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Transcript
WORLD WAR I
Answer the Following ?s Using Your Phones or
the Textbook
•What were the causes of World War I?
•What countries were involved?
•When was the war fought?
•Where was the war fought?
•What was the outcome of the war?
Alliances
By the early 1900s, European nations
entered into alliances that laid the
foundation for future problems. The
two major alliances that contributed to
the problems were
• the Central Powers—Germany,
Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman
Empire, and Bulgaria
• the Allied Powers—Great Britain,
France, and Russia.
Timeline of WWI
• In June of 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist, assassinated
the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary because AustriaHungary was preventing the Serbian government from creating a
large, independent Slavic state.
• By July 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, which had an
alliance with Russia.
• By August 1914, Germany, allied with Austria-Hungary, declared war
on Russia and France. Germany attacked through Belgium, and Great
Britain entered the war against Germany.
• By January 1915, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and
Germany were at war with Serbia, Russia, France, and Great Britain.
Timeline of WWI
• In May, 1915, Italy attacked Austria-Hungary.
• In 1917, United States joins the war on the Allied side (Great
Britain, France Russia).
• In 1918, the armistice to end fighting in World War I was
signed at 5:05 a.m. in Germany. The cease-fire went into
effect at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month
(11:00 a.m. Germany time, November 11, 1918).
1. Sides of the War
Allies
Britain
France
Russia
Central Powers
Germany
Austria-Hungary
What Event Caused WWI?
2. The assassination of
Archduke Franz
Ferdinand triggered
the onset of World
War I.
America’s Neutrality
•The United States remained
neutral as WWI progressed.
•3. For three years, America
remained neutral, and there
was strong sentiment not to
get involved in a European
war.
•However, it didn’t last forever.
Reasons for U.S. Joining World War I
• 4. America’s friendship with
Great Britain
• Germany's submarine warfare,
especially the sinking of the RMS
Lusitania, a British ship with 128
Americans aboard.
• President Woodrow Wilson
claimed Americans wanted to
“make the world safe for
democracy.”
America’s Contribution to an Allied Victory
5. America’s military resources
of soldiers and war materials
tipped the balance of the war
and led to Germany’s defeat.
•War ends in 1918.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
• The Fourteen Points were President Wilson’s plan to
eliminate the causes of World War I.
• 6. Key points:
• Self-determination – each nation has its own sovereignty
• Freedom of the seas – no one country controls the sea trade
• League of Nations – international organization meant to
prevent future wars
• Mandate system – control of territories in the Middle East and
Africa
7. Treaty of Versailles Ends World War I
• 8. The French and English insisted on punishment of
Germany.
• A League of Nations was created.
• National boundaries were redrawn, creating many new
nations
• 9. The United States refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.
• As a result, the U.S. failed to join the League of Nations because of
opposition in the Senate to the Treaty of Versailles.
League of Nations
• “A general association of nations must
be formed under specific covenants
for the purpose of affording mutual
guarantees of political independence
and territorial integrity to great and
small states alike.”
• 10. International group made to
guarantee political independence and
protect all countries.