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Chapter 10 The Byzantine World, 284−1240
Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Which of the following doctrines best states Arius's beliefs?
A) Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one.
B) The bishop of Rome has the authority over the church.
C) God created Christ out of nothing.
D) The Blessed Trinity is composed of three coequal persons.
2) Whose beliefs were branded as heresy?
A) Justinian's
B) Constantine's
C) Arius'
D) Theodosius'
3) Which of these set the model for imperial leadership in spiritual as well as secular affairs?
A) the Council of Nicaea
B) the Great Schism
C) the iconoclast controversy
D) the Arian heresy
4) Which people were called "equal of the Apostles"?
A) Romans
B) bishops of the western church
C) popes
D) Byzantine emperors
5) Which of the following was NOT one of the four patriarchs?
A) Patriarch of Constantinople
B) Patriarch of Antioch
C) Patriarch of Alexandria
D) Patriarch of Rome
6) Which of the following statements concerning the Nicene Creed is NOT true?
A) Constantine presided over the council that drafted the creed.
B) It says that God created Jesus; therefore God is superior to Jesus.
C) It is still recited today by some Christian denominations.
D) It says that Christ is "of the same being" as God.
7) Which man intervened in the Council of Nicaea?
A) Justinian
B) Justin
C) Constantine
D) Vladimir
8) Which of the following statements best describes the Byzantine concept of caesaropapism?
A) The leader of a country should serve as the political and religious authority.
B) Religion and politics should be discussed only by men.
C) There should be a strict separation of church and state.
D) Church doctrine is best developed by the state.
9) Which man proclaimed Christianity to be the official religion of the Roman Empire?
A) Justinian
B) Justin
C) Theodosius
D) Constantine
10) Bishops in the west were similar to __________ in the east.
A) kings
B) popes
C) patriarchs
D) preachers
11) Which of the following accurately describes attitudes concerning religion and politics in the
Byzantine Empire?
A) The emperor had both secular and religious authority.
B) The emperor should stay out of religious matters.
C) The emperor ruled as a secular leader and advised as a spiritual leader.
D) The emperor must avoid religious conflict at all costs.
12) Which of the following concepts was NOT accepted in the Byzantine Empire?
A) the Trinity
B) the equality of patriarchs
C) the divine right of kings
D) the separation of church and state
13) Like the Byzantine Empire, the Sasanians were weakened by which of these in the 300s?
A) religious controversy
B) waves of plague
C) conflict on two frontiers
D) Arab attacks
14) Which of these was the greatest challenge to the Byzantine Empire from the east?
A) Lombards
B) Visigoths
C) Persia
D) Huns
15) Which man tried to revive paganism in the Byzantine Empire?
A) Justinian
B) Julian
C) Constantine
D) Theodora
16) Under Justinian, what was the relationship between the eastern and western Roman empires?
A) Reunification was still conceivable.
B) Most of the ties between the two empires were still intact.
C) The two halves were distinct and not capable of reunification.
D) Justinian was successful in temporarily joining the two under his rule.
17) Which of the following statements about Empress Theodora is NOT true?
A) She was married to Justinian.
B) She was a strip-tease dancer.
C) She was the daughter of a circus acrobat.
D) She was crowned empress, but had little involvement in government.
18) What advice did Theodora offer Justinian regarding the revolt of 532?
A) Flee the city to avoid overthrow.
B) Crush the rebels with brute force.
C) Convert to Judaism and ally with Rome.
D) Stay in Constantinople regardless of the threat.
19) Which of the following statements about Justinian's Code is NOT true?
A) It serves as the foundation of the modern legal systems of many western nations.
B) It was open to revision as necessary.
C) It codified and preserved Roman law.
D) It made Roman law the most influential legal system in history.
20) Which of the following should NOT be attributed to Justinian?
A) the building of the Basilica of Saint Sophia
B) the codification of Roman law
C) the adoption of Arian Christianity
D) the attempted reunification of the Roman Empire
21) Which people overran the Western Roman Empire?
A) the Byzantines
B) the Greeks
C) the Germans
D) the Turks
22) How did Justinian differ from his successors?
A) He tried to unify the Old Roman Empire; they didn't.
B) He spoke Greek; they spoke Latin.
C) He was Christian; they were pagan.
D) He was Jewish; they were Christian.
23) Which language became dominant in the Byzantine Empire?
A) Latin
B) Russian
C) Arabic
D) Greek
24) In what respect was Justinian the last Roman emperor?
A) He was the last pagan eastern emperor.
B) He was the last eastern emperor to speak Latin.
C) He abandoned reunification with Rome.
D) He made Greek the official language of the Byzantine Empire.
25) What brought the end of efforts to reunite the eastern and western Roman Empires?
A) the arrival of the Visigoths in Rome
B) the Council of Nicaea
C) the death of Justinian
D) the Great Schism
26) Which of the following statements accurately describes social life for Byzantine peasants?
A) Social life centered on religious services, holidays, and family celebrations.
B) Social life centered on commerce and politics.
C) Social life centered on drama and debate, much like life in ancient Athens.
D) Social life centered on art and literature.
27) What were the hippodromes?
A) Greek plays adopted by Byzantine tragedians
B) outdoor arenas used for athletic competitions
C) aqueducts used by the Romans
D) young male spectators who were either "Blues" or "Greens"
28) Why did the Byzantine Empire experience a population decline in the 600s and 700s?
A) war with the Visigoths
B) Bubonic Plague
C) attacks by Attila
D) renewed war with the Ostrogoths
29) Which of these advanced as far as the gates of Constantinople in the 620s?
A) the Sasanian emperor
B) the Visigoths
C) Arab Muslims
D) the Mongols
30) What was the result of the Muslim attacks in the 670s?
A) Constantinople was taken.
B) The attacks were driven back to Syria.
C) The Byzantine Empire lost significant territory.
D) The Byzantine Empire destroyed the Arab armies.
31) Which of the following statements about Heraclius is NOT true?
A) He fought and defeated the Persians.
B) He was a devout Christian.
C) He was the last Byzantine emperor.
D) He was considered a tenacious warrior.
32) How did the lives of Byzantine women change after invasions by Muslims?
A) Their activities were much more restricted.
B) Their status was actually elevated.
C) They were no longer expected to remain at home.
D) They enjoyed prominence in politics.
33) Which group of Christians believed that Jesus was actually two persons, one human and one
A) Arians
B) Monophysites
C) Nestorians
D) Catholics
34) Which group of Christians believed that Jesus was purely divine?
A) Arians
B) Monophysites
C) Nestorians
D) Catholics
35) What is iconoclasm?
A) the worship of idols
B) the creation of icons
C) a banning of icons
D) the breaking of images
36) What compelled the wave of iconoclasm in the 720s?
A) the Bubonic Plague
B) Muslim attacks
C) famine
D) the death of the emperor
37) Which of these issues was no longer an issue in the Byzantine Empire by 700?
A) the use of icons
B) the spiritual role of the emperor
C) the nature of Christ
D) the claims of the Roman church leaders
38) Which of these describe the impact of the Great Schism in 1054?
A) It made official a longstanding situation.
B) It was repudiated by the popes.
C) It was rejected by the patriarch of Constantinople.
D) It came as a surprise to most Byzantine clergy.
39) Which of the following occurred at the battle at Manzikert?
A) The Seljuk armies were soundly defeated.
B) The Turks were victorious.
C) Alp Arslan defeated Turkish troops.
D) The Persians were defeated.
40) What was the major threat to Byzantium in the late 900s?
A) Persia
B) Bulgaria
C) Seljuk Turks
D) Arab Muslims
41) Which of these typify the Byzantine Empire in the eleventh century?
A) One emperor rapidly replaced another.
B) A long period of stability occurred.
C) Political stability was accompanied by recurrences of the plague.
D) The Empire was conquered by Turks.
42) As the Turks prepared to conquer the Byzantine Empire, they planned to take advantage of
the conflict between Armenia and Byzantium. What was the root cause of this conflict?
A) racial differences
B) political differences
C) a failed marriage between an Armenian princess and the Byzantine emperor
D) religious differences
43) Which group of people completed the Islamic conquest of West Asia?
A) the Seljuks
B) the Fatimids
C) the Kiev Russians
D) the Ottoman Turks
44) Which of the following statements concerning Russian geography is NOT true?
A) Russia was landlocked throughout most of its history.
B) Northern Russia is covered with treeless plains called steppes.
C) Russia is the most frigid, heavily populated land in the world.
D) Central Asian Russia suffers from inadequate moisture.
45) Which of the following statements about the Khazars is NOT true?
A) They abandoned their nomadic heritage and built large towns.
B) They tolerated paganism and Christianity.
C) They created a professional, paid army.
D) They adopted Islam, but remained tolerant of other religions.
46) About when was the first Russian state established?
A) 900 C.E.
B) 1200 C.E.
C) 200 C.E.
D) 300 B.C.E.
47) Kiev's most glorious era began under the leadership of
A) Oleg.
B) Vladimir.
C) Iaroslav.
D) Monomakh.
48) Which religion was adopted by Vladimir?
A) Judaism
B) Orthodox Christianity
C) Islam
D) Roman Catholicism
49) Which of these tied the Kievan Rus to Byzantium in the 980s?
A) alliance against the Pechenegs
B) Byzantine defeat of Kiev
C) ties of marriage and religion
D) commercial alliance
50) Which of these ruled Kiev at the height of its power?
A) Vladimir
B) Iaroslav the Wise
C) Prince Igor
D) Sviatoslav
51) Which of the following did NOT contribute to the collapse of Kiev?
A) the Polovtsy occupation of the south
B) social and political unrest caused by the plight of the peasants
C) the death of Prince Igor
D) attacks by the Mongols
52) Who were the Polovtsy?
A) invaders from the steppes
B) inhabitants of Kiev
C) descendents of Iaroslav
D) members of the aristocracy
53) What was the advantage of the three-field system?
A) crop variety
B) enhanced soil fertility
C) decreased need for irrigation
D) resurgence in grain cultivation
54) The boyar class was made up of
A) peasants.
B) commoners.
C) aristocrats.
D) farmers.
55) Why did Kievan commerce decline in the eleventh century?
A) Ties to southern trading regions were severed.
B) Civil war disrupted trade.
C) Mongol invasions destroyed caravan routes.
D) Alliance with the Roman church brought a schism with Constantinople.
56) Why was the Dnieper so important to Kiev?
A) It was a defense against the Pechenegs.
B) It connected Kiev with the Baltic Sea.
C) It connected the city to long-distance trade.
D) It was a direct route to Constantinople.
True/False Questions
1) Herakleios led the Byzantines in defeating the Persians.
2) The mortality rate from the bubonic plague was 50 percent.
3) The Council of Nicaea upheld the teachings of Arius.
4) Caesaropapism preserved the separation of church and state.
5) Julian tried to revive paganism and reverse the trend toward Christianity.
6) Sviatoslav waged war against Bulgaria, the Khazars, and the Pechenegs.
7) Russian Christians rejected Byzantine doctrine.
8) Kiev was the sole Russian realm that was never conquered by the Mongols.
9) Justinian's Code made Byzantine law inflexible.
10) Justinian tried to reunite the eastern and western Roman empires.