is clearly seen that there are many different types of zakah and each type has its own specific details concerning the amount and the duration of payment. There are substantial researches concerning zakah focusing the study of details for each type of zakah, the role, and the outcome of bringing zakah system into solving economics and social problems. However, there is still a shortage of researches that focus on the rationale behind the different amount of paying different types of zakah especially zakah Mal or property zakah which defined as 2.5 percent of the property of a person who has property that cover a specific amount within one full year. The study about the rates for different types of zakah concerning the period and the era of their occurrence in Islamic history together with the conditions and rationale for determining is also necessary to be addressed. Therefore, the researcher team fills this gap by raising these issues in order to find explanations for the society and those who seek knowledge in this type of information. This research also aims to pass on correct knowledge about zakah and encourage Muslims who possess property that cover a specific amount and are required to pay zakah. It is also to create consciousness in paying zakah which lead to solving social and economic problems and to systemize community welfare correctly according to Islamic principles. The researchers aims that this study will assist Muslim society to be aware of the importance of paying zakah with the correct rate and time according to the Islamic principles and eventually bring the zakah system in solving social and economic problems in Muslim society. Objectives of the study 1) To study the rate of different types of zakah and the period of their occurrence in Islamic history 2) To study the conditions of the society at the time and the rationale described by the prophet 3 ) To identify the rates and conditions of zakah according to the time period in Islamic history which is divided into the era of the prophet, the era of the prophet’s companion, the era of the followers (Tabieen), and the era of Tabi-id Tabieen 4 The scope of the study The scope of this research includes the study of the academic literature from the Qur'an, the Hadith, and the documents related to the rates and the duration for paying different types of zakah divided by the Islamic era. Another part of this research is the study of different viewpoints of the leading Thai Muslim scholars concerning the conditions and reasons in stipulating the rates of zakah in different period of time in Islamic history. Procedures The researchers divided the research into 2 parts; 1. Documentary Research the study of the academic literature from the Qur'an, the Hadith, related researches, academic report, articles, books, thesis, website and other documents 2. Field Research 1.1 Study from the leading Thai Muslim scholars 1.2 The interviews were conducted in order to collect data 1.3 The data was analyzed by using content analysis Significance of the study 1) To realized the time period of the occurrence for different types of zakah 2 ) To learn about the social conditions at the time and the rationale given by the prophet in stipulating zakah rates 3 ) To learn the information, and can distinguish the rates and conditions for zakah in the era of the prophet, the era of the prophet’s companion, the era of the followers (Tabieen), and the era of Tabi-id Tabieen Summary of the study Zakah is one of the main principles of Islam which is important next to the declaration to believe in Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala and the praying to Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala. The word zakah has its root from Arabic language (al zakah), which covers the mandatory and voluntarily donation. During the time of the prophet Muhammad, there were many Hadith that the prophet used the word Sodakah (alsodakah). In Linguistics term, the word zakah is defined as an abstract noun. The word zakah means purity, prosperity, and praise. In religion aspect, zakah is a command to give parts of the assets that is due according to the conditions and amount by the religion to the group of people who are entitled to receive it. The zakah can be classified into 2 types which are 1. zakah fitr (food) and 2. zakah for assets. According to the history of Islam, zakah fitr was stipulated as Fardu (required) for every Muslim before stipulating zakah for assets. The stipulation for both types of zakah was based on the provisions from the Qur'an, As sunnah (the practices of the prophet Muhammad), the diagnostics of most of the Islamic scholars, and Qiyas (the comparison of other issues that does not occur in the Qur'an, As sunnah, and the diagnostics of most of the Islamic scholars). Qur'an does not specify the details of the various types of property required to pay zakah. The identification for details and classification of types for zakah occurred from the guidelines and the practices of the prophet Muhammad. Islamic scholars have classified the various types of zakah into 9 categories; 1. Zakah fitr which is the command to give food that is the main consumption in the country (such as rice, wheat flour, barley, date, dried grapes, flour etc) 2. Zakah from livestock (such as cows, sheep, goats and camels) 3. Zakah from gold silver and jewelry 4. Zakah from assets received from trading 5. Zakah from agricultural products (such as rice, wheat, barley, dried grapes, date) 5 6. Zakah from honey and products from animals 7. Zakah from mineral and assets received from the sea (e.g. minerals) 8. Zakah from valuable assets 9. Zakah from income Discussions The provisions about zakah were not determined in the Makkeeyah period. Verses from the Qur'an that was given down to the prophet Mohammad while he was staying in the city of Makkah was to remind those who believe to consider and donate some of their property for the poor. The donation was done only by voluntary, and there was no specific amount (nisab) or ratio and types of property required to pay zakah. After the migration of the prophet Mohammad in Hijrah 2, Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala gave the principle of zakah to be used among all Muslim. Zakah in the era of the prophet Mohammad The categories and the rates of zakah appear in the Qur’an and the sunnah of the prophet Mohammad are as follow; 1. zakah fitr, 2. zakah from livestock, 3. zakah from gold, silver, and jewelry, 4 zakah from assets received by trading, 5 . zakah from agricultural products, 6 . zakah from honey and products from animals, 7 . zakah from mineral and assets received from the sea, 8 . zakah from valuable assets, and 9. zakah from income. Zakah in the era of the prophet’s companion In the era of the prophet’s, companion the classification for the rates and types of zakah mostly still based primarily on the provisions from the Qur'an and the sunnah of the prophet Mohammad. It is found from the study that the rates and types of zakah in the era of the prophet’s companion mostly followed the era of the prophet Mohammad and had a more systematic management for collecting different types of zakah. There were only minor alterations for the rate in some categories of zakah such as the zakah from horse. It was an ijtihad of the prophet’s companion Umar. The change in the rate of zakah from silver and gold that increase every 4 dinar out of 2 0 dinar was also occurred in the ear of Umar. Furthermore, there was also change in the practice of the prophet’s companion concerning the zakah from jewelry which concerned both of those who paid and those who did not pay. The obvious change occurred in the ear of Umar concerning the consideration in increasing the rate of zakah from honey by considering the geographical area or the source of honey. If honey was taken from the area of the mountain, it was required to pay 5 % zakah which was less than the rate of zakah from honey taken from land as the require payment was 10%. Another change was the determination for the rate of zakah from minerals and assets received from the sea at the rate of 1 0 % or 2 0 % depending on the reporting lines. The details about the rates and types of zakah during the period of the prophet’s companion were changed as follow; 1 . zakah from livestock, 2 . zakah from gold silver and jewelry, 3 . zakah from honey and products from animals, and 4. zakah from mineral and assets received from the sea. Zakah in the era of the followers (Tabieen), and the era of Tabi-id Tabieen The classification of the rates and types of zakah adhered to the provisions from the Qur'an and the sunnah of the prophet Mohammad. The rates and types of zakah that were added from the previous era were: 1 . zakah from livestock, such as the minimum rate for the possession of cow and the rate of camel at 120 were added in the era of the followers (Tabieen), and the era of Tabi-id Tabieen 2 . zakah from gold silver and jewelry. The rate for zakah for banknote was defined in this era which was not occurred in the ear of the prophet Mohammad and the era of the prophet’s companion 3 . zakah from mineral, according to the perspective of Imam Ahmad, Ishak, Imam Malik, and Imam Shafi’i the zakah from mineral was determined at the rate of 2.5 % the same as gold and silver, but in the perspective of Imam Abu Hanifah, Abu Ubaid, Zaid bin Ali, Al Bakir and Al Sadiq determined at the rate of 20%. 6 Recommendation for further research The researchers of the study for the timeline of zakah have investigated the rates for different types of zakah that occurred in Islamic history according to the social condition at the time and the rationale given in the era of the prophet Mohammad, the prophet’s companion, the followers (Tabieen), and the Tabi-id Tabieen. The additional researches regarding zakah should be conducted on the topic of the result of the meeting in the current Muslim’s world in ASEAN countries, Arabic countries, and European countries which have a systematic administration and procedure regarding the management of zakah fund or any other operations of zakah. Also, further researches regarding to the alteration, addition, or the calculation of zakah ratio for each types of zakah such as zakah from different types of income and zakah from professional fee should also be conducted. The study of the timeline of zakah still has limitations as the researchers investigated only in the era of the prophet Mohammad, the prophet’s companion, the followers (Tabieen), and the Tabi-id Tabieen. Further studies for the timeline of zakah should be investigated in the era of the Uthmaniyah Dynasty which is an interesting period for the study of the alternation, the addition, and the calculation of ratio for different types of zakah which will be beneficial in creating knowledge and understanding for the timeline of zakah in the future. References Abdullah Nasih Ulwan. (1985). Hukum zakat dalam pandangan empat mazhab. (diterjemahkan daripada Dr.Didin Hafihudin). Pustaka National PTE LTD: Singapure. Ail Akbar Osman. )1995(. Mengapa perlu membayar zakat? Apakah kelebihan zakat? Apakah azab jika tidak membayar zakat?. Kuala Lumpur: al-Hidayah Publishers. Mujaini Tarimin. (1995). Sistem zakat al-Mustafaad dalam Syariah Islam: Kajian kes dan pelaksanaannya di wilayah persekutuan. Kuala Lumpur: Academi pengajian Islam, Universiti Malaya. Mujaini b. Tarimin. (1990). Zakat pertanian, system dan pelaksanaanya. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Mujaini Tarimin. (2004). Zakat Menuju Pengurusan Profesional. Kuala Lumpur: Sanon Printing Corporation Sdn. Bhd. Paimuzi Yahya. (1996). Pengagihan zakat di Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Academi Pengajian Islam, Universiti Malaya. T.M. Hasbi Ash-shiddieq. (1967). Pedoman Zakat. Djakarta: BulanBintang. Wahairi b. Mahmud. (1989). Pengutan dan pengagihan harta zakat menurut Islam dan pelaksanaannya di negeri Terangganu: suatu analisis kritikal, Latihan Ilmiah Fakulti Syariah, Academi Pengajian Islam: Universiti Malaya.