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OBJECTIVE: Trace the development and assess the achievements of early
river civilizations, including but not limited to those around the Huang-He,
Nile, Indus, and Tigris-Euphrates rivers.
Sea traders;
established port
cities; Carthage
Phoenician alphabet
– 22 letters to
represent sounds
Monotheism – belief in one all-powerful God,
Yahweh; Judaism
Abraham – left Ur, 1900 B.C., made covenant
with Yahweh- the promised land
Moses – 1200s, led people in exodus –
 Passover – festival celebrating Israelite Exodus
from Egypt
Renewed covenant with God – Ten
David fought Goliath on Saul’s behalf & took
Divided kingdom – Israel & Judah
Assyrians – 722 B.C., scattered 10 northern tribes
(“lost tribes’)
Chaldeans – 586 B.C., carried off two southern
tribes – Babylonian Exile
Torah – 400 B.C., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus,
Numbers, Deuteronomy
Diaspora – “scattered,” Jewish people living
outside homeland
Hittites – 1st Indo-Europeans to make use of
iron; used chariots
Exploited use of iron
Most lethal fighting force in the Middle East
Units of soldiers, charioteers, & cavalry
Used terror as an instrument of warfare
Ashurbanipal – king; one of world’s first
libraries at Nineveh
King Nebuchadnezzar – greatest ruler, 605 –
562 B.C.
Rebuilt Babylon – hanging gardens, one of
Seven Wonders
Cyrus II – conquered Chaldeans, 539 B.C.;
allowed Jews to return
Darius I – best organizer, 522 – 486 B.C.
 Satraps – provincial governors
 Expanded network of roads – Royal Road