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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ
ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«ТЮМЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ АРХИТЕКТУРНО-СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Кафедра иностранных языков
Лапицкая С.И., Баликаева М.Б.
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
для студентов направления 08.03.01 «Строительство»,
профиль «Промышленное и гражданское строительство»
профиль «Производство и применение строительных материалов,
изделий и конструкций»
профиль «Городское строительное хозяйство»
очной и заочной форм обучения
Тюмень, 2015
УДК – 811.111.1
ББК – Л-24
Лапицкая С.И., Английский язык: учебное пособие для студентов направления
08.03.01 «Строительство», профиль «Промышленное и гражданское
строительство», профиль «Производство и применение строительных
материалов, изделий и конструкций», профиль «Городское строительное
хозяйство» очной и заочной форм обучения. /С.И. Лапицкая, М.Б. Баликаева. –
Тюмень: РИО ФГБОУ ВПО «ТюмГАСУ», 2015.- 98с.
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов направления 08.03.01
«Строительство», профиль «Промышленное и гражданское строительство»,
профиль «Производство и применение строительных материалов, изделий и
конструкций», профиль «Городское строительное хозяйство» очной и заочной
форм обучения, составлено на основе современных аутентичных материалов по
теме «Строительство» и адаптированы к уровню подготовки бакалавров
технического вуза.
В содержании методических указаний имеется словарь к указанным
текстам, способствующий совершенствованию навыков чтения, технического
перевода, составления аннотаций к текстам и усвоению лексики по
терминологии направления и профиля.
Рецензент: доцент каф. анг.яз., методики и переводоведения УрГПУ, канд. Пед
наук, Казакова О.П.
Рецензент: ст. преподаватель каф. ин.яз.ТюмГАСУ,Чуманова Н.А.
Тираж 50 экземпляров.
© ФГБОУ ВПО «Тюменский государственный архитектурно-строительный
университет »
© Баликаева М.Б.
Редакционно-издательский отдел ФГБОУ ВПО «Тюменский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет »
CONTENT
Введение
4
INTRODUCTION
5
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
11
TIMBER
16
STONE
22
BRICK
26
CONCRETE AND CEMENT
30
STEEL, METALS, GLASS AND PLASTIC
40
AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE
45
TEXTS FOR TEST
48
MY SPECIALITY
53
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
57
HOME READING
65
CLICHES FOR RESUME
68
CONTROL YOURSELF
70
DICTIONRY OF CONSTUCTON TERMS
73
GRAMMAR
75
СONTROL WORK № 1
88
СONTROL WORK № 2
91
SOURCES
97
Введение
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для организации практической и
самостоятельной работы бакалавров, направление «Строительство», профиль
«Промышленное и гражданское строительство», профиль «Производство и
применение строительных материалов, изделий и конструкций», профиль
«Городское строительное хозяйство» очной и заочной форм обучения.
Учебное пособие способствуют совершенствованию навыков чтения,
технического перевода, составления резюме и усвоению лексики по
терминологии направления и профиля.
Учебное пособие состоят из 19 разделов, содержащих тексты различной
направленности: строительство, из истории строительства, строительные
материалы и др., лексико-грамматические упражнения для закрепления умения
чтения, грамматический справочник для выполнения контрольных работ,
контрольные работы.
К текстам прилагаются небольшие словари, облегчающие понимание,
способствующие более точному переводу данных текстов и запоминанию
лексики и терминологии по данному направлению и профилю.
В приложении дается список выражений, необходимых для правильного
составления резюме к текстам, в соответствии с принятыми требованиями.
При отборе материала соблюдались принципы, отвечающие
современным требованиям методики обучения иностранным языкам:
мотивация, интегрированный подход, метод проектов, мозговой штурм.
Учебное пособие предназначено как для самостоятельной работы, так и
для аудиторных занятий бакалавров.
Предлагаемое учебное пособие способствуют развитию следующих
компетенций:
ОК- 5: способность к коммуникации в устной и письменной формах на русском и
иностранном языках для решения задач межличностного и межкультурного
взаимодействия;
ОК- 6: способность к коммуникации в устной и письменной формах на русском и
иностранном языках для решения задач межличностного и межкультурного
взаимодействия.
I. INTRODUCTION
1. Ответьте на вопросы (мозговой штурм):
DISCUSSION:
Discuss in groups the following questions:
What do you know about the history of construction?
What countries developed the building construction?
What materials were used for construction in old times?
What did the builders construct at that time?
THE HISTORY OF BUILDING
Egypt
Greece
the Roman Empire
2. Прочитайте и переведете текст, используя слова и выражения после
текста. Обсудите в группах следующие темы (проектная работа):
Группа 1: The History of building in Egypt
Группа 2: The History of building in Greece
Группа 3: The History of building in the Roman Empire
FROM THE HISTORY OF BUILDING
Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as people live in today. In
hot countries people sometimes made their homes in the trees and used leaves to
protect themselves from rain or sun. In colder countries they dwelt in caves. Later
people left their caves and trees and began to build houses out of different materials
such as mud, wood or stones.
Later people found out that bricks made of mud and dried in the hot sunshine
became almost as hard as stones. In Ancient Egypt especially, people learned to use
these sun-dried mud bricks. Some of their buildings are still standing after several
thousands of years.
The Ancient Egyptians discovered how to cut stone for building purposes. They
erected temples, palaces and huge tombs. The greatest tomb is the stone pyramid of
Khufu, king of Egypt. The ancient Egyptians often erected their huge constructions to
commemorate their kings or pharaohs.
The ancient Greeks also understood the art of building with cut stone, and their
buildings were beautiful as well as useful. They often used pillars partly for
supporting the roofs and partly for decoration. Parts of these ancient buildings can
still be seen today in Greece.
The Romans were great bridge, harbour and road builders. In road work the
Romans widely used timber piles. They also erected aqueducts, reservoirs, water
tanks, etc. Some of their constructions are still used till now. It is known that the
manufacture of lime is one of the oldest industries used by man. Lime is a basic
building material used all over the world as today so in the ancient world. One of the
Romans, Marcus Porcius Cato, gave an idea of a kiln for lime production: its shape
and dimensions. Such kilns were fired with wood or coal and were extremely
inefficient. There are still many remains of kilns in some places of Great Britain as
well as roads and the famous Hadrian Wall, which was erected to protect Romans
from the celtic tribes in the first century A.D. Britain was a province of the Roman
Empire for about four centuries. There are many things today in Britain to remind the
people of the Roman: towns, roads, wells and the words.
In a period of 800 to 900 years the Romans developed concrete to the position
of the main structural material in the empire. It is surprising, therefore, that after the
fall of the Empire, much of the great knowledge should have disappeared so
completely. The knowledge of how to make durable concrete has been lost for
centuries, but mention was made of it in the writings of architects from time to time.
Fusion of Roman and North European traditions in construction was reflected in
many ways. Buildings combined the Roman arch and the steep peaked roof of
Northern Europe. Roman traditions were continued in the architectural form known
as Romanesque. London Bridge, finished in 1209, took thirty-three years to build. It
consisted of nineteen irregular pointed arches with its piers resting on broad
foundation, which was designed to withstand the Thames current.
The Roman period was followed by other periods each of which produced its own
type of architecture and building materials. During the last hundred years many new
methods of building have been discovered. One of the recent discoveries is the
usefulness of steel as a building material.
Nowadays when it is necessary to have a very tall building, the frame of it is first
built in steel and then the building is completed in concrete. Concrete is an artificial
kind of stone, much cheaper than brick or natural stone and much stronger than they
are. The Egyptians employed it in the construction of bridges, roads and town walls.
There are evidences than ancient Greeks also used concrete for the building purposes.
The use of concrete by the ancient Romans can be traced back as far as 500 B.C.
They were the first to use it throughout the ancient Roman Empire on a pretty large
scale and many structures made of concrete remain till nowadays thus proving the
long life of buildings made of concrete. Of course, it was not the concrete people use
today. It consisted of mud, clay and pure lime, which were used to hold together the
roughly broken stone in foundations and walls. It was so-called “pseudo-concrete”.
The idea of such building material might have been borrowed from the ancient
Greeks as some samples of it were found in the ruins of Pompeii.
1. dwell (dwelt)
2. cave
3. mud
4. wood
5. stone
6. find out
7. brick
8. dry
9. ancient
10.discover
11.cut
12.erect
13.temple
14.tomb
15.commemorate
16.huge
17.as well as
18.pillar
19.support
20.bridge
21.harbour
22.basic
23.kiln
24.fire
25.remain(s)
26.remind
27.suggest
28.dome
29.famous
30.disappear
31.complete(ly)
32.lose (lost, lost)
33.fusion
34.rest
35.recent
36.evidence
37.hold together
38.trace back
39.prove
40.borrow
41.sample
42.throughout
жить, обитать, находиться, пребывать
пещера
грязь, слякоть; ил, тина
дерево
камень
узнать, разузнать, выяснить; понять
кирпич
сухой; сушить
древний
открывать
резать; рубить, валить (лес)
сооружать; воздвигать, строить (о здании)
храм; церковь
могила; надгробие; мавзолей
почтить память
огромный
так же как, а также
столб, колонна; опора, стойка
опора; поддерживать, подпирать; нести нагрузку
мост
гавань; порт; прибежище, пристанище
основной
печь для обжига и сушки
обжигать (керамику, кирпичи и т.п.)
остатки, следы прошлого; оставаться
напоминать
предлагать
купол; верх, верхушка, свод (большого здания)
известный
исчезать
заканчивать, завершать; полный; полностью
терять, потеряться
интеграция, объединение, слияние
лежать на; опираться
недавний, последний
доказательство, подтверждение; свидетельство
сплачивать(ся)
выяснять происхождение, прослеживать
доказывать; удостоверять
заимствовать
образец, образчик, экземпляр
повсюду; на всем протяжении
3. К каждой данной паре слов вспомните русское слово с тем же корнем,
что и английское:
protect
защищать, охранять, ограждать; предохранять
constructions
сооружение, строительство, здание, конструкция
decoration
наружная и внутренняя отделка, украшение дома
manufacture
производство, изготовление; производить, изготавливать,
делать
production
производство, получение; изготовление; продукция
province
область, район, территория
emperor
император
architect
архитектор
reflect
отражать, влиять
combine
соединяться, объединять(ся)
arch
арка
architectural form архитектурный стиль
piers
пилястр, пилястра; колонна; дамба плотина
position
положение, местоположение; место; расположение
structure
конструкция, устройство, дом, здание, сооружение
clay
глина
4. Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним
эквиваленты из правого столбца.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
building purpose
sun-dried mud bricks
the art of building
road works
timber piles
water tank
a number of
main
structural
material
9. durable concrete
10.steep peaked roof
11.irregular pointed arch
12.broad foundation
13.type of architecture
14.steel frame
15.artificial stone
16.the earliest findings
17.tall building
18.roughly broken stone
19.cut stone
a) некоторое количество, несколько
b) основной(важнейший)строительный
материал
c) нестандартная стрельчатая арка
d) тесаный камень
e) остроконечная крыша
f) стальной каркас
g) искусственный камень
h) искусство строительства
i) строительная цель
j) кирпичи из глины, высушенные на солнце
k) дорожные работы
l) архитектурный стиль
m) высокое здание
n) деревянные сваи
o) прочный бетон
p) ранние (первые)полученные данные
q) бак для воды
r) широкое основание
s) грубый (неровный) щебень
5. Переведите на русский язык следующие цепочки слов, обращая
внимание на словообразовательные суффиксы:
Discover-discovery; build-building-a building-a building material; produceproduction; construct-construction; know-knowledge; architect-architecturearchitectural; use-useful-usefulness; complete-completely; efficient-inefficient;
part-partly; structure-structural.
6. Вспомните, как переводятся следующие синонимы.
Building-construction; a tall building- a high building; ancient-old times; hugevery large; hard-durable; to use-to employ; to build-to construct-to erect;
structural materials-building materials; basic material-main material
7. Прочитайте, переведите следующие предложения и отметьте, какие из
них относятся к египетскому, греческому и римскому искусствам
строительства в древности.
1. They first used sun-dried mud bricks for building.
2. In a period of 800-900 they developed concrete to the position of main
structural material.
3. Their buildings were beautiful as well as useful.
4. They learned how to cut stone for building purposes.
5. They often used pillars partly for supporting the roofs and partly for
decoration.
6. They used concrete for construction of bridges roads and town walls.
7. First kilns for lime production appeared in this country.
8. In ancient times concrete for building purposes was first used in this country.
9. They erected their huge constructions to commemorate their kings.
10.They were great bridge and road builders in old times.
8. Закончите следующие предложения в соответствии с текстом.
Предложения переведите на русский язык.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Many thousand of years ago there were no houses …
In hot countries people made their homes …
In colder countries they …
In ancient time kilns for lime production were fired by …
The knowledge of how to make durable concrete … for centuries.
After the Fall of the Roman Empire Roman traditions were continued …
7. Buildings combined the Roman arch and …
8. During the last hundred years many methods of building….
9. One of the most recent discoveries is …
10.Nowadays the frame of a tall building is first … and then …
9. Закончите следующие предложения, используя английские эквиваленты
из текста в соответствии с текстом. Предложения переведите на русский
язык.
1. Concrete is an artificial kind of stone, намного дешевле и прочнее, than brick or
natural stone.
2. The Egyptians used concrete для строительства мостов, дорог и городских
стен.
3. Существуют доказательства that ancient Greeks also used concrete in
building purposes.
4. The use of concrete by the ancient Romans может быть прослежен еще в 500
году до нашей эры).
5. They were the first to use it throughout the ancient Roman Empire в довольно
широких масштабах.
6. Concrete in old times consisted of mud, глины, чистой извести и грубого
(неровного) щебня.
7. London Bridge finished in 1209 was designed on broad foundation (чтобы
противостоять течению Темзы.
10. Напишите резюме к тексту, используя клише на стр.68.
II. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
1. Назовите строительные материалы, которые Вы знаете (мозговой
штурм).
BUILDING MATERIALS
2. Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на слова и
выражения после текста.
TEXT 1. BUILDING MATERIALS
Materials used for construction purposes possess different properties. They differ
in durability, strength, weight, fire- and decay-resistance and, naturally, cost.
Wood, timber, brick, stone, concrete, metals, and plastics belong to the most
сommonly used building materials nowadays. In most cases it is important that they
should be hard, durable, fire-resistant an easily fastened together. They all have their
advantages and disadvantages that are taken into account when designing a structure.
Wood belongs to naturally growing materials. It is known to be the oldest
construction material and is still widely used for different purposes. Wood is popular
since it has low weight and is easy to work. Besides, it grows naturally and is cheap.
But its usage is limited because of its disadvantages: it easily burns and decays. As to
stone, it also belongs to the oldest building materials. Among its advantages there are
strength, high heat insulation and fire-resistance.
As to stone it also belongs to one of the oldest building materials used by men. It
is characteristic of many properties. Among its advantages there are mechanical
strength, high heat and sound insulation and fire-resistance.
Brick belongs to artificial construction materials. It has been used in many
countries and in different climates. In modern times bricks vary widely with the method
of production and temperature of burning.
Concrete is known to be one of the most popular building materials. It is
produced by mixing cement, gravel, water, and sand in the proper amounts.
Steel has come into general use with the development of industry. Its
manufacture requires special equipment and skilled labour.
Plastics combine all the fine characteristics of a building material with good
insulating properties. It is no wonder that the architects and engineers have turned to
them to add beauty to modern homes and offices.
All building materials are divided into three main groups:
1) Main building materials such as rocks and artificial stones, timber and
metals.
2) Binding materials such as lime, gypsum and cement.
3) Secondary or auxiliary materials which are used for the interior parts of the
buildings.
We use many building materials for bearing structures. Binding materials are
used for making artificial stone and for joining different planes. For the interior finish
of the building we use secondary materials.
Natural building materials are: stone, sand, lime and timber. Cement clay
products and concrete are examples of artificial building materials.
1. property
2. purpose
3. hard (hardness)
4. durable (durability)
5. fire resistant (fire resistance)
6. fasten
7. disadvantage
8. burn
9. decay
10.strength
11.artificial
12.require
13.equipment
14.turn
15.add
16.beauty
17.divide
18.main
19.timber
20.lime
21.secondary
22.auxiliary
23.bear
24.join
25.plane
свойство
цель
твердый (твердость)
прочный, долговечный (прочность)
огнестойкий, огнеупорный
скреплять
недостаток
гореть, сжигать
гнить
прочность
искусственный
требовать
оборудование
зд. обращаться
добавлять
красота
разделить
основной
строительный лес
известь
вторичный
вспомогательный, дополнительный
поддерживать, подпирать
соединять
плоскость
3. К каждой данной паре слов вспомните русское слово с тем же корнем,
что и английское (работа в парах):
1. сharacteristic
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
compactness
porosity
concrete
industry
manufacture
combine
characteristics
9. modern
отличительный,
типичный
плотность,компактность
пористая структура
бетон
промышленность
производство
соединять, сочетать
характерная особенность,
свойство
современный
10.rock
11.gypsum
12.cement
13.interior
14.structure
15.finish
16.natural
17. clay
горная порода,
камень
гипс
цемент
внутренняя
часть
помещения
конструкция,
сооружение
отделка
природный
глина, глинозем
4. Какие из данных слов являются а) существительные б)
прилагательные? Почему? (работа в парах)
mixer, various, advantageous, gravel, purpose, art, artificial, stone, resistant, resistance,
durability, durable, disadvantage, property
5. Какие свойства строительных материалов могут иметь преимущества,
а какие могут иметь недостатки? (работа в парах)
high cost
low resistance
high weight
heavy weight
fire-resistance
low cost
durability
hardness
non-fire-resistance
high strength
corrosion-resistance
softness
6. Соедините вместе а) прилагательные б) существительные (письменно).
а) artificial, durable, various, useful, low, advantageous, high
b) process, materials, properties, strength, industry, resistance, cost
7. Какие из слов данных ниже являются существительными, глаголами,
прилагательными, наречиями. Переведите слова (работа в парах).
height, high, deepen, depth, deeply, strength, strengthen, strong, long, highly,
lengthen, length, hard, hardly, harden, hardness
8. Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним
эквиваленты из правого столбца (работа в парах).
1. construction material
2. commonly used materials
3. low weight
4. mechanical strength
5. sound insulation
6. heat insulation
7. artificial building materials
8. come into general use
9. skilled labour
10.insulating properties
11.binding materials
12.interior parts of the
building
13.bearing structures
14.interior finish
15.clay products
a) изоляционные свойства
b) отделка внутреннего помещения здания
c) работа, требующая высокой квалификации
d) вяжущие материалы
e) искусственные строительные материалы
f) строительный материал
g) несущие конструкции
h) широко используемые материалы
i) звукоизоляция
j) внутренние части здания
k) механическая прочность
l) изделия из глины
m) теплоизоляция
n) стали широко использоваться
o) небольшой вес
9. Закончите следующие предложения в соответствии с содержанием
текста (работа в парах):
1. The most commonly used building materials are …
2. They should be…
3. Wood is … . Advantages of wood are… . Disadvantages of wood are …
4. Stone has many properties. They are…
5. Bricks are …
6. Concrete is …
7. Steel manufacture requires …
8. Plastics has … . It is used …
9. All buildings materials can be divided into …
10.Building materials are used for…
11.As for binding material they are used for …
12.We use secondary materials for …
10. Какие из данных английских предложений относятся к дереву,
кирпичу, бетону и пластику? (работа в парах)
1. It is the most ancient building materials. 2. They were used thousands years ago. 3.
Architects use it to add beauty to modern homes and offices. 4. It burns and decays.
5. Its main components are synthetic resins. 6. It is light and easy to work. 7. It is a
mixture of sand, cement, crushed stone and water. 8. It is an example of artificial
stone. 9. Raw materials are coal, peat, and oil. 10. It is the natural building material.
11. It has good insulating properties. 12. It has a mechanical strength and
compactness. 13. It is fire resistant. 14. It is light and water resistant.
11. Обсудите следующую ситуацию (ролевая игра): два инженера
обсуждают выбор строительных материалов для а) многоэтажного дома б)
загородного дома.
III. TIMBER
1. Назовите а) свойства древесины, б) преимущества, в) недостатки, г)
применение древесины.
2. Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на слова и
выражения после текста
TEXT 1. TIMBER
Timber belongs to one of the oldest building materials. It has been from ancient
times and is still produced from cut wood.
Timber has always been highly usable in construction because of its many
advantages. To these belong its strength, light weight, cheapness, and high workability.
Its other advantage is that it belongs to natural resources and is naturally renewable. It
is the more so that about a third of the world is still considered to be covered with
forests. Besides, timber is resistant to corrosion produced by chemical substances in the
modern polluted atmosphere. One more advantage of timber is that it can be used for
many construction purposes. But, naturally, timber has disadvantages and the main
ones are that it is not fire-resistant and it easily decays; especially if it is not
impregnated. Besides, freshly cut timber contains water that may cause great structural
defects. Removal of water from timber is a necessary procedure that should take place
before timber is used in practice. It increases strength and workability of the material
and, of course, its durability.
What is timber mainly used for? Because of its many advantages it is highly used
for producing window and floor frames, for flooring and roofing and for other various
woodwork. The two main types of timber are hardwoods and softwoods. Of them,
hardwoods are popular as materials used for decorative purposes: veneering in
furniture and panelling. As to softwoods, they are mainly used for producing window
and door frames and other kinds of internal woodwork.
1. belong
2. ancient
3. employ = apply
4. usable
5. cheap
6. consider
7. resistant to
8. impregnate
9. cause
10. structural
11. remove
12. take place
13. veneer
принадлежать
древний
применять, использовать
годный к употреблению, практичный, удобный
дешевый
считать, рассматривать, полагать
устойчивый; упорный; стойкий
пропитывать(ся)
причина, основание || быть причиной, вызывать
строительный
удалять
происходить, случаться
(кирпичная) облицовка; наружный слой; защитное
покрытие обклеивать фанерой 2) облицовывать
14. floor
15. woodwork
пол, настил, межэтажное перекрытие;
настилать пол
1) деревянные изделия 2) деревянные части
(сооружения) 3) плотничные работы; столярные работы
3. К каждой данной паре слов вспомните русское слово с тем же корнем,
что и английское (работа в парах):
1. construction
2. structural
3. natural resources
4. corrosion
5. naturally
6. procedure
7. mechanical
8. decorative
9. panel
10.furniture
11.select
12.modern construction
13.defect
1. строительство;
стройка;
постройка;
конструкция; сооружение; строение; здание
2. строительный
3. природные ресурсы
4. разъедание;
коррозия;
ржавление
выветривание; размывание
5. натурально, встречающийся в природе
6. рабочая операция; технологический процесс;
технология
7. механический
8. декоративный
9. обшивать панели листами
10.мебель
11.выбирать
12.современное строительство
13.дефект, неисправность, повреждение
4. Запомните ключевые термины и слова.
floor — пол, этаж
roofing — покрытие крыши
flooring — настилка полов
to roof — настилать крышу
frame — рама, корпус
surface - поверхность
removal - устранение, переме- to belong to — принадлежать (к)
щение
roof — крыша, кровля
5. Определите части речи и переведите слова.
hardwoods, surface, polluter, remove, pollution, removal, belong, roof, belongings, resist,
renew
6. Образуйте существительные и переведите (работа в парах).
Model: resistable — resistability - способность к сопротивлению
workable - ______________—________________
removable — _____________ - _________________
renewable — _____________ - _________________
usable
— _____________ —
_______________________
7. Прочитайте примеры и переведите (работа в парах) .
surface area —
floor boards floor timber —
roof iron —
roof ventilation —
roofer —
8. Найдите соответствующий русский эквивалент и запишите (работа в парах).
Model: загрязненный воздух - polluted air
surface waters, floor frame, roofer, chemical pollution, decorative purposes,
surface cracks, strips of land, chemically polluted air, floor boards, roof iron, laminated
panel
слоистая панель — _____________________________
кровельщик — ________________________________
поверхностные трещины — ______________________
полоски земли — ______________________________
химически загрязненный воздух— ________________
декоративные цели — __________________________
химическое загрязнение —_______________________
шпангоут — _________________________________
поверхностные воды - __________________________
настил — _____________________________________
кровельное железо - _____________
9. Переведите следующие термины (работа в парах).
constantly polluted atmosphere, chemically produced corrosion,
naturally renewable resources, commonly used types of wood,
constantly increasing global pollution
10.Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним
эквиваленты из правого столбца (работа в парах).
1.
2.
3.
4.
cut wood
light weight
high workability
naturally renewable
a) древесина хвойных пород
b) внутренние плотничные (столярные)
работы
c) срубленная древесина
5. chemical substances
6. polluted atmosphere
7. construction purpose
8. freshly cut timber
9. structural defect
10.decorative purposes
11.structural use
12.high strength
13.window frame
14.door frame
15.internal woodwork
16.hardwoods
17.softwoods
d) хорошая
обрабатываемость
(способность подвергаться обработке)
e) твердая древесина
f) использование в конструкциях
g) оконная рама
h) высокая прочность
i) легкий вес
j) дверной порог
k) декоративные цели
l) загрязненная атмосфера
m) строительная цель
n) свежесрубленная древесина
o) дефект конструкции, строительства
p) восстановимый, возобновляемый
природе
q) химические вещества
в
11. Закончите следующие предложения, в соответствии с текстом.
Предложения переведите.
1. Timber is ….
2. It has good properties. They are …
3. But it has some disadvantages. It …
4. Timber is widely used in modern construction for …
5. Timer cannot be used after it has been felled because …
6. … increases the strength and durability of timber.
12. Ответьте на следующие вопросы (работа в парах):
1. What structural materials does timber belong to?
2. What is it produced from?
3. What are the main advantages (disadvantages) of timber?
4. Why is removal of water from timber useful for construction purposes?
5. What are the two main types of timber?
6. What are softwoods (hardwoods) used for?
7. How much of the world's land surface is considered to be covered with forests?
8. What countries are rich (poor) in forests?
13.Составьте диалог, используя вопросы упр.12 (ролевая игра).
14.Переведите отрывок письменно.
Timber is wood, suitable for building and structural purposes.
There are over 4000 woods in common use throughout the world. The best and
most commonly used softwoods popular for structural work in many countries are
redwood, whitewood, pine, red cedar, sequoia, beech and some others. As to the
hardwoods, the best known ones include beech, birch, blackwood, chestnut, elm,
mahogany, maple, myrtle, oak, rosewood, walnut and some others.
TEXT 2. Timber
1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после текста.
Timber framing and conventional wood framing are two different forms of
construction. Timber framed structures use fewer, larger timbers with dimensions
from IS to 30 cm and mortice and tenon or wooden pegs as fastening methods,
whereas conventional woodframed buildings have a greater number of timbers with
dimensions from 5 to 25 cm, and nails or other mechanical fasteners are used to join
the timbers. Today timber structures are often surrounded in manufactured panels,
such as Structural Insulating Panels (SIPs). They are made up of two rigid
woodenbased composite materials with a foamed insulating material inside. This
method is used because these structures are easier to build and they provide more
efficient heat insulation. Timber-framed construction offers a lot of advantages. It is
kind to the environment (when the wood used is taken from sustainable forests) and
the frames can be put up quickly. Its design is elegant and simple, and also both
practical and adaptable. It can give a house character, both inside and outside.
Thanks to its strength, large open spaces can be created, something which is not so
easy to obtain with other techniques. It is very versatile, so timber-framed houses
can also be clad with stone or brick. This offers two more advantages: the house can
blend in with the surrounding area (both urban and rural) and it is very energyefficient. Timber is also cheaper than other materials.
1. Do timber-framed structures use larger or smaller timbers compared to
conventional wood framing?
2. Which fastening methods do the two different methods use?
3. What structures have been recently used? How are they made up?
4. What are the advantages of this method?
2. Почитайте текст снова и напишите резюме, используя следующие
выражения:
The text is about …
At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …
Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …
After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}
At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact)
that…
3. Прочитайте текст, где эксперт говорит о преимуществах древесины,
и заполните таблицу.
There are several advantages to timber frame construction but there are also
disadvantages that you should be aware of before deciding if it meets your needs.
Wood is a porous and very combustible material, susceptible to water, fire and bugs.
Water can be absorbed into the material, causing it to rot and mould, which can
compromise the strength and cause adverse health effects. This can be a major
problem in humid or damp climates. Wood is also very flammable, which makes the
material a fire hazard. Ants and termites eat wood framing, with serious effects on the
strength of the construction. Logging for timber framing can have a major
environmental impact. Producing boards and beams for timber frame construction
requires cutting down trees. Large, old-growth forests are sometimes clear cut to
produce wood for timber construction, which can lead to other problems such as soil
erosion and destruction of wildlife habitats. Wood is an excellent transmitter of sound
waves so any noise inside or outside is easily heard throughout the home. This can be
a major problem if there are several people living in the house or if it is located near a
noisy street as sounds are transmitted very clearly. Timber frames are quite strong up
and down but not as strong as other materials horizontally. So if your building design
has a large room with a long span, it will be difficult for timber frame construction to
handle the weight. You may need to have a post in the middle to absorb some of the
weight.
water
fire
bugs
environmental impact
sound
strength
Water can be (1)_____ into the material causing it to rot
and mould.
Wood is very (2)__________
Ants and termites eat wood (3) __________
Producing boards and beams for timber frame
construction requires (4) __________trees.
Wood is an excellent (5)_______ of sound waves so
any noise inside and outside is easily heard.
Timber frames are quite strong up and down but not as
strong as other materials (6) _______
IV. STONE
1. Назовите а) свойства камня, б) преимущества, в) недостатки, г)
применение камня (мозговой штурм).
2. Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на слова и
выражения после текста.
TEXT 1. STONE
Stone has been used as a structural material since the earliest days. Almost of
all famous buildings of classic times, of the medieval and Renaissance periods and of
the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were erected of stone masonry. In some
places stone was used because of the scarcity of timber, bin in other places stone was
preferred because of its durability.
The stones which are usually used for masonry work are as follows:
1) Granite is very hard, strong and durable. It is used particularly for
basements base courses, columns and steps and for the entire facades. Its colour may
be gray yellow pink or deep red.
2) Sandstone. Sandstone is composed of grains of sand or quarts cemented
together. Sandstones form one of the most valuable materials. The durability of
sandstones depends very largely upon the cementing material.
Thus, there are different kinds of sandstones. Many sandstones are
exceptionally hard and are selected for steps, sills etc. The excellent state of
preservation of many ancient buildings built of this stone is evidence of this. But city
buildings constructed of sandstone often assume a drab appearance owing to the dark
colour. It is an excellent material for concrete aggregate.
3) Marble is a crystalline stone chiefly used for decorative purposes
White and black marbles are used for ornamental decoration where the beauty
of the marble is shown to its best advantage.
1. since
2. early
3. famous
4. medieval
5. erect
6. prefer
7. because of
8. particular(ly)
9. entire
10.compose
11.depend on
12.exceptional(ly)
13.excellent
1. с тех пор как, с
2. ранний
3. известный
4. средневековый
5. сооружать, воздвигать
6. предпочитать
7. из-за
8. особенный (особенно)
9. весь, целый
10.состоять
11.зависеть
12.исключительный(исключительно)
13.отличный
14.сохранять
15.свидетельство
16.принимать,допускать, предполагать
17.тускло-коричневый; темный
18.внешний вид
19.цель
14.preserve
15.evidence
16.assume
17.drab
18.appearance
19.purpose
3. К каждой данной паре слов вспомните русское слово с тем же корнем,
что и английское (работа в парах):
1. structure
2. base
3. form
4. cement
5. select
6. column
7. steps
8. aggregate
9. ornamental
10.decoration
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
сооружение, здание, конструкция
основание, фундамент; основывать
составлять, являться
цементировать, скреплять цементным раствором
выбирать
колонна
шаги, ступени
заполнитель
фигурный, декоративный
украшение
4. Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним
эквиваленты из правого столбца (работа в парах):
1. structural material
2. the earliest days
3. Renaissance period
4. stone masonry
5. scarcity of timber
6. as follows
7. base courses
8. valuable material
9. concrete aggregate
10.ornamental decoration
11.best advantage
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
бетонный заполнитель
ценный материал
основной венец(каменной крепи)
строительный материал
фигурное украшение
давние времена
недостаток древесины
эпоха Ренессанса (Возрождения)
самое большое преимущество
каменная кладка
следующее
5. Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним
эквиваленты из правого столбца. Дайте русский перевод данных
синонимов (работа в парах).
1. structural material
2. since the earliest times
a) Building
b) strong
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
famous
erect
structure
durable
largely
exceptionally hard
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
very hard
construct, build
since ancient times
well known
building material
chiefly
6.Закончите следующие предложения, используя английские эквиваленты
из текста в соответствии с текстом. Полученные предложения переведите
на русский язык (работа в парах).
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Stone has been used as a structural material since (древних времен).
The art of making any structure in stone is called (каменная кладка).
Granite is used particularly for (фундаментов, колонн, ступеней и т.д.)
Sandstone is composed of (зерен песка и кварца).
Sandstone is an excellent material for (заполнителя бетона)
Sandstones form one of the most (ценных материалов)
Limestones are used extensively for (строительных целей).
Marbles are chiefly used for (декоративных целей)
7. Используя слова и предложения из текста докажите что (ролевая игра):
1.Stone has been used as a structural material since the earliest times.
2.Stone was widely used because …
a)
b)
3. Stone is one of the most valuable materials.
8.Закончите предложения в соответствии с текстом (работа в парах).
1.
2.
3.
4.
Stones used for masonry work are …
Granite is used for…
Sandstones are used as… and for …
Marble is used for … and for …
9.Напишите пересказ следующего текста на английском языке, используя
лексику изученных уроков.
Одним из наиболее древних строительных материалов является камень.
Каменные конструкции просты в изготовлении, обладают долговечностью, и
огнестойкостью. Для сооружения каменных конструкций применяют
искусственные и природные камни.
Природные камни тяжелых пород – известняки, песчаники, граниты используют для облицовки стен, возведения фундаментов. Природные камни
легких пород в южных районах используют для возведения стен.
К искусственным камням относят кирпич различных видов, камни из
бетона.
TEXT 2. STONE
1.
Почитайте
текст
и
найдите
соответствующую
половину
предложения.
Stone walls are one of the oldest construction methods known to mankind. The
first stone walls were made laying up stones without any mortar. With this method
stones are held together by gravity. These walls are usually larger at the base. In
Ireland and north-eastern UK counties this kind of wall was made by farmers to
create fences. It was quite a long and labour-intensive method, but with no costs.
When cement appeared, the first mortared stone walls were created, where cement
paste fills the gaps between the stones. The first cements were made using burnt
gypsum or lime, mixed with water. Concrete includes Portland cement mixed with
sand, gravel and water, which makes it resistant to cracking. To make it even more
resistant, steel reinforcing bars can be added. Most stone walls today are made using
this method, because it is fast and cheap.
1 The first stone walls were made …
2 When cement appeared …
3 The first cements were created
using….
4 Concrete is Portland cement….
5 Steel reinforcing bars can be added
….
a. burnt gypsum or lime, mixed with
water.
b. to make concrete even more
resistant. c. first mortared stone walls were
created.
d. without any mortar.
e. mixed with sand, gravel and water.
V. BRICK
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
Text 1. BRICK
Brick, stone, and timber are known to be the oldest building materials. Bricks
belong to artificial (man-made) materials. Their production started in prehistoric times.
Since then they have been produced and tested in all types of climate and in many
countries. Thousands of years ago the builders in Egypt already knew the advantages of bricks
and used them for construction. In those days the production of bricks was quite different
from the modern one: bricks wore produced not by burning but by drying in the sun,
there being much sunshine in Egypt all the year round. Brick work was also popular in
Rome, there being very few growing forests and as a result little timber there.
In modern times bricks can be made of concrete, mortar, of burnt clay and of a
combination of some other substances. For example, different types of clay and shale can
be used as raw materials. Accordingly, bricks produced nowadays have different sizes,
shapes, colours, and textures. Bricks also vary with the method of fabrication and
temperatures of burning. It should be noted that some types of brick, such as, for
example, salmon bricks are underburnt and highly porous. Naturally, their strength is
extremely poor. This property of salmon brick should be taken into account when
choosing brick material for construction. But there exist many other types of brick that
are extremely strong and almost glass hard. Between these extremes there lie some
other types of brick with different properties. Brick properties are of great importance
and should be taken into account while choosing material for construction purposes.
2. Выберете и запишите правильный вариант.
1. Shale and clay belong to (natural, man-made) materials.
2. (Metal and glass, clay and mortar) __________ are used
for fabricating bricks.
3. In (prehistoric, modern) _________ times bricks (are, were)
________ made by {drying in the sun, burning) ___ .
4. Russia is extremely (rich, poor) _______ in raw materials.
5. There were (many, few) ____ growing forests in Rome in prehistoric times.
6. Bricks (are extremely different, do not differ) ____ in size,
colour, and texture.
3. Переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на независимый
причастный оборот.
1.
Salmon brick being porous and underburnt, its strength is extremely poor.
2.
Modern bricks being different in size, texture, and colours, one can easily
choose the type of brick necessary for one's construction.
3.
Timber being strong and workable, it is widely used for flooring and roofing.
4.
5.
6.
Freshly cut wood containing some moisture, it cannot be classified as a strong
building material.
The upper stratum of soil being organic, it must be removed from the building
area.
Wood panels requiring less labour for installation, they are widely used for
construction purposes.
4.Составьте диалог, используя вопросы (ролевая игра).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What building materials are considered to be the oldest ones?
What natural (man-made) materials are used for construction nowadays?
Is brick a newly produced or an ancient building material?
In what countries are there (many, few) growing forests?
What countries are rich (poor) in raw materials?
What properties of brick should be taken into account when choosing material for
building purposes?
Types of Brick
clay brick
ceramic b.
lime and sand b.
common b.
глиняный кирпич
керамический к.
известково-песчаный к.
красный к.
porous b.
solid b.
пористый к.
полнотелый к.
air b.
wall b.
shaped b.
cellular b.
pressed b.
пустотелый к.
стеновой к.
фасонный к.
ячеистый к.
прессованный к.
5. Прочитайте данные в таблице выше. Переведите их a) с английского языка
на русский язык; b) с русского языка на английский язык (работа в
парах).
6. Переведите предложения письменно.
1. Bricks are divided into several grades.
2. In what way should bricks as a building material be transported?
3. Don't load bricks in bulk!
4. Don't use pale bricks or overturned bricks.
TEXT 2.
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
CERAMIC TILES
It is a well-known fact that there exist many types of bricks. Some of I hem are
highly usable in construction while others are not popular because of their poor
properties. Between these types there lie various types that are used for specific
purposes. To them belong, for example, ceramic tiles.
Ceramic tiles is a burned-clay product. It is mainly used for decorative and
sanitary purposes.
A ceramic tile consists of a clay body (корпус) covered with decorative glaze.
Ceramic tiles are usually flat in form. They are extremely various. They vary in size
from about 1/2 in square to more than 6 in. Their shapes are widely variable: squares,
rectangles, hexagones, and others. Ceramic tiles are produced from clays of different
colours. But — strange as it is — their colours do not depend on the colours of clays
they are made of. Tiles are glazed, as a rule, and their colour depends on the colour of
the glaze they are covered with. It is quite natural that ceramic tiles in practice exist in
wide variety of colours: from pure whites to deep darks and blacks. Ceramic tiles are
applied to the covered surface by means of a mortar or some adhesive substance. They
are usually applied with the thinnest mortar joint.
2. Составьте диалог, используя вопросы (ролевая игра).
1. Is the body of a ceramic tile covered with some substance? What substance is it
covered with?
2. What spheres are ceramic tiles used in?
3. Do they differ in forms, colours, and shapes?
4. What are their colours and sizes?
5. By what means are ceramic tiles applied to the surfaces? Are they applied with
a thick or thin adhesive joint?
TEXT 3.
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
Terracotta
Terracotta belongs to decorative types of brick. They are produced of burned clay. Their
structural properties being similar to the properties of brick, they are often used in a manner
similar to brick. Terracotta also exists in a wide variety of colours from pure whites to blacks.
Their colour depends on the colour of the glaze they are covered with. Different adhesive
substances are used for the application of terracotta to the surfaces being decorated with
them.
3. Составьте 3-4 вопроса к тексту и задайте их друг другу (работа в парах).
TEXT 4. Brick
1. Причитайте текст и напишите список преимуществ и недостатков
кирпича.
Masonry construction is a method that has been used for centuries around the
world. It is usually used for walls of buildings, retaining walls and monuments. The
most frequent type of masonry is brick, but concrete block is also becoming more and
more popular. Brick was one of the first building materials that man used and has
been used since the times of the ancient Egyptians because it offers a great number of
advantages. First of all, it has an affordable price and it is made of accessible raw
material, which has long durability and good insulating properties. It is a strong
material and is perfect for load-bearing systems where the loads are compressive. It is
the size of a man's hand and therefore simple to use. The appearance of the final work
depends on the ability and expertise of the bricklayer. Another advantage of using
brick is that, like stone, it offers increased comfort in the heat of the summer and the
cold of the winter. Being heat resistant, this material also offers good fire protection.
One of the disadvantages of using this material is that masonry must be built
on a firm foundation to prevent settling and cracking, and in the presence of
expansive soils the foundation may need to be elaborate. Moreover, this is a heavy
material, consequently the structural requirements will have to be increased,
especially if the area is subject to earthquakes.
Advantages
Disadvantages
affordable price
5. Прочитайте тест снова и напишите резюме, используя следующие
выражения:
The text is about …
At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …
Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …
After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}
At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact)
that…
VI. CONCRETE AND CEMENT
TEXT 1. CONCRETE
1. Запомните и выучите следующее термины.
concrete — бетон
aggregate — заполнитель (бетона)
coarse — крупный, необработанный, сырой
fine — тонкий, мелкозернистый
precast — готовый, готовоотлитый
quality — качество
tensile — растяжимый, вязкий
to crush - дробить
accordingly - соответственно
the very — именно тот,
тот
самый
2. Определите части речи и переведите слова.
the very, slab, tensile, coarse, crush, gravel, member, cast, quality
3. Соедини данные прилагательные a) с данными существительными; б) с
русскими словосочетаниями.
Model: дробленый гравий - crushed gravel
a) crushed, coarse, fine
b) sand, gravel, aggregate
дробленый песок — ___________________________
крупный гравий — ____________________________
мелкозернистый заполнитель —
4. Прочитайте термины и переведите их с русского языка (работа в
парах).
concrete slab — бетонная плита
slab roof— кровля из плит
tensile strength — прочность на растяжение
site of foundation — пласт под фундаментом
slab covering — настил из плит
5. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык.
the very site of construction proportionally divided amounts
carefully mixed aggregates
the very site of production
6. Выберете правильный вариант и вставьте в предложения.
1. Concrete as a building material possesses {only advantages, both advantages and
disadvantages).
2. Concrete is considered to be a {universally used material, rarely used material)
.
3. One of the qualities of concrete is that (it does not possess tensile strength, possesses
tensile strength) _________________ .
4. Ferro-concrete is {rather popular, not popular) in the modern construction.
5. Gravel is classified as {coarse, fine) aggregate.
6. One of the good qualities of concrete is its {high, low) cost.
7. Concrete (decays and bums, does not decay and burn) .
7. Переведите следующие вопросы на русский язык. Найдите ответы в статье
ниже.
1. What properties make concrete a highly used construction material?
2. What two types of aggregate are used for producing concrete?
3. Is sand a coarse or fine aggregate?
4. What ingredients does the quality of concrete depend upon?
5. How long does the process of hardening the mixed components last?
6. What is the difference between the so-called in-situ and precast concrete?
7. What quality is considered to be the main disadvantage of concrete?
8. For what reason is tensile strength considered to be an important quality?
9. For what purpose are metals introduced into the structure of concrete?
10.What metals is concrete frequently combined with?
11.When did the use of ferro-concrete start?
12.Would you like to live in a wooden or concrete building? Why?
8. Прочитайте и переведите статью.
Concrete is considered to be a universal material for construction. Different kinds
of concrete can be used practically for every building purpose. The raw materials for
producing concrete can be found in every part of the world. The main property that
makes concrete so popular is that it can be formed into strong monolithic slabs.
Another good quality is its relatively low cost. Besides, concrete is known to be fire- and
decay-resistant.
Concrete is produced by combining coarse and fine aggregates, Portland cement, and
water. Coarse aggregate is generally gravel or crushed stone, while fine aggregate is sand.
Cement, sand, gravel, and water are taken in proportional amounts and mixed. The
quality of concrete depends mostly on the quality of the cement used. The process of
production consists in pouring the mixed components into forms and holding them
there until they harden. The process of hardening generally lasts for about 28 daysThere
exist different ways of producing concrete. It can be produced by mixing the
ingredients and pouring the mixture into position on the very site of building.
Concrete can also be produced in a factory, and used as a material for manufacturing
prefabricated blocks. Accordingly, there exist the so-called in-situ (cast-in-place)
concrete and precast concrete.
Concrete, as any other building material, has not only advantages but also
disadvantages. Its main disadvantage is that it has no form of its own. Also, it does
not possess useful tensile strength. Because of these qualities, in modern times
construction concrete is very frequently combined with different metals. Most
common of them are iron and steel.
The introduction of metal into the structure of concrete is highly advantageous. It
strengthens the material and helps to realize its limitless construction and
architectural potential. It should be noted that the use of ferro-concrete started only in
the nineteenth century and is still gaining popularity.
TEXT 2. CONCRETE (continued)
1. Запомните следующие слова.
bridge — мост
cell — ячейка, клетка, канал в
пустотном кирпиче
cellular concrete — ячеистый
газобетон
dam - дамба, плотина
foam — пена
foamy — пустотелый, пенный
pile — свая
to emit — испускать, выделять
2. Определите части речи и переведите слова.
plain, cellular, foamy, foam, bridge, emission, emit, cell, pile, pipe
3.Переведите словосочетания на русский язык.
constant use
foamy structure powerful emission
4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
перевод независимого причастного оборота.
1. Concrete having no form of its own, it is frequently combined with metals.
2. Prestressed concrete is very popular, its good qualities being high strength and
durability.
3. Concrete with foamy and cellular structure being light, it is considerably decreased
in strength.
5. Соедините данные английские словосочетания a) с соответствующими
русскими словосочетаниями b).
Model: 1-2
a) 1. bridge beam
b) 1. плоская черепица
2. foamy structure
2. мостовая балка
3. flat tile
3. укладка труб
4. pipe laying
4. плоская черепица (плитка)
5. bridge pile
5. пустотелая балка
6. cellular girder
6. ячеистая структура
7. cellular structure
7. мостовая свая
6. Прочитайте словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык (работа в
парах).
bridge girder —
bridge joint —
bridge member —
pipeman —
pipe work —
7. Переведите вопросы на русский язык и ответьте на вопросы , используя текст.
1. What factors does the quality of concrete depend upon?
2. What is the main difference between plain and ferro-concrete?
3. What constructions is ferro-concrete used for?
4. What materials is concrete with cellular structure made up of?
5. What qualities does concrete with foamy structure possess?
6. What is its main disadvantage?
8. Прочитайте и переведите статью.
The quality of concrete is known to depend on the properties of materials it consists
of. The amount of constructing materials is also of great importance. Among the kinds
of concrete used in modern construction are plain concrete and reinforced, or ferroconcrete. The usage of plain concrete is practically limitless. As to ferro-concrete, it
is mostly used for construction of foundations, columns, girders and beams. This kind
of concrete is also rather popular for constructing bridges, dams, and clock walls.
Concrete being a universally used material, its new kinds are being constantly produced.
Among others there exists concrete with cells. Its main quality is that it is made up of
materials that emit gas and foam during the process of mixing the aggregates with water. It
should be taken into account that concrete of this type possesses relatively light weight. It is
mostly used for producing slabs, wall panels, and frame constructions. As we know, decrease
in weight leads to a considerable decrease in strength. This quality is classified as a great
disadvantage of cellular concrete.
TEXT 3. PRECAST CONCRETE
1. Запомните следующие термины (работа в парах):
beam — балка, бимс
compression — сжатие
decade — десятилетие
pipe - труба
storage — хранение, запас
tank — бак, резервуар
tower — башня, вышка, опора
2. Прочитайте словосочетания и переведите их русского языка на
английский (работа в парах).
beam system compression stress —
storage tank —
pipe installation —
pipe joint —
tank tower —
3. Вставьте соответствующе глаголы и переведите слова.
Model: joint — to join — присоединяться к
compression — to _____________________
installation - to_____________________
relation
—to
_________________________________________________________________________
combination —to__________________________ _____
storage
—to ______________ ________________
usage
—to
service
—to
production —to
pre-pref. — заранее, предварительно pre-examine —
исследовать заранее
4. Прочитайте примеры и переведите их на русский язык (работа в
парах).
prestressing prestressed reinforcement —
compressive stress —
5. Прочитайте и переведите статью.
Prestressed concrete is a relatively young product. It started to be widely used
only during the last few decades, and is still gaining popularity. The reason of its
popularity is its usefulness. The main good qualities of prestressed concrete are its
high strength and durability. In prestressed concrete, concrete is combined with steel.
This combination is highly advantageous and serves the purpose of producing a
compressed stress in the concrete as a building material. For this reason any member
of beam is under constant compression and as a result has no cracks. In modern times
this type of concrete serves as construction material for beams, for pipes, find
columns, storage tanks, water towers and the like.
3.
1.
2.
3.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
What good qualities does prestressed concrete possess?
What metal is it combined with?
What purpose does this combination serve?
4. What constructions is prestressed concrete mostly used for?
4. Прочитайте таблицу и переведите примеры а) с английского на русский
язык; б) с русского на английский язык (работа в парах). Мы знаем, что
бетон является универсально используемым строительным материалом,
различные самые популярные виды бетона и их основные свойства
перечислены ниже.
TABLE 1. Types of Concrete
architectural concrete
архитектурный бетон
asphalt с
Асфальтобетон
gas с.
gypsum с
Газобетон
гипсовый б.
gravel с
бетон из гравия
precast с
заранее отлитый б.
plain с
неармированный б.
prestressed reinforced с
напряженно
армированный б.
TABLE 2. Properties of Concrete
high-strength concrete
waterproof с
nailable с
высокопрочный бетон
водонепроницаемый б.
гвоздимый б.
lightweight с
легкий б., теплый б.
cast-in-situ с
poor quality с
монолитный б.
б. низкого качества
5. Вставьте словосочетания с противоположным значением.
Model: poor quality concrete - high-grade concrete
high-strength concrete — _____________
cast-in-situ — ____
lightweight concrete —.
plain concrete —_
6. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. What kind of concrete has practically universal usage?
2. What kind of concrete is produced in factories?
3. What are the main qualities of precast concrete?
4. Why is concrete combined with metals?
5. What kind of concrete serves as construction material for beams, pipes, storage
tanks, water towers and the like?
7. Прочитайте примеры и переведите их на русский язык (работа в
парах).
concreter —
concrete mixer —
concrete frame —
concrete workability —
8. Прочитайте и переведите статью.
Silica Concrete
Among the aggregates concrete is composed of, there are heavy and light ones. Silica
belongs to comparatively new types of concrete. Its structure is rather special. It does not
contain cement and is relatively light in weight. Besides, it is highly fire-resistant. Because of
these and some other properties silica concrete is widely used in aviation and in building underwater constructions. But its disadvantages should be also taken into account: because of its
light weight its strength is considerably decreased.
9. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. Which of the two kinds of concrete possesses greater strength — cellular or asphalt
concrete?
2. What is the name of concrete having glass in its structure?
3. What is the meaning of the term 'nailable'?
4. What kind (kinds) of concrete has (have) practically limitless use?
TEXT 4. IS ADDITIONAL WATER A FRIEND OR
AN ENEMY?
1. Запомните следующие слова.
achievement - достижение
hydration - гидрация, присоединение воды
specification — технические условия
to cure — сохранять, исправлять, выдерживать
vapour - испарение, пар
liquid – жидкость
layer — слой
ratio — отношение
2. Вставьте соответствующие глаголы a) существительные b); переведите
слова.
Model: foundation - to found (a) to enrich enrichment (b)
a)
-to
corrosion -to
Hydration
b) to enrich to require —
Invention -to
Penetration -to
Evaporation -to
to achieve —
to attach to adjust —
n
Relation
-to
specification -to _______
4. Прочитайте словосочетания переведите их на русский язык (работа в
парах).
covering material — материал покрытия
rover of roof — кровля
water/cement ratio — пропорция воды в растворе
concrete curing - выдержка бетона
compressive strength — сопротивление на сжатие
vapour pipe — паровой патрубок
vapour heating system — система парового отопления
5. a) Переведите данные предлоги на английский язык.
1. The cover zone is the layer (между) _the steel reinforcement and concrete surface.
2. The durability of cover zone depends (от) _ the mix design of concrete.
3. (В течение) ______ the period of concrete curing, a minimum of cement content and a
maximum of water/cement ratio is included (в) the mix.
4. Water is added (к) concrete (для) _ hydration of cement.
5. Additional amounts of water increase the pores (в, внутри) the concrete's structure.
6. The process of concrete's curing lasts for (около) 28 days.
b) Переедите примеры на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод
причастия II.
1. ... additional amount of water poured into the mix...
2. ... required strength achieved with minimum cement content...
3. ... durability increased by adding water...
... workability provided by the necessary amount of aggregates...
7. Прочитайте и переведите статью.
One of the key requirements of concrete service is its durability. And the quality of
cover zone (покрытие) is of primary importance for providing concrete's durability.
The cover zone is the concrete layer between the steel reinforcement and concrete
surface. It should be taken into account that durability of concrete zone depends upon
the mix design of concrete and the properties of the concrete itself.
The process of concrete's curing, as we know, lasts for about 28 days. And the
compressive strength at 28 days is considered to be the basis of concrete specification.
During the period of curing, engineers frequently include a minimum of cement
(content) and a maximum of water/cement ratio into the mix.
Naturally, different construction purposes require different cement content, and for
many types of mixes the required strength can be achieved with the minimum cement
content. Engineers add water to concrete for hydration of cement. But the minimum
amount of water needed for hydration of the mix may be too little to provide the
necessary workability of the mix. So, in order to increase workability of concrete,
additional amounts of water can be poured into the mix. And what is the result of this
operation? It turns out that additional amounts of water increase the pores within the
concrete's structure, especially after evaporation. It leads, in its turn, to an increase of
gas, vapour, and liquid penetration into the structure of the mix. It is noted that
especially strong this penetration is in the cover zone. So, one can see that additional
water provides the potential for structural mix to decrease its durability. One more
disadvantage of adding water to the concrete mix is its reinforcement corrosion and
cracking. Additional corrosion and cracking provide new ways for gas, vapour, and
liquids to penetrate into the cover zone. So, is additional water concrete's friend or
enemy?
TEXT 5. Cement and concrete
1. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски выделенными словами.
blocks
bricks concrete (x2) ingredient materials mixture walls
The most common type of cement is Portland cement, which is the basic (1)__ of
concrete and mortar. It is made of Portland cement clinker (calcium silicates,
aluminium and other compounds) and other minor constituents. Portland cement
clinker is produced by heating a mixture of raw (2)___ up to 1450° C in a kiln. There
are three production stages:
• preparation of the raw mixture,
• production of the clinker,
• preparation of the (3) ___ _
Limestone is the main raw material for the production of clinker, followed by sand,
shale, iron ore, bauxite, fly ash and slag. About 2% gypsum is also added and then
the (4)___ is pulverised. The resulting powder will react when water is added.
Portland cement is commonly used to produce (5)___ , which is made of gravel, sand,
cement and water. Blocks of cinder concrete, ordinary concrete and hollow tile are
known as Concrete Masonry Units (CMU). They are larger than ordinary (6)___ and
used for applications where appearance is not very important, such as in factory
walls, garages and industrial buildings. One of the advantages of concrete (7)___ is
that they can be reinforced, grouting the voids, inserting rebar or using grout, so that
they are stronger than typical masonry (8)____
6. Прочитайте текст снова и выберете правильное слово.
1. Portland cement is the basic ingredient of concrete/aluminium.
2. The main raw material for the production of clinker is brick/limestone.
3. Portland cement is used to produce gravel/concrete.
4. Concrete Masonry Units are larger than ordinary bricks/stones.
5. Concrete blocks can be reinforced/industrial.
6. Reinforced concrete blocks are stronger than masonry industries/walls.
7. Найдите соответствующие определение.
1 masonry
a. a mixture of cement, sand, small stones and water
2 brick
b. brick work
3 concrete
c. white rock often used for making cement
4 mortar
d. a mixture of sand, water and cement or lime
5 limestone
e. a reddish-brown rectangular block used to build
walls and houses
8. Прочитайте тест снова и напишете резюме, используя клише.
The text is about …
At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …
Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …
After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}
At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact)
that…
9. Создайте 4 группы и выберете один из строительных материалов
(stone, timber, brick, cement and concrete). Опишите своими словами
выбранный строительный материал (проектная работа).
10. Используя информацию из текстов разделов III, IV, V, VI заполните
таблицу.
stone
advantages
disadvantages
timber
brick
cement and
concrete
VII. STEEL, METALS, GLASS AND PLASTIC
TEXT 1. Steel
1. Прочитайте текст и вставьте пропущенные сова в предложениях.
Steel is resistant to corrosion, rusting and general deterioration. It can be used both
for exterior as well as internal infrastructure. Compared to conventional concrete
buildings, steel buildings offer a longer lifetime and they cause less harm to the
environment thanks to the resistance and durability. Because steel buildings are
usually pre-fabricated or made in sections and parts that are assembled on the
construction site, they are cheaper than conventional buildings.
The quantity of carbon contained in steel determines whether the alloy is hard or
soft. Nowadays steel buildings are often appreciated for their design. In fact, the
flexibility of this material allows different forms and shapes. More than any other
building material, steel has a high strength-to-weight ratio. This means that it is easy
and cheap to span large distances elegantly eliminating columns. Thanks to this, it is
easier to subdivide and customise office- and warehouse space.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Steel can be used both for the exterior and the interior of _____a building.
Steel is ________ to corrosion, rusting and general deterioration.
Steel buildings have a longer compared to conventional concrete buildings.
Steel buildings are usually than buildings.
It is easy and cheap to span large elegantly.
By eliminating , it is easier to subdivide and customise office and warehouse
space.
2. Прочитайте текст снова и подберите соответствующее определение к
словам.
rusting
flexibility
alloy
deterioration
lifetime
customise
a a composite metal made by mixing other metals together
b the period of time for which a building is expected to last
c when a metal becomes reddish brown because of air and water
d to change the appearance or characteristics of something
according to someone's taste or needs
e becoming worse in quality or condition
f being bent easily without breaking
3. Прочитайте текст снова и напишите резюме, используя следующие
выражения:
The text is about …
At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …
Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …
After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}
At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact)
that…
TEXT 2. Glass and metals
1. Прочитайте текст и подберете соответствующее название к каждому
параграфу.
A Advantages and disadvantages of different kinds of metals
B Transparent buildings: problems and possible solutions
C An interesting experiment
1. Glass is a fashionable material in contemporary architecture. Transparent buildings
and structures are very popular in contemporary architecture. Structural glass
components such as columns and beams are often required, but this material seems
structurally unsafe because of its brittleness. For this reason a new construction
technique has been developed using:
• very long overlapping glass segments to create glass beams. These are made by
bonding the segments adhesively;
• a small stainless steel profile that has been added to the layout of the glass beam to
reinforce it.
2.To prove that glass structures can be as safe as reinforced concrete, an experimental
transparent pavilion has been designed (with dimensions 9 x 9 x 3.6 m3) that
combines a number of innovative ideas. Many different kinds of glass and glass
systems have been used. The outermost and the triple-layered insulating glass units
have been tempered and sometimes laminated and some glass has also been coated
with solar control glass to reflect some of the unwanted sunshine outwards. In other
cases glass that can be heated electrically and glass panes free of iron oxide have
been used to make the inside light more natural.
3. Painted, stainless, hot dip galvanised and weather resistant steel, as well as alu
minium, have also been used for supporting structures. Aluminium has some
advantages (it is light, resistant to corrosion and easy to work but also some
disadvantages (its thermal expansion and conductivity are high and it has low elastic
modulus and fire resistance). Stainless steel also offers some advantages (it has good
fire resistance and it is easy to keep) but its high price is a major disadvantage. Both
hot dip galvanised and painted steel are not as expensive, but they are difficult to
work on site and are not resistant to corrosion.
2. Почитайте текст сова и определите соответствие и несоответствие
содержанию текста (T) или (F).
1. Glass is very popular in contemporary architecture.
2. There is no way to create a glass structure that is as safe as reinforced concrete.
3. A transparent pavilion has been recently designed as an experiment that uses some
innovative ideas.
4. There is only one type of glass in this pavilion.
5. Glass has also been used for supporting structures.
6. Hot dip galvanised steel is not resistant to corrosion.
3. Прочитайте текст снова и подберите соответствующее определение к
словам.
1 outermost
2 stainless steel
3 galvanised
4 brittleness
5 pane
a a metal made from steel that does not rust
b fragility
c external
d flat sheet of glass
e coated with zinc to protect it from rust
4. Прочитайте текст снова и напишите резюме, используя следующие
выражения:
The text is about …
At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …
Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …
After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}
At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact)
that…
TEXT 3. Plastic
1. Прочитайте текст и выберете правильный вариант.
Plastic products offer a number of ecological advantages: they save resources, have a
low maintenance cost and can be recycled. Furthermore they contribute to save
energy (plastic foams are used for thermal insulation in many applications). Plastic is
also useful for noise protection and insulation. The main fields of application of these
materials are pipes, insulation, wall covering, flooring (both in houses and in public
areas) and, quite recently, window frames (made of PVC). PVC stands for Polyvinyl
Chloride and it is the plastic which has seen the most rapid growth in recent times in
industry. PVC is often used in piping systems because of its good chemical resistance
to corrosive fluids. PVC pipes are used for a great number of applications: to drain
waste, for natural gas distribution, for electrical and communications wiring, for
municipal water. As it is the newest primary construction material and entirely manmade, plastic is extremely versatile. Improvements made through research have
increased its acceptance among designers, contractors and building code officials.
1 Plastic products save ...
A industry.
B materials.
C resources.
2 Plastic insulation is also useful for ... protection.
A recycled
B resources
C noise
3 PVC is the plastic whose use has grown more ...
A recently.
B slowly.
C primary.
4 The ... fields of application of these materials are in flooring.
A alternative
B main
C useful
5 PVC has good ... resistance to corrosive fluids.
A physical
B public
C chemical
6 PVC pipes are used for ... gas distribution.
A natural
B chemical
C piping
2. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.
1. What are the advantages offered by plastic products?
2. How can plastic save energy?
3. What is plastic insulation useful for?
4. What are the main fields of application of plastic?
5. What does PVC stand for?
6. What are PVC pipes used for?
5. Прочитайте текст снова и напишите резюме, используя следующие
выражения:
The text is about …
At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …
Then the author describes (suggests, states that) …
After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}
At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact)
that…
6. Напишите список достоинства и недостатки каждого материала.
Steel and Metals
advantages
disadvantages
Glass
Plastic
TEXT 5. Sustainable materials
1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.
Due to the rise in global population and prosperity over the last few decades,
one of the consequences of this phenomenon has been the increase in volume and
variety of the materials used (such as raw materials, food, manufactured products and
waste) with a consequent increase in the transport distances. This has created a series
of negative effects on the environment, especially different kinds of pollution, leading
to an ecological emergency and growing preoccupation about health. This is why the
aim of eco-design is to create buildings with low ecological impact, where people can
live in a comfortable, healthy way. This is possible by using building materials that
are traditionally considered eco-friendly and-sustainable: timber from forests that
have been certified; quickly renewable plant materials (such as straw or bamboo);
some typical traditional materials such as brick, stone, clay and cork; non-toxic,
renewable and recyclable materials (natural paints, waxes and varnishes). Waste
materials can also be reused as a resource for construction purposes.
1.
2.
3.
4.
What has happened to population and wealth in the last few decades?
What has been one of the results of this?
What is the aim of eco-design?
Can you name some eco-friendly and sustainable materials you have found in
the text?
2. Ответьте на вопросы (работа в парах):
What is your opinion of modern building materials? Which would you use if
you could build your own house? Tell your partner about it using the
information given in this unit.
VIII. AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE
1. Назовите заполнители бетона (мозговой штурм).
AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE
2. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на ключевые слова, перевод
которых вы найдете в словаре после текста.
AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE
By the simple definition from the dictionary “aggregates are the materials, such
as sand and small stones, that are mixed with cement to form concrete”. In other
words aggregates can be defined as a mass of practically inert mineral materials,
which, when surrounded and bonded together by an active binder, form a rock. This
rock is denoted by the general term concrete.
Aggregates have three principal functions in the concrete: they provide a relatively
cheap filler for the concreting material, or binder; they provide a mass of particles
which are suitable for resisting the action of applied loads, of abrasion, of
percolation of moisture through the mass, and of climate factors; they reduce
volume changes resulting from the action of the setting and hardening of the
concrete mass.
All aggregates, both natural and artificial, which have sufficient strength and
resistance to weathering, and which do not contain harmful impurities may be
used for making concrete. As aggregates such as natural materials as sand. Pebbles,
broken stone, broken brick, gravel, slag, cinder, pumice and others can be used.
Sand is the chief material used as a fine aggregate. It is required in mortar or
concrete for economy and to prevent the excessive cracking. Mortar made without
sand would be expensive.
The word “sand” is applied to any finely divided material, which will not
injuriously affect the cement or lime and which is not subject to disintegration or
decay. Sand is almost the only material which is sufficiently cheap and which can
fulfill these requirements.
A mixture of coarse and fine grains is very satisfactory, as it makes a denser
and stronger concrete with a less amount of cement than when only fine-grained
sand is used.
The following sands are used for mortars: quarry sand, river sand and sea
sand.
СЛОВА И ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
”AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE”
1. aggregate
1. Заполнитель
2. bond
2. связывать, соединять, сцеплять
3. binder
3. вяжущее
4. rock
4. камень, булыжник; горная порода
5. abrasion
5. стирание, стирание, трение
6. result from
6. происходить, вытекать
7. reduce
7. уменьшать
8. setting
8. затвердевание,застывание;
схватывание (цемента);
9. hardening
9. затвердение, застывание (цемента,
бетона); цементирование
10.contain
10.содержать, вмещать
11.pebbles
11.булыжник, мелкий камень, щебень
12.broken stone=broken brick
12.щебень
13.cinder
13.окалина, шлак, угольный мусор
14.pumice
14.пемза
apply (applied)
15.применять, прикладывать
15.injurious
вредный, приносящий вред
16.affect
16.влиять
17.subject
17.подвергаться
18.decay
18.гнить, гниение, разложение
19.fulfill
19.выполнять
20.coarse
20.крупный
21.grains
21.зерна
22.quarry
22.открытая разработка, карьер
3.Вспомните значение следующих английских слов и подберите к ним
эквиваленты из правого столбца (работа в парах).
1. cheap filler
2. concreting material
3. applied load
4. percolation of moisture
5. volume change
6. sufficient strength
7. resistance to weathering
8. harmful impurities
9. fine aggregate
10.excessive cracking
11.finely divided material
12.subject to disintegration
1. мелкий заполнитель
2. вредные вещества (включения, нечистоты)
3. стойкость к выветриванию
4. чрезмерное образование трещин
5. мелкозернистый песок
6. бетонная смесь
7. достаточная прочность
8. дешевый заполнитель
9. материал тонкого помола (очень мелкий)
10.изменение объема
11.просачивание влаги
12.приложенная нагрузка
13.подвергаться разрушению
13.fine-grained sand
4.Прочитайте и закончите предложения о заполнителях в соответствии с
содержанием текста. Предложения переведите (работа в парах).
1. Aggregates are the materials
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
a)as it makes a denser and stronger
concrete.
They provide a cheap filler
b)to disintegration and decay
They can resist
c)for the concreting material
They reduce
d)have sufficient strength and resistance
to weathering
All aggregates (natural and artificial) e)volume changes in the process of
concrete setting and hardening.
Sand is the chief material
f)such as sand and small stones, that are
mixed with cement to form concrete.
Sand is not subjected to
g)used as a fine aggregate
A mixture of coarse and fine grains h)the action of the applied loads, of
is very satisfactory
abrasion, and of climate factors
TEXTS FOR TEST
1. Прочитайте и переведите следующий текст на русский язык,
пользуясь словами и выражениями из текстов, прочитанных дома.
TEXT 1. MODERN BUILDING MATERIALS
Some of the most important building materials are: timber, brick, stone
concrete, metal, plastics and glass.
Timber is provided by different kinds of trees. Timbers used for building purposes
are divided into two groups called softwoods and hardwoods. Timber is at present
not so much used in building construction, as in railway engineering, in mining and
in the chemical industries where it provides a number of valuable materials.
However, timber is still employed as a building material in the form of
boards. For interior of buildings plywood and veneer serve a number of purposes.
A brick is best described as a “building unit”. It may be made of clay by
moulding and baking in kilns, of concrete, of mortar or of a composition of sawdust
and other materials. In shape it is a rectangular solid and its weight is from 6,5 to 9 lb.
There exists variety of bricks for different purposes: ordinary, hollow or
porous, lightweight, multicolor bricks for decorative purposes, etc. Bricks are
usually laid in place with the help of mortar.
The shape and convenient size of brick enables a man to grip it with an easy
confidence and, because of this brick building has been popular for many hundred
years. The hand of the average man is large enough to take a brick and he is able to
handle more than 500 bricks in an eight-hour working day.
Sometimes natural stones such as marble, granite, basalt, limestone and
sandstone are used for the construction of dams and foundations. Marble, granite and
sandstone are widely used for decorative purposes as well, especially with the public
buildings.
Metals: Aluminum, principally in the form of various alloys, is highly
valued for its durability and especially for its light weight, while brass id frequently
used for decorative purposes in facing.
Steel finds its use in corrugated sheets for roofing, for girders, frames, etc. Various
shapes are employed in construction.
Plastics are artificial materials used in construction work for a vast number of
purposes. Nowadays plastics, which are artificial materials, can be applied to almost
every branch of building, from the laying of foundation to the final coat of paint.
Synthetic resins are the main raw material for plastics. Plastics have some good
advantages as they are lighter than metals, not subject to corrosion and they can be
easier machined. Besides, they are inflammable, they can take any colour and
pattern, and they are good electrical insulators. More over, they possess a high
resistance to chemical action.
A lot of decorative plastics, now available, have brought about a revolution in
interior and exterior design. But plastics are used now not only for decoration. These
materials are sufficiently rigid to stand on their own without any support. They can
be worked with ordinary builder’s tools.
Laminate is a strong material manufactured from many layers of paper or
textile impregnated with thermosetting resins. This sandwich is then pressed and
subjected to heat. Laminate has been developed for both inside and outside use. It
resists severe weather conditions for more than ten years without serious
deformation. As a structural material it is recommended for exterior work. Being
used for surfacing, laminate gives the tough surface.
Foamed glass is a high –porosity heat insulating material, available in block
made of fine-ground glass and a frothing agent.
Foamed glass is widely used in prefabricated house building, to ensure heat
insulation of exterior wall panels, and in industrial construction.
Foamed glass has a high mechanical strength, is distinguished by moisture, vapour
and gas impermeability. It is non-inflammable, offers resistance to frost, possesses a
high sound absorption, and it is easily sewn and nailed.
Structural foamed glass block are designed to fill ceilings, and for making
interior partitions in buildings and rooms, to ensure heat and sound insulation.
Concrete is perhaps the most widely spread building material used nowadays.
Concrete is an artificial stone, made by thoroughly mixing such natural ingredients
or aggregates as cement, sand and gravel or broken stone together with sufficient
water to produce a mixture of the proper consistency. It has many valuable
properties. It sets under water, can be poured into moulds so as to get almost any
desirable form, and together with steel in reinforced concrete it has very high
strength, and also resists fire. Prestressed concrete is most widely used at present
while prefabricated blocks are employed on vast scale for skeleton structures.
2. Прочитайте и переведите выделенные в тексте слова и выражения.
3. Прочитайте и определите, какие предложения относятся к а) дереву,
б) кирпичу, в) пластику г) бетону. Предложения переведите на русский
язык.
1. This material is provided by different kinds of trees.
1. Synthetic resins are the main raw material for production of this material.
2. In can be hollow, porous and lightweight.
3. It is employed as a building material in the form of boards.
4. It is lighter and not subject to corrosion.
5. It is made of cement, sand and gravel or broken stone together with water.
6. It sets under the water.
7. It can be used for decorative purposes.
8. It can be easier machined.
10. It may be made of clay by moulding and baking in kilns.
11. Together with steel it has very high strength.
12. It is laid in place with the help of mortar.
13. It possesses a high resistance to chemical action.
14. Prefabricated blocks are made of it and they are employed for skeleton structures.
4. Закончите предложения о металле, слоистом пластике и пеностекле в
соответствии с текстом. Предложения переведите.
1. Aluminum in the form of various alloys is highly valued for …
2. Steel finds its use in…
3. Laminate is a strong material manufacture from…
4. It resists severe weather conditions for more than ten years …
5. It is used for …
6. Foamed glass is made of …
7. It is widely use in prefabricated house building for …
1. Прочитайте и переведите данный текст. Вспомните, как переводятся
выделенные слова и выражения.
TEXT 2. THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE
Concrete must be hard, strong, durable, dense, non-porous, fire-resisting
and economical.
Concrete has proved to be durable when made of good materials, well mixed,
and properly cured. Failures can be found in concrete work, but the trouble is
usually caused by poor material, faulty foundations, and lack of knowledge of
the properties or poor workmanship. For example some cements will give better
results in sea water than others. This fact had to be established by experience and
experiments.
It is more difficult to secure durable reinforced concrete than mass concrete.
This is due to the reinforcing steel and the additional water required to make the
concrete flow around the steel bars. When moisture reaches the steel, it will rust
and expansion caused by the rust will crack the concrete, resulting in unsightly
structure and necessary repairs. In all structures exposed to the weather the
reinforcing steel must be carefully placed and well secured so that it cannot be
displaced while concreting. Small wires will soon cause rust spots on the surface
of the concrete if they are exposed.
Concrete, to be durable, must be made of good materials, uniform in quality,
mixed with a minimum of water, and properly placed and protected while curing.
Concrete exposed to sea water and the rise and fall of water levels, especially in
cold climates where ice forms on the structures, requires special attention in the
selection of the cement, aggregates, mixing, placing and curing.
With the use of dense aggregates the proportions which will produce the
densest products are generally those which contain the maximum amount of
coarse aggregate and still contain enough fine aggregate to produce a smooth
surface. With porous aggregates used in the production of light weight units, the
amount of material in the mix passing a 50-mesh sieve is generally limited and in
addition more of the coarse aggregate is used to produce a unit of less density and
lower weight. This is generally desirable for light weight units except where fire
resistance or watertightness are important.
The strength of plain concrete depends upon the quality of the cement, the
strength and character of the aggregate, the quantity of cement in a unit of volume,
and the density of the concrete. Other things being equal the strongest concrete is
that containing the largest amount of cement in a given volume of concrete, the
strength of the concrete varying directly as the amount of cement. The strength of
concrete also depends upon the methods used in mixing, upon the care taken in
measuring the ingredients, and in the mixing and placing the concrete. Concrete
exposed to the air hardens more rapidly than protected concrete. The setting of
cement is a chemical change brought about by the addition of water to the cement,
the strength increasing very rapidly the first few days, after which the mixture
slowly hardens and increases in strength.
Concrete has poor elastic and tensional properties, but it strong in compression.
Its tensile strength is only one-tenth of its compressive strength. The
compressive strength of plain concrete varies between wide limits, depending
upon the cement, the proportions of cement and aggregates, and the methods of
mixing, and placing and the age.
2. Закончите следующие предложения в соответствии с текстом.
Переведите полученные предложения.
1. Concrete must be …
2. Failure in concrete work are caused by …
3. It is more difficult to protect reinforced concrete than mass concrete because:
a) it will …
a) the expansion caused by the rust will ….
b) the result of this is …
4. In all structures exposed to the weather the reinforcing steel must be …
5. Concrete to be durable must be made …
6. More of the coarse aggregate is used to produce …
7. Light weight units can’t be used where fire resistance and …
8. The strength of plain concrete depends upon …
9. Concrete exposed to the air hardens more rapidly than …
10.Concrete has poor … but it is strong in …
3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные
грамматические формы.
1. Concrete has proved to be durable when made of good materials.
2. This fact has to be established by experience and experiments.
3. Reinforcing steel in concrete can rust resulting in an unsightly structure and
necessary repairs.
4. Concrete to be durable must be protected while curing.
5. The densest products are those, which contain maximum amount of coarse
aggregate and still contain enough fine aggregate to produce a smooth
surface.
6. The strongest concrete is that containing the largest amount of cement in a
given volume of concrete, the strength of concrete varying directly as the
amount of cement.
7. The setting of cement is a chemical change, the strength increasing very
rapidly the first few days.
8. The compressive strength of plain concrete varies depending upon the cement.
IX. MY SPECIALITY
I am a second year student of the Building Institute of the Tyumen State
University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. It is one of the largest higher
educational establishments in our town. The Civil Engineering Institute was founded
in 1971. Our Institute trains civil engineers in the following specialities: “Industrial
and Civil Construction”, “Manufacture of the Building Structures”, “Management of
Real Estate”, “Heating and Gas Supply”, “Road Engineering”, "City Construction”
and “Water Supply”. During the years of activity the Institute has trained many
highly-qualified engineers. Such specialists are in great demand nowadays. There are
the day-time, and extra-mural departments. Those who combine studies with their
work are trained at the extra-mural departments. The whole process of studying deals
with mastering new construction methods and progressive technology of production
of building structures and materials.
The junior students are taught mathematics,
physics, a foreign language (English/German/French), chemistry, philosophy,
computer processing of information. We attend lectures, do laboratory work and
tests. We have quite a number of well-equipped laboratories at our disposal.
Mastering one of the foreign languages enables us to read foreign literature and learn
about the latest scientific and technical achievements abroad. The senior students
study special engineering subjects such as Strength of Materials, Theoretical
Mechanics, Building Materials, Geodesy, Architecture, etc. The fourth-year students
combine their studies with their research work. We write course papers and
graduation theses on the scientific problems of our research work. Many highly qualified teachers work at the departments of our Institute, some of them have
candidate's degrees and scientific ranks. In summer the students of our faculty,
besides vacation, have their practical hours in order to have a clear idea of what our
speciality means. According to the academic plan the fourth -year students are sent to
work at different plants and construction sites, where they learn to employ in practice
the knowledge they gained at the University. During practice the students master the
job of a civil engineer and at the same time collect materials for their diploma papers.
The final and most important period in the students’ life is the defence of the
graduation work in the presence of the State Examining Board. All the graduates get
work according to their speciality. We shall work at building material factories, on
construction sites, at design and research institutions and laboratories. Besides, we
are provided with everything necessary for a scientific career entering a post-graduate
course. In a word we have a wide range of job opportunities.
1.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы, используя выражения:
I suppose... I think... It seems to me... As far as I know (remember)...
I believe... As a rule... Usually... Besides...
1 What University do you study at? 2 What Institute do you belong to? 3 When was it
founded? 4 Are you a second-year student? 5 What specialists does the Building
Institute train? 6. Why do you want to become a civil engineer ? 7 What subjects is
the academic program composed of? 8 Why do our students study foreign languages
? 9 What does the course of studies end with? 10 What problems do the students deal
with in their course papers and graduation theses? 11 Where do our graduates work ?
12 In what way can graduates continue their study?
2.
Вставьте предлоги (with, at, in, on).
1 The process of studying deals ......... mastering new construction methods. 2 Such
specialists are ......... great demand now. 3 We have quite a number ......... wellequipped laboratories ......... our disposal. 4 We write graduation theses .........the
scientific problems of our research work. 5 We are provided ......... everything
necessary for a scientific career.
3. Составьте предложения, используя следующие слова и выражения.
1) their speciality, get work, all the graduates, according to;
2) a wide range of,
we, job opportunities, have;
3) our Institute, work, at the department of, highlyqualified teachers, many;
4) is, in our town, it, higher educational establishments,
one of the largest;
5) their studies, students, their research work, the fourth-year,
with, combine.
4. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих русских выражений:
1) процесс обучения;
2) технология производства;
3) второкурсник;
4) дипломная работа; 5) информатика;
6) ВУЗ;
7) новейшие научные
достижения;
8) высококвалифицированные преподаватели;
9) в нашем
распоряжении; 10) строительная площадка; 11) ученая степень.
5.Заполните пропуски словами, данными ниже:
1 We write ...... and graduation theses on the scientific problems of our ......... work. 2
In summer the students of out faculty, besides ......... , have their practical hours. 3 We
have quite a number of......... laboratories at our disposal. 4 The whole process of
studying ......... with mastering new ......... methods. 5 The final and most important
period in students' life is ...... of graduation work. 6 During the years of ......... the
faculty has trained many highly qualified engineers.
(construction; activity; research; deals; vacation; course papers; well-equipped;
defence).
7. Спросите своего однокурсника (работа в парах):
-if he is a second-year student;
-if there are the day-time, evening-time and
extra-mural departments;
-if the fourth-year students combine their studies with
their research work;
-if during practice the students master the job of a civil
engineer;
-if those who combine studies with their work are trained at the eveningtime department.
7. Прочитайте диалог, дополнив недостающие реплики, и инсценируйте
его.
An Excursion to a construction site
A group of students is asking a civil engineer questions
Student: What is under construction here ?
Civil Engineer:.........
S.: By the way, how long does it take the builders to complete it ?
C. E.: ......... S.: What materials do you use here ? C. E.: .........
S.: We see a tower-crane here. What other building machinery and lifting equipment
has this team of builders ?
C. E.:.........
S.: And what about construction methods ? Which of them are used here ?
C. E.:.........
S.: Thank you for your answers. Good-bye.
8. Представьте, что вы являетесь участником международной выставки,
организованной в вашем Университете. Инсценируйте данный диалог.
At an Industrial Exhibition
Boris Antonov is an engineer from a Tyumen Plant of Building Structures,
which is taking part in an industrial exhibition at the Tyumen State University
of Architecture and Civil Engineering.
Mr. Blake, a businessman from Canada, is talking to Antonov, who is working at the
exhibition as a guide.
Blake: Have you seen our new model, Boris?
Antonov: Yes, and I must say it is a very up-to-date design.
B: I'm happy to hear that!
A: We are interested in buying some of these machines for our factories.
B: Are you ? How many would you like to buy?
A: I can't give you a definite answer now, I think it may be a big order. Would you
like to visit the factory and talk to the Director General?
B: I'd love to if you could arrange it soon, because I am leaving Orenburg next
Saturday.
A: No problem, Mr. Blake.
B: Good. Thank you ever so much.
9. Разыграйте следующие ситуации:
-You have met your former classmate, who is a student of the Medical Academy
now. Exchange your opinions on the process of studying.
-Your acquaintance is going to enter our University this year. Prove him/her to apply
for your faculty.
-A group of American students is visiting our University . They are interested in
each faculty. Tell them about the Civil Engineering Faculty.
7. Расскажите о своей специальности, используя следующие ключевые
слова:
a second-year student; to be founded; to train engineers; departments; new
construction methods; to be taught; to master foreign language; graduation
thesis; according to the academic plan; job opportunities
X. ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
TEXT 1.
1.Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.
TEXT 1. WOOD
Wood has been a highly used building material since prehistoric times. Among other
highly used construction materials there are concrete, steel, brick, stone, and plastics.
They all differ in their properties and in the methods of usage. Construction materials are
known to differ in strength, hardness, fire- and corrosion-resistance durability, and,
naturally, cost.
Being the oldest building material, wood is also known to be the only naturally
growing organic material. Is wood strong? Hardly so, because wood always contains
some water which decreases its strength. But after the wood is cut, the water content
starts to evaporate and as the water content decreases the strength of the cut wood
and its hardness start to increase. It is a well-known fact that the drier is the cut wood
the greater is ITS strength and hardness.
Trees are known to grow naturally, which makes wood a constantly renewable
natural resource. Among other advantages of wood there are its low cost, low weight,
and high workability. But, as any other construction material, wood has its
disadvantages. The main ones are the following — it is not fire-resistant, it easily burns.
Besides, it easily decays.
1. What building materials are used in construction and what are their main properties?
2. What decreases the strength of wood and what is necessary to do to increase the strength of wood?
3. What are advantages and disadvantages of wood?
TEXT 2.
1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.
TEXT 2. WOOD PRODUCTS
Wood used for construction purposes is usually changed into laminated wood or wood
panel products. Large structural wooden members are produced by glueing small strips of
wood together.
Wood in panel form is more advantageous for many building purposes than boards. Why
is it so? First of all, because wood panels are much easier to install than boards. They require
much less labour for the process of installation. Besides, swelling (набухание) and splitting
(расщепление) in panels are greatly decreased compared with boards. As to plywood panels,
they are made up of thin wooden veneers glued together. It is of great importance to note
that when wooden structures are designed the future stresses of their structural members
must be predetermined.
1. Does wood as a structural material have only advantages? If not, what are its
disadvantages?
2. Is wood a strong building material? If not, why?
3. Does the water content in the cut wood increase or decrease?
4. What forms is wood changed into? And for what purposes? Compare wood in panel forms
with boards. What do they differ in?
5. What elements are plywood panels made up of?
2. Запомните и выучите следующие слова (работа в парах).
board - доска
to board — обивать досками
plywood - фанера strip - полоса, лента
veneer — облицовка
veneered — облицованный
to determine [di't3:min] — определять, устанавливать
to laminate — расщеплять, ламинировать
to require — требовать
to glue — клеить
to install — устанавливать, монтировать
3. Вставьте соответствующие глаголы и переведите все слова (работа в парах).
Model: predetermination — to predetermine — заранее определять
(a) requirement —to __________ — _________
installation — to __________ — _________
lamination - to ___________ - ______________
determination - to ___________ - ______________
evaporation - to ___________ - ______________
(b) glue — клей — to glue — клеить
change — _______ - to _________ — _________
form — _______ —to_________ — _________
strip
—________ - to _________ - __________
decrease —________ —to_________ — _________
veneer —________ —to_________ — _________
board —________ —to_________ — _________
Kinds of Wood
Древесина
березовая д.
дубовая д.
клееная д.
пропитанная д.
слоистая д.
д. мягких пород
д. твердых пород
wood, timber
birch wood
oak w.
glued w.
impregnated w.
laminated w.
Softwood
Hardwood
4.a) Прочитайте словосочетания и переведите их а русский язык.
glued board -----laminated glass —
veneering plywood —
wood veneers ---laminated wood----strip of land-----strips of wood glued together -----б) Дайте английские эквиваленты русским словам.
1. Small (полосы) _______ of wood are (склеены) ______
together.
2. Wood in panel form is more (предпочтителен) _____ for
some construction (цели) ______than (доски) ______ .
3. (фанерные) ____________ panels are made up of (тонкие)
____________ (деревянные)____________ veneers.
TEXT 3.
1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.
FROM THE HISTORY OF METALS
Metals began to be widely used as construction materials not so long iigo. Before the
beginning of the nineteenth century metals played little structural role in the process of
building. Mostly they served for joining parts of buildings. The ancient Greeks and Romans are
known to use bronze for joining slabs of stone.
It was only in the eighteenth century when the first all-metal structure was built in
Europe. It was a cast-iron bridge across the river Severn in England. The strength of the
bridge turned out to be so great that now, more than two centuries after its construction, it
still carries heavy modern traffic across the Severn.
In the first half of the nineteenth century cast iron and wrought iron were introduced and
used for industrial construction in Europe and North America. Steel was not widely used,
being considered a rare and expensive building material. Inexpensive steel first began to be
produced and used only with the invention of the Bessemer process, in the 1850s. From that
period on, metal started to be used as rather popular and useful building material. The
famous Eiffel Tower of Paris was constructed of wrought iron in 1889. By that period
several steel frame skyscrapers had already been built in the United States. That was the
beginning of the new era; a new highly useful and popular construction material had been
born and introduced into building industry.
1. For what purposes were metals mostly used before the beginning of the nineteenth
century?
2. What did ancient Greeks and Romans use bronze for?
3. When and where was the first all-metal structure built? What can you say about its
present-day condition?
4. What kinds of iron were introduced in the first half of the nineteenth century?
5. Why was steel as a building material unpopular for a long period?
6. What is the essence of the Bessemer process?
7. What was the global result of its invention?
8. What material is the famous Eiffel Tower constructed of?
9. In what country were the first skyscrapers built?
10. Are they good to live in? Would you like to live in a skyscraper?
2. Переведите отрывок письменно, пользуясь словарём при
необходимости.
The Empire State Building was built in 1931 in the United States of America. Its
construction took about two years. The exterior of the skyscraper is supported by a
framework produced of steel. It should be noted that 60,000 tons of steel were used for its
production. The Empire State Building is considered to be one of the tallest and spacious
construction of the world. It can be attended by 80,000 people simultaneously.
TEXT 4.
1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.
STEEL
What is steel as a construction material? Steel may be classified as iron with the
controlled amount of carbon. The amount of carbon in steel is generally less than 1.7 per
cent. Ordinary structural steel should contain less than three tenth of one per cent
carbon. This kind of steel also contains small amounts of phosphorus, sulfur, oxygen,
nitrogen and silicon. Like iron and its alloys, steel belongs to ferrous metals. It is a hard
substance. Accordingly, it can be pulled, forged, and melted. Generally, steel, this strong
metal, like other metals, is a good conductor of electricity. Alloyed steel and stainless steel
are corrosion-resistant kinds of steel. Corrosion-resistant materials are known lo be widely
used for plant equipment, furnaces, valves, etc.
It should be noted that steel frames as a whole and their separate parts should be
carefully designed: their function is to be able to carry the loads imposed on them and
supported by them.
1. What group of metals does steel belong to?
2. What substances can steel contain?
3. What amount of carbon does steel generally contain?
4. What materials can be used for producing plant equipment?
5. What is the construction purpose of steel frames? For what reason must they be
carefully designed?
TEXT 5.
1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.
FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS METALS
All metals, with the exception of mercury (ртуть), are hard- and fire-resistant. The
common properties of metals being hardness and high fire-resistance, they are widely
used in modern construction.
Metals are divided into two main groups: ferrous and non-ferrous. Iron, steel and
their various alloys belong to the group of ferrous metals, while the main component
of non-ferrous metals is not iron.
All metals have some common properties: they can be pulled, forged, and melted.
They are also good conductors of electricity.
Ferrous metals are commonly used for construction of supporting members.
Steel and other ferrous metals serve as reinforcement in ferroconcrete constructions.
As to non-ferrous metals, their advantage is their being light. They are also good
conductors of electricity, copper being the best one. Metals possess high resistance.
2. What are the properties of metals?
3. What metals are called ferrous and what metals are non-ferrous?
4. What are the properties of ferrous metals?
5. Where are they used in construction?
6. What are the properties of non-ferrous metals?
TEXT 6.
1.Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.
ALUMINUM. ALUMINA
Aluminum is a considerably new structural material. For a long period it was
considered to be rather expensive since its production required the use of electric
power. Because of its relatively high cost, aluminum was not very popular as a
construction material till the middle of the twentieth century. But now the situation is
absolutely different.
Aluminum and aluminum-based alloys are extremely popular and are widely used
in various forms for construction purposes.
The advantages of aluminum, compared with other popular metals, are its high
strength combined with lightness. High-purity aluminum (about 99% pure) is soft and
ductile but its great disadvantage is that it is not strong enough. At the same time it
has high corrosion resistance and is used in construction of buildings as bright foil for
heat insulation, roofing, exterior and interior architectural ornamentation.
And what about aluminum alloys? They are much more advantageous than pure
substance, Aluminum alloys are much harder and stronger than pure aluminum.
Besides, pure aluminum is rather difficult to cast while many of its alloys are extremely
easily cast. Pure aluminum is easily alloyed with other metals. And these combinations
possess a great variety of usage. For example, when alloyed with copper, aluminum
possesses additional strength. Unfortunately, it is much less corrosion resistive than
alloys with manganese, chromium, or magnesium and silicon.
One more advantage of aluminum is that it can be easily remelted over and over
again.
Aluminum combined with oxygen forms a new oxide. Its name is alumina.
Alumina is a colourless crystallic substance. It is glass hard, solid and extremely
durable.
It should be also noted that being an excellent conductor aluminum is widely used
in power engineering. It serves for long-distance transfer of electric power.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Why was aluminum unpopular for a long period?
What good qualities does aluminum possess?
Where is aluminum in the form of bright foil used?
What are the advantages of aluminum alloys?
Can aluminum be remelted?
In what way is alumina produced?
What are its properties?
What does aluminum serve in power engineering for?
2. Какие качества из перечисленных ниже могу классифицироваться как
преимущества и недостатки материалов используемых для
строительных целей?
ductability, poor conductance, low durability, high corrosion resistance, high purity,
low strength, high cost, low cost, excellent conductance, hardness, workability, poor
purity, high strength
TEXT 7.
1. Прочитайте текст и выполните задание.
Plastics
Air, water, sand, salt, coal, petroleum are familiar elements in the everyday
life, but these form the basic sources of the world's fastest growing (расти) industry plastics.
From a purely engineering viewpoint the following characteristics of plastics
explain their increasing acceptance by industries and consumers alike. These
characteristics are usually shared by all plastics, but there are variations between
individual materials: lightweight (sometimes high strength to weight ratio); corrosion
resistance; electrical and thermal insulation; ease of fabrication; transparency in some
materials; ease of the increasingly successful application of plastics which take
advantage of these characteristics have meant that plastics materials are now
manufacturing materials in their own rights and not substitutes. The high strength to
weight ratio of some plastics offers big field in the coming age of space travels and
rockets.
The same benefits of light weight with good strength and absence of corrosion
offer tremendous potential as alternatives to traditional building materials. New
shapes in building are absorbing the attention of the architects. Plastics offer many of
properties for these designs and their application in exotic structures is an example.
2. Закончите предложения в соответствии с содержанием текста.
Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык.
1.The basic sources of plastic are …
2.The characteristics of plastics, which increase its use in industry and by consumers,
are …
3. It will be used in this age of space travels and rockets because of …
4.Plastics offer new shapes in building and application in exotic structures because of
combination of …
TEXT 8.
1. Прочитайте текст и выполните задание после текста.
FROM THE HISTORY OF CONCRETE
Mass or plain concrete dates from very early days. It was employed in ancient
times by the Egyptians, Romans and Greeks in the construction of aqueducts and
bridges, in the construction of roads and town walls. Romans used it even in under-
water structures some of which have survived till our time. They also employed
concrete as a filling between the brick and stone ribs of the vaults and arches. A large
part of the Great Chinese Wall (the 3rd century before our era) was also built of
concrete.
The concrete remains of the foundations of buildings built several thousands years
ago have been found in Mexico. As cement was not known in those times, concrete
was made of clay and later of gypsum and lime. The knowledge of the concrete use
seems to have been lost during the Middle Ages, and it was not until the eighteenth
century that its value was rediscovered. Nowadays concrete is made in up-to-date
machinery with very careful regulation of the proportion of the mix.
The idea of strengthening concrete by a network of small iron rods was developed
in the 19th century, and ferro-concrete was introduced into engineering practice. Since
that time the development of reinforced concrete work has made great progress. And
the reasons of this progress were evident. Between 1880-1890 several reinforced
concrete buildings were erected in the United States, and since 1896 the increase in
the amount of construction with this material has been remarkable.
2. Закончите предложения в соответствии с содержанием текста.
Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык.
1. Mass or plain concrete was employed in ancient times in …
2. Romans also used concrete as a filling…
3. As cement was not known in ancient times concrete was made of …
4. The knowledge of the concrete use … in the Middle Ages.
5. Nowadays concrete is made …
6. The idea of strengthening concrete by … was developed in the 19th century.
7. Between 1880-1890 … were built in the United States.
3. Прочитайте снова дополнительные тексты и составьте резюме,
используя следующие выражения:
The text is about …
At the beginning of the text the author stresses (underlines, points out) that …
Then the author describes smth (suggests, states that) …
After that the author passes on to (description of, statement of, analysis of …}
At the end of the text the author comes to the conclusion (pays attention to the fact)
that…
HOME READING
Прочитайте тексты и переведите их.
Напишите резюме, используя выражении после тестов.
Text 1. Building Construction
The construction of the homes and buildings in which people live and work has
been a major industry ever since early human beings first made huts of sticks, mud,
or rocks. Methods of building construction have been constantly improved since
those first crude structures. Modern skyscrapers can be built within a year or two.
Prefabricated buildings, with their various parts made in factories by assembly-line
methods, can be built in a day or two, but are rarely as durable as traditionally made
buildings.
A building has two main parts, the substructure (the part below ground)
and the superstructure (the part above ground). The substructure is usually called the
foundation. It includes the basement walls, even though these may extend above the
ground.
Both the substructure and the superstructure help to support the load
(weight) of the building. The dead load of a building is the total weight of all its parts.
The live load is the weight of the furniture, equipment, stored material, and occupants
of a building. In some regions, the wind load of a building is important if the
structure is to withstand storms. The snow load may also be an important factor. In
some areas, buildings have to be constructed to withstand earthquake shocks.
Foundations are the chief means of supporting a building. They carry both the dead
and live loads. There are three main types of foundations: (1) spread, (2) pier, and (3)
pile.
Spread foundations are long slabs of reinforced concrete that extend beyond
the outer edges of the building. Such foundations are not so firm as those based on
solid rock. The footing areas in contact with the soil must be of sufficient size to
spread the load safely over the soil and to avoid excessive or uneven settlement. Any
such settlement would cause walls to crack or doors to bind.
Pier foundations are
heavy columns of concrete that go down through the loose topsoil to a bed of firm
rock. This bed may also be sand, gravel, or firm clay. If the bed consists of firm clay,
the pier is usually enlarged at the base, to increase the bearing area.
Pile
foundations are long, slender columns of steel, concrete, or wood. Machines, called
pile drivers hammer them down as deep as 60 metres to a layer of solid soil or rock.
Workers can tell when the columns reach their proper depth by the number of blows
the pile driver needs to drive the columns a few centimetres deeper. These columns
transmit the building load to the supporting soil. Most skyscrapers are supported by
rock foundations
.
Text 2. Types of construction
In load-bearing-wall construction the walls transmit the load to the foundation. In
skeleton construction, all loads are transmitted to the foundation by a rigidly
constructed framework made up of beans, girders and columns. This skeleton carries
the roof, walls, and floors, together with their loads. Load-bearing-wall construction
is usually most economical for buildings less than four storeys high, but skeleton
construction is better for taller buildings. All buildings in the skyscraper class are of
skeleton construction. The first building to have skeleton construction was the 10storey Home Insurance Building in Chicago. Completed in 1885, this building was
the world's first skyscraper. Many parts of a building have no structural function.
Partition walls and curtain walls carry only their own weight and serve to divide the
interior of a building or to keep out the elements. Other nonload-bearing parts include
windows, doors, stairs, and lifts. In one method of construction, called tilt-up
construction, concrete wall panels are formed at ground level. Cranes or derricks then
lift them into position. Lift-slab construction may be used for positioning roof and
floor slabs. These slabs are formed with concrete at ground level, within the
framework of the building. They are then lifted into place using hydraulic jacks.
Beams, girders, and columns support a building much like bones support the body.
They form the skeleton of the superstructure, and bear the weight of the walls and
each floor of the building. Beams and girders run horizontally. Girders are usually
larger than beams. Closely spaced beams are called joists, especially in wooden
buildings. Purlins are small beams that brace rafters or girders and help provide the
structure to support roofs. Beams above window and door openings are called lintels.
Slabs are beams whose width is greater than their depth. Columns are heavy vertical
supports that carry the load of beams and girders. Trusses consist of many wood or
steel supports that are connected in triangular patterns. They provide the strength and
rigidity to span large distances with relatively small amounts of material. Arches are
curved supports that usually extend over openings.
Text 3. Prefabricated Construction
Prefabrication has become an important part of most types of building
construction. Prefabricated sections of a building are produced in large quantities in a
factory and then shipped to various construction sites. This procedure may allow
work to continue despite poor weather conditions and should reduce any waste in
time and material at the site. As a result, costs are lowered and construction time
decreases. Many types of building sections can be prefabricated. For example, entire
walls may be prefabricated for a wooden-frame house. Huge wooden arches are
prefabricated for use as supports in churches, gymnasiums, and other buildings.
Concrete beams, floors, roofs, and wall panels may be precast for many types of
structures. Entire buildings may be constructed in a factory and then transported to
the desired location. Prefabricated structures are sometimes made by a process called
modular construction, first used in Japan. Modular construction refers to the use of a
standard measurement as the basis for all building materials. The size of the module
may vary considerably from country to country. In the United States, the basic
module is 10 centimetres. All building parts are designed so that each dimension
equals this measurement. Modular parts are also used in buildings that are not
prefabricated.
Text 4. Building Stone
Building stone ranks in importance with steel as a construction material. Stone is
used for the foundations, walls, and steps of buildings, for the support of piers and
bridges, and for finishing and decorating all types of structures. Crushed stone
accounts for most building stone used in construction. Crushed stone is quarried stone
crushed into small pieces suitable for such uses as the surfacing of roads and
industrial construction.
Dimension stone is stone in natural blocks or slabs cut in
definite shapes and sizes. Builders expect good dimension stone to last at least a
hundred years. The best dimension stone has the fewest pores or air cells, making it
able to resist the wearing effects of weather. Stone with large, open pores will chip
off if water freezes and expands in the pores. Dimension stone includes granite,
limestone, sandstone, marble and slate. Granite is one of the strongest of all the
building stones. However, it is difficult to cut and handle because it is extremely
hard. It is used extensively in the construction of public buildings. Granite can be
polished to a glossy finish, and is an excellent background for carvings and lettering.
Limestone is a hard and lasting building stone that can be cut easily and shaped with
saws, planes, and even lathes. These buff or gray stones are sometimes placed over
the rough stonework of a building to make an attractive surface. Limestone is also
used to tile floors, and for sills, steps and trimming. Marble is the most elegant
building stone. Pure marble is white, streaked with veins of black, gray, green, pink,
red, and yellow. Builders use marble to make monuments and tombstones, and to
decorate stairways, hearths, floors, and panelling. Slate is fine-grained rock that can
be split easily into thin slabs and used for roofing shingles and flagstone flooring.
Text 5. Constructing a skyscraper
New methods in the design and construction of skyscrapers have been closely
related to the development of computers. Engineers use computers to solve the
complex mathematical problems involved in such construction projects. Computers
do this work quickly by breaking the design down into a limited number of
precalculated elements. Before construction begins, engineers determine the strength
of the soils that will lie underneath the new building. With this information, they can
design the proper foundation. After the building site is cleared, levelled and drained
of water, excavation (digging) begins. Mobile diggers usually excavate the
foundation. Ground made of rock may be excavated by blasting. After the excavation
is finished, the footings (base) and the superstructure are built. Most steel used in the
superstructure, such as beams, girders, and columns, comes prefabricated. Each piece
of steel should have a number indicating the exact place where it should be used.
When the steel is raised into place, workers fasten the pieces together temporarily
with bolts. Later, welders and riveters join these pieces together permanently.
Many kinds of cranes and derricks are used in the construction of skyscrapers. The
two main kinds are mobile cranes and tower cranes. Mobile cranes are mounted on
trucks or special vehicles and can manoeuvre around the outside of the building to
hoist materials and equipment from various locations. Tower cranes are supported on
a steel tower erected next to or inside a building's framework. After workers
complete the superstructure and outside walls, the building is ready to be finished,
decorated and furnished.
CLICHES FOR RESUME
I. The text is about …
The text tells us about…
The text deals with
The text is concerned with
II. At the beginning of the text the
author
describes smth (сущ.) that (which)…
dwells on (the problem, the question
of)
informs us about…
states that …
underlines that …
points out that …
stresses that …
mentions …
comments upon smth (сущ.)…
criticizes …
suggests …
introduces …
III. Then the author passes on to the
description of …
analysis of …
characteristics of …
statement that …
IV. After that (next) the author goes on
to say
about …
pays attention to smth …
develops the idea of …
proves that …
characterizes smth (сущ.)…
gives the characteristics of …
V. At the end of the text the author
comes to
the conclusion that …
In conclusion the author recommends
…
Этот текст имеет дело с …
Этот текст касается …
Вначале текста автор
описывает
касается (проблемы, вопроса)
сообщает нам о …
утверждает что …
подчеркивает что…
указывает что …
выделяет что …
упоминает …
комментирует …
критикует…
предлагает …
вводит, представляет …
затем автор переходит к
описанию …
анализу …
характеристике …
утверждению …
После этого ( затем) автор
продолжает
рассказывать
уделяет внимание
развивает идею …
доказывает, что …
характеризует …
дает характеристику …
В конце текста автор приходит к
выводу, что …
В заключение автор рекомендует …
решает
повторяет
выражает …
decides …
repeats …
expresses …
Introductory words and phrases
It is necessary (interesting) to note that
…
It is extremely important to underline
that ...
It is not surprising that …
It is clear that…
It is a well-known fact that…
No wonder that …
At first … then …
In contrast to …
Moreover …
Thus …
Besides …
However…
As a result …
As for …
Вводные слова и выражения
Необходимо (интересно) отметить,
что …
Чрезвычайно важно подчеркнуть, что
…
Неудивительно, что …
Ясно, что …
Это очевидный (известный) факт, что
…
Неудивительно, что …
Сначала … затем …
В отличие от …
Более того …
Таким образом …
Кроме того …
Однако …
В результате …
Что касается
Тест
CONTROL YOURSELF
1. High cost and low fire-resistance are classified as
a) advantages of construction materials.
b) disadvantages of construction materials
2. Cement, brick, and concrete may serve as examples of
a) natural materials
b) artificial materials
3. Durability, strength, and high fire-resistance are properties
a) of stone
b) of wood
4. Iron, steel, and their alloys belong to
a) ferrous metals
b) non-ferrous metals
5. One of the advantages of cast iron is
a) its cheapness
b) its high cost
6. Aluminum is
a) a good conductor of electricity
b) a poor conductor of electricity
7. Wood is considered to be
a) the only naturally renewable material
b) one of the naturally renewable materials
8. In cut wood water content is
a) constantly increasing
b) constantly decreasing
9. Steel, brick, and concrete
a) differ in their properties
b) have the same structural properties
10. The drier is the cut wood
a) the lower is its strength
b) the greater is its strength
11. Large structural members are produced by glueing together
a) large strips of wood
b) small strips of wood
12. Wood panels are
a) much easier to install than boards
b) much more difficult to install than boards
13. Plywood panels are made up of
a) thin wooden veneers glued together
b) thick wooden veneers glued together
14. Timber is material that is
a) artificially renewed
b) naturally renewed
15. Removal of moisture from timber
a) increases its strength, hardness, and workability
b) decreases its strength, hardness, and workability
16. Birch and oak belong to
a) hardwoods
b) softwoods
17. Hardwoods are widely used
a) for sanitary purposes
b) for decorative purposes
18. In ancient Egypt bricks were produced
a) by burning
b) by drying in the sun
19. Russia is
a) poor in raw materials
b) extremely rich in raw materials
20. Overburned brick
a) should not be used in construction
b) can be used for construction purposes
21. Underburned brick is
a) highly porous
b) glass hard
22. Bricks are produced of
a) sand and water
b) mortar and burned clay
23. Many/Few growing forests serve for producing
a) much timber
b) little timber
24. The properties of building materials
a) are of no importance for building purposes
b) should be taken into account
25. Ceramic tiles are
a) modern products
b) ancient products
26. World's modern atmosphere is
a) clean and fresh
b) highly polluted by chemical waste
27. The colour of ceramic tiles
a) does not depend on the colour of clay
b) depends on the colour of the clay they are made up of
28. Ceramic tiles are applied by means of
a) glue
b) some adhesive substance
29. They are applied with an extremely
a) thin mortar joint
b) thick mortar joint
30. The properties of terracotta are
a) different from the properties of brick
b) similar to the properties of brick
Словарь строительных терминов
to affect
воздействовать
Aggregate
заполнитель (бетона)
Binding
вяжущее
Blastfurnace slag
доменный шлак
Capacity
способность, производительность
to cast
отливать
Cement
цемент
Cement paste
цементное тесто
Coarse
крупнозернистый
Compaction
уплотнение
Concrete
бетон
Construction
строительство
Crack
трескаться
Creep
ползучесть (бетона)
to cure
выдерживать
Density
плотность
to dry
высыхать
Evaporation
испарение
Excavation
выемка грунта, экскавация
Filler
наполнитель
Fine
мелкозернистый
Flux
поток
Foundation
фундамент , основание
Fracture
разрушение
Grading
подбор гранулометрического состава
Gravel
гравий
to harden
затвердевать
High alumina cement
цемент с высоким содержанием глинозема
to increase
увеличивать, возрастать
Inert
инертный
Insulation
изоляция
Lean (mix)
тощая (смесь)
Load
нагрузка
To maintain
поддерживать
Mix
смесь
Permeability
проницаемость
Portland cement
портланд- цемент
Pressure
давление
Rate
скорость, степень, коэффициент
Ratio
коэффициент, пропорция
Remainder
остаток
to require
to result in
Sand
Saturated
to set
to shield
to shrink
Shrinkage
Slab
Specific creep
Strain
Strength
Stress
Structural
to subject
Surface
Workability
смеси)
требовать
приводить к
песок
насыщенный
схватывать, затвердевать
защищать
сжиматься
усадка, сжатие
плита
специфическая ползучесть бетона
деформация
прочность, крепость
напряжение, нагрузка
строительный
подвергать
поверхность
обрабатываемость, удобоукладываемость
(бетонной
ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК
I. СЛОВО С ОКОНЧАНИЕМ ”s”
в английском предложении может быть:
1. существительным
2. глаголом в настоящем времени (Present Simple)
3. существительным в притяжательном падеже
1. Определителями существительного являются:
артикли a, the;
притяжательные местоимения my, your, his, her, its, their, our
указательные местоимения this/these, that/those
неопределенные и отрицательные местоимения some, any, no, every
прилагательные и числительные
Ving и Ved формы, когда переводятся причастиями
2. Глагол определяем
a) по месту в предложении
Обстоятельство
In scientific work
Подлежащее
he
Сказуемое
Measures
Дополнение
Volume
Обстоятельство
in cubic
centimeters
б) личное местоимение в именительном падеже (I, you, he, she, it, we, they)
показывает, что следующее за ним слова – сказуемое
It (the bus) stops at our house.
в) личное местоимение в объектном падеже (me, you, him, her, it, us, them)
показывает, что предшествующее ему слово – глагол-сказуемое.
This experiment interests us greatly.
Note: вспомогательные глаголы do, does, did, will и модальные глаголы can may
must need could might should would показывают, что следующее за ними слово
–глагол-сказуемое.
Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на разные функции
окончания “s”.
1. Aluminum is a corrosion-resistant material. It means that painting is not necessary
at all.
2. The use of helicopters is an excellent means to place (установить) building units
on inaccessible (недоступный) construction sites.
3. The builders should introduce more building machines into building practice by all
possible means.
4. When an engineer designs a steelwork he must carefully consider all the loads.
5. Present-day designs for housing envisage all modern conveniences and sanitary
fittings.
6. This technique aims to a higher output of better structures at a lower cost.
7. The strength of concrete increases with age.
8. Mass or plain (обычный) concrete dates from the early age.
9. The central core of the building houses the fast passenger and freight lift.
10. Plastics possess valuable and diverse properties.
II. CУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ В ФОРМЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЯ
Для английского языка характерно употребление в роли определения
одного или нескольких существительных, образующих цепочку слов. В
такой цепочке последнее существительное является основным, а все
предшествующие ему слова являются определениями к нему.
World market conditions - условия мирового рынка
Maximum home trade steel prices – максимальные цены на сталь на
внутреннем рынке
Итак, существительное в функции опреления переводится:
1) прилагательным
room temperature - комнатная температура
limit pressure
предельное давление
2) существительным без предлога в родительном падеже (кого, чего?) или
существительным с предлогом.
radio equipment laboratory - лаборатория радиооборудования
the atomic energy conference – конференция по проблеме атомной
энергии
farm produce price increase - повышение цен на продукцию сельского
хозяйства
Перевести предложения, обращая внимание на перевод определений,
выраженных именем существительным.
1. Steel manufacture requires special equipment and skilled labour.
2. This material has an extremely high rate of strength increase.
3. Builders use aluminum in structures where weight saving (экономия) is of great
importance.
4. Archeologists found the concrete remains of the foundations of buildings built
(построенный) several thousands years ago.
5. Another structural problem is to provide adequate foundation support for
massive buildings.
6. This invention relates to the manufacture of thermoplastic materials by steam
treatment process.
III. ВРЕМЕНА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ГЛАГОЛА
ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ SIMPLE
Времена группы Simple употребляются 1) для констатации факта
совершения действия или 2) для выражения обычного часто
повторяющегося действия в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем времени.
Форма
Present Simple
Past Simple
Утвердительная
My friends study
French
My friends studied
French at school.
He speaks English.
Вопросительная
Do your friends study
French?
Does he speak
English?
Отрицательная
My friends don’t study
French.
He doesn’t speak
English.
Future Simple
My friends will study
French at the Institute.
The teacher will speak
He spoke English at about our English
the conference.
exam.
Did you friends
Will your friends
study French at
study French at the
school?
Institute?
Did he speak English Will the teacher speak
at the conference?
about our English
exam?
My friends did not
My friends will not
study French.
(won’t) study French
at the institute.
He didn’t speak
The teacher won’t
English at the
speak about our
conference.
English exam.
Структура специальных вопросов
Вопросительные слова
What
Where
When
Вспомогательный глагол
do
did
will
Подлежащее и
определение к
нему
you
he
your sister
Смысловой
глагол в форме
инфинитива
Другие члены
предложения
do
in the evening?
yesterday?
home?
go
return
Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на времена
группы “Simple”.
1. The building techniques (by techniques we mean building materials and method)
depend upon the types of buildings.
2. As the bricklayer works he often looks at the plan. Then he will know where to
build in the doors, windows and ventilators.
3. There are many instances (examples) where aluminum structures justify.
4. Romans used concrete for construction of aqueducts and bridges, for roads and
underwater structures.
5. Steel does not undergo shrinkage, but concrete does.
6. The builders did not construct the houses of wood in old times in Egypt. They used
sun-dried brick and stones for making walls of the building.
IV. Употребление временных форм глагола в действительном залоге
Active Voice
Инфинитив
Время
Present
Past
Future
Note:
Simple
инфинитив без
частицы to
Continuous
be+Participle I
(Ving)
Ask
asks (he, she, it)
вспомогат.гл.
do, does в вопросах
и отрицат.предл.
Asked
wrote, went
вспомогат.глагол did
am
Is
Are
Will ask
will be asking
was
were
asking
asking
Perfect
Have + Participle II
(Ved или 3 форма
глагола)
have
has (he,she,it) asked
written
had asked
written
will have asked,
written
1. Времена группы Continuous переводятся глаголами
несовершенного вида (что делаю? что делал? что буду
делать?), так как показывают процесс выполнения
действия. Чаще всего ошибки происходят при переводе Past
Continuous.
I was asking– Я спрашивал (нельзя переводить спросил )
2. Времена группы Perfect чаще всего переводятся глаголами
совершенного вида (что сделал? или что сделаю?), так как
показывают законченное, завершенное действие.
I have asked – Я спросил.
Употребление временных форм глагола в страдательном залоге
Passive Voice
Инфинитив
Время
Present
Simple
be +Participle II
(Ved или 3 форма
глагола)
am
is
asked,
are
written
Continuous
be+being+Participle II
Pertfect
have+been+Part.II
am
is
are
Have
Has
was
were
was
were
being asked,
written
been asked,
written
Past
Future
asked,
written
will be asked
written
-
being asked,
written
had been asked,
written
will have asked,
written
Note: 1. О переводе глагола-сказуемого и подлежащего в страдательном
залоге смотрите ниже:
2. Continuous Passive переводится:
The house is being built –
Дом строится (дом строят).
The house was being built - Дом строился
Дом строили (что делали?)
3. Perfect Passive переводится:
The house has been built – Дом (что сделали?) построили
Дом был построен.
b) СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ
To be + Participle II (Ved, V3F)
Страдательный залог показывает, что подлежащее пассивно, т.е. оно
подвергается воздействию со стороны другого лица или предмета.
Страдательный залог широко употребляется для научных описаний, для
описания технических и экономических процессов, в отчетах, объявлениях и
т.д.
Показателем времени, лица и числа является вспомогательный глагол to
be, который имеет формы am, is, are для настоящего времени, was, were –
прошедшего времени, will be и shall be – будущего времени. Смысловой глагол
в форме причастия прошедшего времени (Participle II) не изменяется и может
переводиться тремя способами:
1) сочетанием глагола быть + краткая форма причастия
The article was written.
Статья была написана.
The article will be written.
Статья будет написана.
Глагол-связка быть в настоящем времени в русском языке опускается.
The article is written.
Статья написана.
2) возвратным глаголом с окончанием –ся, -сь.
The houses will be built here.
Здесь будут строиться дома.
3) неопределенно-личной формой глагола (3-лицо множественного лица)
The paper was translated
Эту статью (они) перевели неделю назад.
a week ago.
Подлежащее английского предложения может переводиться на русский
язык существительным (или местоимением) в именительном падеже и во всех
косвенных падежах.
The house was built by a
Дом был построен новым методом.
a new method.
He was seen in the laboratory
Его видели в лаборатории 2 часа назад.
2 hours ago.
He was given a new job to do.
Ему поручили выполнить новую работу.
Если за сказуемым в страдательном залоге следует предлог, относящийся
к глаголу, то при переводе предлог ставится перед подлежащим.
The design of the house was
Над проектом этого дома много работали.
much worked at.
Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на видовременные формы глагола. Определите время по таблице. Обратите
внимание на перевод глагола в страдательном залоге.
a) 1. The level of life is very much affected by housing.
2. The cost of project is influenced by the requirements of the design.
3. Copies of the plan are made and are given to the builder.
4. Reinforced concrete houses are produced by a variety of construction methods.
b) 1. Modern buildings have demonstrated the advantages of reinforced concrete
arches, metal frames and glass walls.
2. In our country housing construction is being carried out on a large scale.
3. The walls of the building will be built on the concrete foundations.
4. Built-in furniture especially of the storage type has always been preferred by
many.
5. The new material has been tested successfully and is now being used for irrigation
systems, roads, pavements and other structures.
6. The use of precast (сборный) concrete has many advantages over other building
materials.
7. Steel has come into general use with the development of industry.
8. The research and development in housing technology is being paid much attention.
Функция
Часть сказуемого
(после форм глаголов
to be и to have)
Обстоятельство
(причастие стоит в
начале или в конце
предложения или с
союзами)
V. PARTICIPLE
Participle I (прич. наст.вр.) Participle II (прич.прош.вр.)
Ving от глагола
Ved или 3 форма
нестандартных глаголов
Входит в состав сказуемого
Входит в состав сказуемого в
времени гр. Continuous
Passive Voice
(to be +Participle I)
(to be +Participle II)
The builders are applying…
I was told… – Мне сказали…
Строители применяют…
и Perfect Tense (to have +
The builders were applying…
Participle II)
Cтроители применяли…
He has changed …
Он изменил…
(When, while)changing
С союзами when-когда, ifизменяя
если, unless-если не, as- какпри изменении
переводится придаточным
когда изменяют
предложением, а иногда –
being changed
при + существительное
будучи измененным или
Unless tested the machine must
когда (так как, если, после
not be put into operation. –Если
того как) изменили
машина не прошла
having changed
испытаний, ее нельзя
изменив
эксплуатировать.
having been changed
When heated the polymer
когда (так как, если, после
того как) изменили
Определение
(причастие стоит
перед определяемым
словом или после
него и можно задать
вопрос какой?)
changing conditionsизменяющиеся условия
conditions changingусловия изменяющие
being changed –
изменяющийся, изменяемый,
который изменяется
changed… - Когда полимер
нагрели, он изменил…
При нагревании полимер
изменил
changed – изменяемый,
измененный
Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные
функции Participle I и Participle II.
1. We use many building materials for bearing structures.
2. Most of the moisture must be removed; otherwise the timber will shrink causing
defects in the work.
3. Timber is the name applied to the cut material derived from trees.
4. Sandstones are composed of grains of sand or quarts cemented together.
5. Cast iron is used in building for compressed members of construction as the
supporting members.
6. Durability of cement depends upon the cementing material.
7. For many centuries nature has been destroying stone, changing it into sand.
8. When the concrete hardens and sets, the resulting material gains great strength.
9. Using new kinds of prefab ferro-concrete frames, builders have erected some
buildings which can stand earthquakes.
10. The civil engineer must consider many factors when selecting the material for
construction.
VI. MODAL VERBS
Долженствование
must - должен
have to- должен,
вынужден, придется
Be to- должен,
предстоит в силу
запланированности
или договоренности
Should (должен,
следует)
ought to (должен,
следует)
Present
Must
have to
has to
am to
is to
are to
Past
had to
Future
will have to
was to
were to
-
should
-
-
could
-
ought to
can
Способность или
Can (может, умеет)
возможность
совершить
действие
Разрешение или
возможность
(вероятность)
be able (может
умеет)
May (может,
разрешает,
возможно)
be allowed (может,
разрешает)
am able
is able
are able
may
was able
were able
will be able
might
-
am allowed
is allowed
are allowed
was allowed
were allowed
will be
allowed
Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
модальные глаголы.
1. A qualified building worker must now be able to read any technical drawings.
2. This master plan is to be completed in the short period of two years.
3. The master plan has to define the ultimate growth of the town.
4. An architect has to think not only of what he wants the building look like when it
is finished, but also what it is to be used for.
5. A town designer should not ignore the past.
6. At present, prefabricated structures may be classified into two groups - for
residential houses and industrial buildings.
7. The engineer should be familiar with construction methods and costs if he is to
design a project that is to be constructed at the lowest practical cost.
VII. МНОГОФУНКЦИОНАЛЬНОСТЬ ГЛАГОЛОВ TO BE и TO HAVE
Многофункциональность глагола to be.
Present
Past
Future
Am, is are
was, were
will be
В предложении глагол to be может быть:
1) смысловым глаголом со значением быть, находиться. В настоящем
времени ”to be” в этом случае часто не переводится.
2) Связкой в составном именном сказуемом со значением быть,
являться, состоять, заключаться, когда за ним следует существительное
с предлогом of , прилагательное, числительное.
Physics is a natural science.
Физика – естественная наука
The calculations will be very
Расчеты будут очень сложными.
сomplicated
This problem was of great
Эта проблема представляла для
interest for us
нас очень большой интерес
После слов aim, purpose (цель). task (задача) и др. инфинитив
смыслового глагола употребляется с частицей to
Our task is to finish the test by 7 Наша задача–закончить (заключается
o’clock.
в том, чтобы закончить) испытание 7 часам
3) модальным со значением должен. В этом случае за ним
следует инфинитив смыслового глагола(глагол с частицей
“to”)
We are to prepare everything for the Мы должны все подготовить к
experiment.
опыту.
He was to get the data yesterday.
Он должен был получить эти данные
вчера.
4) вспомогательным для образования:
а) времен группы Continuous be + Participle I (V-ing). (Все глаголы
переводятся на русский язык глаголами несовершенного
вида.
She is working now.
Она работает сейчас.
She was working all the day yesterday. Она работала весь день вчера
б) страдательного залога в сочетании be +Participle II (V-ed, 3 форма
глагола.)
He is (was, will be) asked to make
Eго просят (просили, попросят)
a report.
сделать доклад
The house is being built now.
Дом строится (строят) сейчас.
Note: глагол “to be” может входить в состав оборота “there be” и
употребляться во всех временах. Оборот переводится: быть, находиться,
иметься, существовать, причем начинать перевод следует с обстоятельства
места или времени. В настоящем времени глагол-сказуемое часто не
переводится.
There are different kinds of barometers and thermometers.
Имеются (существуют) различные виды барометров и термометров.
There are a lot of research institutes in our city.
В нашем городе – (есть) много научно-исследовательских институтов.
There were many reactions which helped us to solve the problem.
Происходило (было) много реакций, которые помогли нам решить проблему.
Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на разные функции
глагола “ to be”
1. Pores are formed in concrete also as a result of evaporation of water.
2. The light cellular concrete is produced from a binding agent, water and foamforming (foam concrete)or gas-forming (gas concrete) substances.
3. Brookline (part of New-York) at that time was a young city. It was growing fast. It
was becoming an important business centre.
4. It is prefabrication that speeds up the construction work.
5. Hundreds of thousands of new apartment’s homes are to be built for the
population.
6. Glass is unaffected by gases and most acids.
7. One of the greatest advantages of artificial materials is their low cost compared to
the cost of natural ones.
8. Air-entrainment (вовлечение воздуха в бетон) was generally considered as the
greatest advance (успех) in concrete technology.
Многофункциональность глагола to have
Present
Past
Future
have, has
had
will have
В предложении глагол to have может быть:
смысловым со значением иметь обладать
This material has many valuable qualities. Этот материал имеет много
ценных свойств.
модальным со значением должен, приходится. В этом
случае за ним следует инфинитив смыслового глагола с
частицей to.
They have to make this experiment
Мы должны (нам придется)
once more.
сделать этот опыт еще раз.
We had to use a computor to make
Мы должны были пользоваться
calculations.
компьютером, чтобы сделать эти
вычисления.
вспомогательным для образования времен группы
have+ Participle II (V-ed, 3 форма глагола). В этом случае глагол to have не
переводится на русский язык, но служит показателем времени, числа и лица
смыслового глагола, который переводится чаще всего глаголами совершенного
вида.
He has made an interesting report
Он сделал интересный доклад
at the conference.
на конференции.
The construction of this plant has
Строительство этого завода
already been finished.
было уже закончено (уже
закончили).
Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функции глагола “to have”
1. Air-entrainment has helped to reduce the amount of heat generated during setting
of the cement.
2. Scientists had to overcome many disadvantages in the development of decorative
laminates.
3. Pure aluminum has excellent engineering properties.
4. With the introduction of steel and reinforced concrete new possibilities have been
introduced into construction.
5. Use of water-reducing admixtures has expanded rapidly in the past few years.
6. The workers have to remove some of this rock in order to make a good base for
the towers.
VIII. НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА ГЕРУНДИЙ, ПРИЧАСТИЕ I,
ИНФИНИТИВ
Инфинитив. (Infinitive).Функции и перевод.
Инфинитив (глагол с частицей “to”), являясь неличной формой глагола,
имеет свойства, как существительного, так и глагола.
Инфинитив может выполнять функции подлежащего, дополнения,
обстоятельства, определения, а также может быть частью составного
сказуемого.
Инфинитив в предложении
Английский
вариант
To read English
books is useful
Русский вариант
To live is to learn
Жить – значит учиться
Читать английские
книги – полезно.
I like to work
To raise the labour
productivity we
must apply the new
equipment
Чтобы повысить
производительность
труда, мы должны
применить новое
оборудование
The work to be
finished next week
is of great interest.
Работа, которую
необходимо (нужно,
следует) закончить на
следующей неделе
представляет большой
интерес.
Он последний пришел
Функция и место инфинитива в
английском предложении
Подлежащее; в начале предложения и
другого подлежащего нет. Переводится
существительным или неопределенной
формой глагола
частью сказуемого; стоит после форм
глагола to be или после модальных
глаголов must, can, may, should и др.).
Переводится неопределенной формой
глагола.
дополнением ;стоит после сказуемого
Простые формы переводятся
существительным или неопределенной
формой глагола, сложные формы
придаточным предложением с союзами
что, чтобы.
Обстоятельство; стоит в конце или в
начале предложения иногда вводится
союзом in order to или словами too, enough
перед или после прилагательного.
Переводится неопределенной формой
глагола с союзом чтобы, для того чтобы
или существ. с предлогом для.
Д) определением; стоит после
определяемого существительного.
Переводится: а)придаточным
предложением с союзом который,
сказуемое которого выражает
долженствование, возможность или
будущее время;
б) неопределенной формой глагола, в)
He was the last to
come to the
meeting
на собрание
иногда существительным.
в) инфинитив после слов the first, the last и
т.п. переводится глаголом в том времени,
в котором стоит глагол to be.
Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива.
1. Foundations serve to keep the walls and floors from contact with soil.
2. To make the walls stronger the bricks must overlap each other.
3. The aggregates are graded in size from fine to coarse in order to reduce the
amount of void space to be filled by cement.
4. To do this work properly and safely, walls, roofs and other parts of the
construction must be correctly designed.
5. The live load to be used in computations depends upon the use of the
building.
6. Steel is used in reinforcement units to undergo high tensile loads.
7. Enough water should be used to produce a placeable mix.
8. Elements to be employed in a heat-insulating capacity undergo (подвергаться)
special treatment.
Герундий (Gerund)
Герундий представляет неличную глагольную форму, выражающую
название действия, но не имеет категории лица, числа, наклонения, а
поэтому самостоятельно никогда не выступает в роли простого сказуемого.
Герундий – промежуточная форма между глаголом и существительным. Вот
почему он сочетает глагольные свойства со свойствами существительного
табл. 1 и выполняет в предложении функции существительного табл.2
Таблица 1
Английский вариант
Reading English books is
useful
They started correlating the
properties of these two devices
We cannot master English
without working at it
systematically.
Wee have heard of his
working at an interesting
problem
Русский вариант
Чтение английских книг
полезно
Они начали сравнивать
свойства этих двух
приборов
Мы не можем овладеть
английским языком, не
работая над ним
систематически.
Мы слышали, что он
работает над интересной
проблемой
Перевод герундия
Существительное
Неопределенная форма
глагола
Деепричастие
Глагол в личной форме в
придаточном предложении с
союзами «что, чтобы, как»
Таблица 2
Примеры функции герундия в предложении
Пример
Русский вариант
Функция герундия
Reading English book is
Чтение английских книг –
Подлежащее (в начале
useful
полезно.
предложения)
My favourite occupation is
Мое любимое занятие –
Именная составная часть
reading
чтение
составного сказуемого
(после форм глагола to be)
At the meeting the workers
На собрании рабочие
Дополнение (после глагола)
spoke about applying the new говорили о применении
Method at their shop.
нового метода в их цехе.
We cannot master English
Мы не можем овладеть
Обстоятельство (с
without working at it
английским языком, не
предлогом в начале и конце
systematically.
работая над ним
предложения)
систематически
They discussed the means of
Они обсуждали способ
Определение после
reducing the cost of
снижения издержек
существительного с
production.
производства
предлогами (of или for)
Причастие I (Participle I)
Причастие I так же как и герундий, является неличной формой глагола и
имеет окончание –ing. Однако между этими двумя формами существует
значительное различие, на что и следует обращать особое внимание при
переводе.
Герундий имеет признаки и глагола и существительного. Причастие I
занимает промежуточное место между глаголом и прилагательным, а также
частично между глаголом и наречием
Способы перевода причастия I на русский язык
Английский вариант
Русский вариант
Перевод причастия
Проводимое сейчас
испытание имеет большое
значение
The test being carried out is of Испытание, которое сейчас
great significance
проводится, имеет большое
значение.
The student translating the text Студент, который переводит
knows English well
текст, хорошо знает
английский язык.
Being packed in strong cases, Так как товары был
goods arrived in good
упакованы в крепкие ящики,
condition
товары прибыли в хорошем
состоянии.
While doing his work he made Выполняя работу, он сделал
an important discovery
важное открытие.
Having considered the matter
Рассмотрев этот вопрос, мы
we arrived at a definite
пришли к определенному
decision.
решению
The test being carried out is of
great significance.
причастие
придаточное предложение
a) с союзом «который»
после существительного;
б) с союзами «так как, когда,
если, после того как» если в
начале или в конце
предложения
деепричастие
Participle 1
Причастие 1
1. строящийся
2. строя
формальные маркеры;
when (while) building
при строительстве
строя
когда (пока) строят
The working motor
(какой?)-работающий
мотор
Applying the method the
technologists will get the
results desired Применяя метод
технологи получат
желаемые результаты
(ф.обст.)
ING-форма
Building
Verbal noun
Отглагольное
существительное
здание
строительство
формальные маркеры:
артикли a, the
Vings – множественное
число
Gerund
Герундий
строить
строительство
формальные маркеры:
глагол + ing-форма
предлог + ing-форма
переводится:
предлог +сущест.
деепричастие (а, я, ав, ив)
the working model (для
чего?) – рабочая модель,
модель для работы
Applying the method will give
the results desired –
Применение этого метода
даст желаемые результат
1. The crystals forming in the process of making concrete stick together in a very
hard artificial stone.
2. There are “cellular” concretes made by using materials which foam or form gas
during the mixing of the concrete.
3. Using new kinds of prefab ferro-concrete frames builders have erected some
buildings which can stand earthquakes.
4. Changing the time at which the admixture is added can significantly vary its degree
of effectiveness.
5. A group of specialists has developed piles without using building materials.
6. Drawers and shelves can often be concealed behind walls, freeing valuable floor
space.
7. Being a brittle concrete cannot withstand tensile stresses.
8. The civil engineer must consider many factors when selecting the materials for
construction.
9. This process is accomplished by covering the concrete without damaging the
surface with damp cloths, wet sand or the concrete can be kept wet by sprinkling, or
by immersing in water.
10. High alumina cement is a material containing alumina.
VIII. Условные предложения
Условные предложения в английском языке вводятся союзами if если, provided-если, при условии что, unless-если не, in case - если
1. Если в главном предложении употребляются вспомогательный глагол will, то
в условном придаточном предложении сказуемое употребляется в настоящем
времени
На русский язык сказуемое в главном и придаточном предложениях
переводится будущим временем.
If the temperature is low,
Если температура будет низкой,
the reaction will proceed slowly.
реакция будет проходить медленно.
2 Сложное предложение относится к настоящему или будущему времени.
В главном предложении употребляются глаголы should, would или could +
простой инфинитив (глагол без частицы to).
В условном придаточном предложении сказуемое употребляется в простом
прошедшем времени (Ved или V2f).
На русский язык сказуемое в главном и придаточном предложениях
переводится с частицей бы.
We should test the device
Мы бы проверили этот прибор
if we got it.
если бы получили его.
He could complete the test
Он бы мог закончить проверку
if he had time (today, tomorrow).
если бы у него было время.
Сложное предложение относится к прошедшему времени.
B главном предложении после глаголов should, would и could стоит перфектный
инфинитив (have+Ved или V3f)
в условном предложении сказуемое употребляется в Past Perfect (had+Ved или
V3f).
На русский язык сказуемое
в главном и придаточном предложениях
переводится с частицей бы.
He would have used the device,
Он бы использовал этот прибор,
if it had been order.
если бы он был в порядке.
I could have come to the conference,
Я бы мог прийти на конференцию,
provided I had been in town. (last week). если бы был в городе.
Переведите условные
употребления.
предложения,
обращая
внимание
на
время
1. If the amount of water had increased above that necessary, it would have
produced a more porous structure.
2. If the aggregates were dry when placed in the mixer, they would absorb water
and leave less available for mixing with the cement.
3. The concrete will lose its plasticity provided it is used dry.
4. If the concrete paste had been allowed to dry out, then considerable change
would have occurred.
5. If the load were maintained for some time and then removed the concrete
would not return its original size.
6. If the concrete had been completely dried the shrinkage would have been the
greatest.
КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА N 1
ЗАДАНИЕ N 1. Письменно переведите следующие предложения из
домашних текстов, обращая внимание на грамматические явления,
рассматриваемые в данной контрольной работе.
1. Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as people live in
today.
2. Bricks made of mud and dried in the hot sunshine became almost as hard as
stones.
3. Some of their buildings are still standing after several thousands of years.
4. The Ancient Egyptians discovered how to cut stone for building purposes.
5. Concrete is an artificial kind of stone, much cheaper than brick or natural
stone and much stronger than they are.
6. The most commonly used (используемые) materials are steel, concrete,
stone, wood and brick.
7. Wood is the most ancient structural material.
8. Stone belongs to one of the oldest building materials.
9. Steel manufacture requires special equipment and skilled labour.
10.Secondary or auxiliary materials are used for the interior parts of the
buildings.
11.Elimination of this moisture increases the strength, durability and resilience of
timber.
12.When an engineer designs a steelwork he must carefully consider all its loads.
13.Concrete is now more widely used in construction than all other materials
together.
14.But this method does not utilize the full potentialities of concrete.
15.Parts of these ancient buildings can still be seen today in Greece.
16.Lime is a basic building material used all over the world as today so in the
ancient world.
17.Such kilns were fired with wood or coal and were extremely inefficient.
18.The Roman period was followed by other periods each of which produced its
own type of architecture and building materials.
19.During the last hundred years many new methods of building have been
discovered.
20.The knowledge of how to make durable concrete has been lost for
centuries.
21.Fusion of Roman and North European traditions in construction was reflected
in many ways.
22.Many structures made of concrete remain till nowadays thus proving the long
life of buildings made of concrete.
23.Materials that are used for structural purposes should meet several
requirements.
24.Concrete is referred to as one of the most important building materials.
25.Steel has come into general use with the development of industry
26.The architects and engineers have turned to plastics to add beauty to modern
homes and offices.
27.We use many building materials for bearing structures.
28.Binding materials are used for making artificial stone and for joining different
planes.
29.Timber is a name applied to the cut material derived from trees.
30.Timber used for building purposes is divided into two groups: softwoods and
hardwoods
31.Timber cannot be used for either carpenters' or joiners' work immediately it
has been felled because of the large amount of sap which it contains.
32.Stone has been used as a structural material since the earliest days.
33.In some places stone was used because of the scarcity of timber, but in other
places stone was preferred because of its durability.
34.Sandstone is composed of grains of sand or quarts cemented together. The
durability of sandstones depends very largely upon the cementing material.
35.These characteristics are possessed by all metals but the metals themselves
differ from one another.
36.Cast iron is chiefly used in building for compressed members of construction,
as the supporting members.
1.
2.
3.
4.
КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА N 2
Cement is the most essential material and the most important one for making
concrete of high quality.
Cement is made of limestone and clay. It is burnt at high temperature and
ground up into powder.
Depending on the kind and composition of the raw materials different types of
cement are obtained.
Concrete is made by binding together particles of sand and gravel, stone or
broken brick.
5. Cement starts hardening one hour after the water has been added.
6. Concrete can be made on a building site, or it may be used as the materials for
making prefabricated units in a plant.
7. To get the best of concrete the following considerations should be kept in
mind (помнить).
8. When the concrete hardens and sets, the resulting material gains great
strength.
9. The reinforcing of concrete was first introduced in France in 1861 by Joseph
Monier, who constructed flower pots, tubs and tanks
10.Since 1896 the development of reinforced concrete work has made great
progress.
11.Steel does not undergo shrinkage or drying.
12.Steel constructions with reinforced concrete have become the most important
building materials that were invented in centuries.
13.By giving concrete a big squeeze after it has hardened, builders can increase its
elasticity ten times so that it will bend under a heavy load without breaking.
14.This is important in building bridges, viaducts, and floors of large buildings.
15.The simplest way to pre-stress concrete is to put steel wires or roads in the
concrete when it is poured.
16.Until recently, the aim of engineers was to make concrete with as few bubbles
as possible.
17.This concrete is made by adding an agent, which foams to form the bubbles
when the concrete is mixed.
18.Scientists are working on research into the behaviour of cement and concrete
under all kinds of conditions.
19.The principle of reinforced earth is analogous to that of reinforced concrete.
20.Buildings of reinforced concrete may be constructed with load-bearing walls
or with a skeleton frame.
21.The principle of reinforced earth is analogous to that of reinforced concrete
22. A built-in wardrobe requires less space than a movable one of similar
capacity.
ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ
FUNCTIONS OF VERBS “to be”, “to have”
variant I
1. From the earliest days the mankind has erected structures of great size and beauty.
2. Since the need for buildings of all kinds is great different methods for speeding up
construction are developed.
3. The influence of various factors on the strength of concrete has to be taken into
account (to take into account - принимать во внимание) in the successful
proportioning of the compounds of a mix to achieve the desired properties.
4. The students were trying to devise a production of a very durable, cementless
binding material.
5. Asphalt slabs are not affected by water.
6. The concrete roof of the new 4-storey store was cast as soon as the steel frame had
been erected.
7. According to the plan there were to be two towers. These towers had to be very
strong, they were of granite.
8. Hydraulic lime has the property of setting under water.
9. Masonry domes have been constructed for centuries.
FUNCTIONS OF THE VERBS “to be”, “to have”
variant II
1. The new plastic can be easily cleaned and are unaffected by high temperature.
2. A new development is that the building from the top to downwards and from the
bottom to upwards is taking place simultaneously.
3. In order to attain one property a compromise has to be made in the other
properties.
4. Other forms of test have been carried out, but the simplest is the tensile test on a
concrete cylinder.
5. For interior use plastics is recommended for surface finish of walls.
6. These steel cables were to hold the bridge.
7. Proper compaction of concrete is essential for the development of its full strength.
8. Dry mixes of low workability if adequately compacted by vibration, have higher
strengths than more workable mixes with the same water-cement ratio.
INFINITIVE
variant I
1. Walls are built to carry the weight of floors and roofs.
2. In order to save time, the builder prefers to use prefabricated concrete units.
3. Building regulations define the type of mortar to be used with bricks of varying
strength to carry varying loads.
4. As the building began to lean over, the builders altered the design of the upper
stories to balance it.
5. The knowledge of concrete seems to have been lost during the Middle Ages.
6. Pure aluminum is very plastic, which allows it to be readily formed into different
shapes.
7. There are designs which provide the service centers to be connected with the
dwelling houses by roofed passages.
8. The white exteriors of the tower block (жилой дом) appeared to be free of some
ceramic materials.
INFINITIVE
variant II
1. The members to be connected by welding must be held rigidly in position during
the welding process.
2. The exterior walls are designed of sufficient strength to carry the loads of the
floors and roofs.
3. To make concrete resistant to bending, engineers reinforce it.
4. In order to replace hand-ramming, mechanical vibrators are now used for
compacting of concrete.
5. Water fit for drinking is assumed to be free from harmful ingredients.
6. Many building codes require brick basement walls to be 4 in. thicker than the walls
above.
7. It is convenient to use built-in units which enable one room to serve the purposes
of several.
8. Built-in furniture is considered to be valuable asset in small building.
9. Lime is produced from limestone and chalk which is burnt in a kiln for 3 or 4 days
when it is ready to be made into mortar.
INFINITIVE
variant III
1. A sanitary engineer protects the quality of water by treating and purifying this
water to be used for domestic purposes.
2. The plumber lays the pipes to carry clean water into the house and to carry waste
water away to the sewers.
3. In construction of a house the first step is to examine the soil in order to find its
bearing power.
4. To transport water for populated districts the builders also construct aqueducts.
5. Green plants are considered to be very important because they clean the air, reduce
contamination and so improve living conditions.
6. The internal combustion engine is known to cause more pollution than the
factories.
7. The building regulations require external walls to be adequate to prevent heat loss
from the building.
8. Many people consider the motor cars to be the main source of air pollution.
9. Concrete has a low tensile strength and needs to be reinforced with steel to form a
structural member.
10. In order to understand what civil engineering is you must consider the
development of different branches of engineering.
INFINITIVE
variant IV
1. The aggregates are graded in size from fine to coarse in order to reduce the amount
of void space to be filled by cement.
2. Elements to be employed for heat-insulation undergo supplementary treatment.
3. Before calculating the required sizes of beams or columns it is necessary first to
determine the loads carried by the structure.
4. To make a house quite a lot of people all work together.
5. Cement is known to be the most important component of concrete.
6. When the water is added to the cement, this causes the whole mixture to set and
hardening, forming a solid mass.
7. Water-reducing admixtures are found to facilitate placing of concrete under
difficult conditions.
8. If alumina is not correctly proportioned it will cause the bricks to crack when being
burnt.
9. Excessive amounts of air-entrainment are found to reduce the strength of concrete.
V-ing FORMS
variant I
1. Besides having a low strength due to a high water-cement ratio concrete has even a
lower strength because of poor compaction.
2. Having rather small strength, aluminum cannot be used for building structures.
3. Concrete is made by binding together particle of sand and gravel, stone or broken
brick.
4. When choosing the building materials a building engineer must consider the
conditions under which the chosen material is to operate in a built structure.
5. The value of this property is apparent in forming composite structures, laminate
and the like.
6. The tower cranes are employed for lifting building materials onto the building
being erected.
7. Cement is a binding material which hardens on drying and is used with a suitable
aggregate to form a concrete.
8. Bricks serve only as a load-bearing material.
9. Being cured under pressure in autoclaves, concrete attains its great strength in 4 or
6 hours.
10. Suitable concrete aggregates may differ widely in their properties, the differences
being as great as those between various cements.
V-ing Forms
variant II
1. Having been introduced in construction Portland cement quickly replaced lime for
making concrete.
2. “Non-fines” concrete is a concrete having fairly large voids.
3. Cutting became possible with the invention of tools.
4. Binding materials are used for making artificial stones and joining together
different materials.
5. At first the idea of making concrete by using sand was completely rejected.
6. The ancient Egyptians often erected their huge buildings without thinking of their
usefulness.
7. Strains or deformations occur in any body being subjected to external loads.
8. By enlarging the size of building elements labour costs and time were decreased.
9. From the earliest times, architects and engineers have been aware of the problems
involved in laying a building’s foundation.
10. Various materials may be used as aggregate, the most common being naturally
occurring sand and gravel.
Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения
глагола to be.
1. Automation today is an important factor of Russian chemical industrial
production. It is being introduced (внедряться) on a wide scale in all branches of
industry and agriculture as well as (также) in medicine and everyday life. 2. In
close cooperation with industry Russian scientists are developing many new types
of electronic and cybernetic devices. They are to become the basis for the solution
of a great number of economic and scientific problems. They will be reliable
helpers of engineers and scientists. 3. Chemical materials and products are of great
importance for all branches of the national economy in our country. 4. There are a
lot of test-tubes of different sizes in any chemical laboratory.
Переведите текст, обращая внимание на различные значения глагола to
be.
Physics is the science studying various phenomena in nature. Its object is to
determine exact relations between physical phenomena. Physics is divided very
naturally into two great branches, experimental and theoretical physics. The task
of the former is to make observations and carryout experiments. On the basis of
the experimental facts theoretical physics is to formulate laws and predict the
behaviour of natural phenomena. Every law is based on experiment; therefore it is
important that experiments be done very accurately. It was the study of natural
phenomena that made it possible to formulate various laws. There are still a lot of
problems to be solved. Scientists all over the world are doing their best
(прилагают все усилия) to find answers to numerous yet unknown phenomena.
Список литературы
1. С.И.
Гарагуля.
Английский
язык
для
студентов
строительных
специальностей. Ростов-на-Дону: «Феникс», 2013. -347 с.
2. О.Н. Мусихина, О.Г. Гисина, В.Л. Яськова. Английский язык для
строителей. Ростов-на-Дону: «Феникс», 2014. – 347 с.
3. В.Ф. Развадовский.
Английский язык для будущих инженеров. Гродно:
ГрГу, 2010. -124 с.
4. Е.В., Рябцева, А.А.Гвоздев, Л.В. Михеева. Архитектура и строительство.
Тамбов, ТГУ, 2004. -96 с.
5. Patcizia Caruzzo. Flash on English for Construction. Reconati, Italy, 2012. - 50 p.
Таблица времен английского глагола .
Приложение 1
Active
Passive
(действительный)
Образование
Пример
(страдательный)
Перевод
I.
Время
Образование
Пример
Перевод
INDEFINITE
V(s)
He writes
Он пишет
1. Present
To be +V(ed) (PII)
He is written
V(ed)
He wrote
Он писал
2. Past
To be +V(ed) (PII)
He was written
Shall/will V
He will write
Он будет писать
3. Future
To be +V(ing) P.I.
He is writing
Он пишет
(сейчас)
1. Present
II.
To be + V(ing) P.I.
Shall/will be +
V(ing) P.I.
He was writing
He will be writing
Shall/will + be
+V(ed) (PII)
CONTINUOUS
Он писал
(в определеный
2. Past
момент в
прошлом)
Он будет писать (в
определенный
3. Future
момент в будущем)
III.
To be + being +V
(ed) (P.II.)
To be + being +
V(ed) (P.II.)
He will be written
He is being written
He was being
written
Ему пишут
(в настоящем)
Ему написали
(в прошлом)
Ему напишут
Ему пишут
(сейчас, в данный
момент)
Ему писали
(в определенный
момент в
прошлом)
Не употребляется
P E R F EC T
Have (has)+ V(ed)
He has written
(P.II.)
Had + V(ed) (P.II.)
He had written
Shall/will + have
+ V(ed) (P.II.)
He will have
written
Он написал
(к настоящему
времени)
Он написал
(к моменту в
прошлом)
Он напишет
(к моменту в
будущем)
Have (has) +been
+ V(ed) (P.II.)
He has been
written.
2. Past
Had + been + V
(ed) (P.II.)
He had been
written.
3. Future
Shall/will + have
+ been + V(ed)
(P.II.)
He will have been
written.
1. Present
Ему написали
(к настоящему
моменту)
Ему написали
(к моменту в
прошлом)
Ему напишут
(к моменту в
будущем)