Biology - 253 Unit 1B Biochemistry Topics: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Nature of Matter Properties of Water Carbon Compounds and Reactions Parts of a Food Chain Key Terms: 1.1 atom nucleus electron element isotope compound ionic bond ion covalent bond molecule solution solute solvent suspension pH scale acid base buffer nucleotide protein amino acid chemical reaction reactant product activation energy catalyst enzyme substrate chemosynthesis heterotroph consumer carnivore herbivore scavenger omnivore decomposer detritivore Key Terms: 1.2 hydrogen bond cohesion adhesion mixture Key Terms: 1.3 monomer polymer carbohydrate monosaccharide lipid nucleic acid Key Terms: 1.4 food chain trophic level autotroph producer photosynthesis Bio-253/Unit 1 Outline/Biochemistry (08/14) Supplementary Questions Section 1.1 Nature of Matter 1. Which particles of an atom make up the nucleus? 2. Why do all isotopes of the same atom have similar characteristics? 3. Write the correct isotope notation for: a. an atom with 12 protons and 13 neutrons. b. an ion with 7 protons, 8 neutrons, and 10 electrons. 4. How does and element differ from a compound? 5. Compare and contrast an ionic bond and a covalent bond. Section 1.2 Properties of Water 1. What does it mean when a molecule is said to be polar? 2. What is a hydrogen bond? 3. Describe some properties of water? 4. Why does water make a good solvent? 5. How does a mixture differ from a compound? 6. How does an acid differ from a base? Section 1.3 Carbon Compounds and Reactions 1. What properties of carbon explain carbon’s ability to form different large and complex structures? 2. Describe at least one function of each group of organic compounds? 3. Why are proteins considered polymers but lipids are not? 4. What are the components of a nucleotide? 5. How does an enzyme affect a chemical reaction? Section 1.4 Parts of a Food Chain 1. What are the two primary sources of energy that power living systems? 2. Explain how consumers obtain energy? 3. Describe how energy flows in a “one-way stream” through an ecosystem? 4. On average, what proportion of the energy in an ecosystem is transferred from one trophic level to the next? Where does the rest of the energy go? 5. Draw an energy pyramid for a five-step food chain. If 100 percent of the energy is available for the first trophic level, what percentage of that energy is available at the highest trophic level?