WORLD WAR I Answer the Following ?s Using Your Phones or the Textbook •What were the causes of World War I? •What countries were involved? •When was the war fought? •Where was the war fought? •What was the outcome of the war? Alliances By the early 1900s, European nations entered into alliances that laid the foundation for future problems. The two major alliances that contributed to the problems were • the Central Powers—Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria • the Allied Powers—Great Britain, France, and Russia. Timeline of WWI • In June of 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist, assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary because AustriaHungary was preventing the Serbian government from creating a large, independent Slavic state. • By July 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, which had an alliance with Russia. • By August 1914, Germany, allied with Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia and France. Germany attacked through Belgium, and Great Britain entered the war against Germany. • By January 1915, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and Germany were at war with Serbia, Russia, France, and Great Britain. Timeline of WWI • In May, 1915, Italy attacked Austria-Hungary. • In 1917, United States joins the war on the Allied side (Great Britain, France Russia). • In 1918, the armistice to end fighting in World War I was signed at 5:05 a.m. in Germany. The cease-fire went into effect at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month (11:00 a.m. Germany time, November 11, 1918). 1. Sides of the War Allies Britain France Russia Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary What Event Caused WWI? 2. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggered the onset of World War I. America’s Neutrality •The United States remained neutral as WWI progressed. •3. For three years, America remained neutral, and there was strong sentiment not to get involved in a European war. •However, it didn’t last forever. Reasons for U.S. Joining World War I • 4. America’s friendship with Great Britain • Germany's submarine warfare, especially the sinking of the RMS Lusitania, a British ship with 128 Americans aboard. • President Woodrow Wilson claimed Americans wanted to “make the world safe for democracy.” America’s Contribution to an Allied Victory 5. America’s military resources of soldiers and war materials tipped the balance of the war and led to Germany’s defeat. •War ends in 1918. Wilson’s Fourteen Points • The Fourteen Points were President Wilson’s plan to eliminate the causes of World War I. • 6. Key points: • Self-determination – each nation has its own sovereignty • Freedom of the seas – no one country controls the sea trade • League of Nations – international organization meant to prevent future wars • Mandate system – control of territories in the Middle East and Africa 7. Treaty of Versailles Ends World War I • 8. The French and English insisted on punishment of Germany. • A League of Nations was created. • National boundaries were redrawn, creating many new nations • 9. The United States refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. • As a result, the U.S. failed to join the League of Nations because of opposition in the Senate to the Treaty of Versailles. League of Nations • “A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.” • 10. International group made to guarantee political independence and protect all countries.