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Transcript
Human Biotechnology
Human Biotechnology
• is about you and me, not
about other creatures on
Earth
•could a perfect person
be in the near future
Human Biotechnology
• we are not sure if we want
one, or if we do, what
traits we would want
The Human Organism
• humans are similar to
other animals, but major
differences
• scientific name of human
= Homo Sapiens
The Human Organism
• first Homo Sapiens on
earth- 300,000 to
400,000years ago
• each body cell of a human
has 46 chromosomes
The Human Organism
• human consists of cells,
tissue, organs, organ
systems
• humans are primates (180
species of animals are
primates), but still quite
different
The Human Organism
• organ systems do a lot of
work (e.g. the heart - at
age of 70 it has pumped
46 million gallons)
The Human Organism
• heart failure is leading
cause of the human death
• skeleton protects the
internal organs
The Human Organism
• ligaments are tissues that
hold the skeleton together
• skin covers the body and
maintains the body
temperature
The Human Organism
• nerve endings in skin
sense pain, cold, heat…
• brain provides response to
these conditions
The Human Organism
• muscles provide
movement
• cells must have nutrients
to correctly function
The Human Organism
• digestive system breaks food
into useful substances
• respiratory system provides
oxygen to the body and rids
it of carbon dioxide
The Human Organism
• gas exchange with the
blood occurs in the lungs
The Human Organism
• circulatory system (heart,
blood vessels) carries
oxygen from the lungs for
the cells and brings
wastes to the lungs and
kidneys
The Human Organism
• urinary system removes
certain wastes from blood
and flushes them from the
body
The Human Organism
• wastes move to urinary
bladder and is squeezed
from the body through the
urethra
• reproductive systems vary
with gender
The Human Organism
•mammary system
develops in females
(milk for babies)
Life Process
• includes growth and
repair, obtaining food and
nutrients, circulation,
respiration, secretion,
sensation movement, and
elimination
Life Process
• reproduction - human
continues as new
generations
Life Process
•humans have high
developed brain and
gives us the abilities to
speak, to reason, to
create technology
Life Process
• to stand up right, to walk
on two legs distinguish us
from the primates
• humans live longer and
develop slower
Human Development
• is the progressive
maturation of an individual
from birth until death
• culture consists of the
ways individuals have
developed to go about life
Human Development
• characteristics are
transmitted from one to
another generation
Developmental Stages
• combination of biological
and cultural advancement
has several developmental
stages
Developmental Stages
• common stages are:
-Infancy
-Preschool
-Child Years
-Teenage Years
-Adulthood
Biotech Supports
Development
• used to promote health
• ethical decisions are
involved
• people vary about the
view of biotech
Human Genomics
• is all of the genes that
comprise the genetic
makeup of humans
• is the total genetic
composition of humans
Human Genomics
• efforts are now underway
to identify all genomes
• will allow isolation,
treatment, replacement of
defective ones
Human Genome Project
• (HGP) is an international
effort of involving
scientists, educators,
students in locating and
identifying every human
gene
Human Genome Project
• HGP
• large task
• will provide insight into
evolution
4 Approaches
• Genetic Mapping
• Physical Mapping
• Sequencing
• Analyzing genomes of
other species
4 Approaches to HGP
• Genetic Mapping
• Physical Mapping
• Sequencing
• Analyzing genomes of
other species
Background
• Human Genome
Organization (HUGO) is an
international group that
coordinates HGP
• formed in 1988
Background
• Canada, Italy, France, UK,
USA are active
• efforts with mice, bacteria,
plants
Background
• 3 bacterial genomes have
been completed
• progress has been more
rapid than expected
• widespread use of HGP
information in 2010
Findings
• human organism has
about 100,000 genes
• has 23 pairs of
chromosomes - 22
autosomal chromosome
pairs and 1 sex
chromosome pair ( YY or
Findings
• more than 3 billion base
pairs in haploid genome
• an autosome is a
chromosome that is not
sex chromosome
Findings
• physical maps show
locations of and distances
between genes and DNA
fragments
Findings
• genetic linkage map
shows the relative
arrangement and distance
between genes
• then DNA gets sequenced
Helping Humans live
better
• scientist have been
manipulating genes at the
molecular level
• these efforts improve
human well being
Helping Humans live
better
• down’s syndrome is a
disease in which a baby is
born with an extra
chromosome
Helping Humans live
better
• 1 in 600- 800 babies is
born with it
• having a baby with down
syndrome increase with
the mother’s age
Helping Humans Live
Better
•small head, enlarged
tongue, eyes that slant
upward
•many die within year
•no treatments available
Gene Therapy
• is the transfer of genes to
a human organism
• make up of a human is
altered
Gene Therapy
• procedure is controversial
• once therapy is done, the
human is a GMO
(genetically modified
organism)
Vaccine
• help the body to recognize
and fight disease
• use weakened or killed
germs for a virus to
introduce antigen proteins
attached to a virus
Vaccine
• body builds resistance
• vaccine for hepatitis is
made by inserting the
gene responsible for this
antigen into yeast cells
Vaccine
• each yeast cell makes a
copy of itself and the
antigen gene
• antigen is later purified
Vaccine
• when injected into the
body, antigen stimulates
the production of
antibodies that combat
hepatitis
Prosthetics
• is the use of artificial parts
of the human body
• includes the study and use
of mechanical devises to
replace or supplement
natural human parts
Prosthetics
• that includes joint
replacements, heart
peacemakers, intraocular
lenses
Prosthetics
• a dialysis machine is a
kind of prosthesis that
performs functions normal
kidneys would do in
removing wastes from
blood
Prosthetics
• biocompatibility implanted devices must be
mechanically fit for the
purpose and not rejected
by the body
Prosthetics
• externally used devices
must provide the
appropriate mechanical
action and support
Prosthetics
• carpal tunnel syndrome is
a condition that develops
when people do the same
activities over and over
• mechanical devices are
used to promote healing
Diagnostics
• is the identification of a
human health problem or
other conditions
• knowing the approach to
use in treating disease
requires accurate
diagnosis of condition
Genomics and
Computers
• diagnosis relies on human
genetic information
• computer databases are
being used in diagnostics
• help matching genes with
health conditions
Microdissection and
Molecular Analysis
• Microdissection is a
method of obtaining pure
cells from diseased
sections of tissue
Microdissection and
Molecular Analysis
•is often used to test for
precancerous cells or
invading cancer cells
Microdissection and
Molecular Analysis
•molecular analysis can
be used to study the
cells for evidence of
disease
Microdissection and
Molecular Analysis
• allows comparison with
diseased DNA stored in
microdissected libraries or
bulk tissue libraries