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Federalists Anti-Federalist Two political groups in the USA 1. Lived in urban areas 1. Lived in rural areas 2. Lived in northern 2. Lived in southern states states 3. Believed that the 3. Believed that the power of the country power of the country should exist in should exist within Washington, D.C. each state (President & Congress) 4. Industrial Occupations (strong governor) 4. Agricultural Occupations 5. Believed in a strong 5. Frightened by a federal government strong federal government 6. Believed the federal 6. Supported the right government should of each state to make a decision on decide on the issue the issue of slavery of slavery (Slavery is evil) (Slavery is a state decision) Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions (birth of states’rights) In 1798, Congress passed a tariff (tax) called the Tariff of 1798. Money was collected for the federal government. This tariff was very unpopular in the southern states. Most southerners did not support a strong federal government. In particular, Kentucky was against this tariff. Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, wrote a paper in protest of the Tariff of 1798. Jefferson called it the Kentucky Resolutions. Jefferson was a strong supporter of states’ rights. Jefferson argued that if a state had the right to secede (leave the Union) if a disagreement was too severe. Thomas Jefferson Declaration of Independence Each state was sent a copy of the Kentucky Resolutions. Jefferson asked for other states to support Kentucky’s protest. One state agreed with Kentucky. It was Virginia. James Madison, Father of the Constitution, wrote a paper word for word in support of Jefferson. Madison called his paper, The Virginia Resolutions. James Madison: Father of the Constitution Both leaders agreed that states’ rights were most important. Both Jefferson & Madison agreed that a state could secede if a situation became too severe with the federal government. Southerners had it in their minds that states’ rights were most important and the idea of secession was born. Part II Nullification Crisis of 1832 The federal government created a new tax called the Tariff of 1832. Again, this was a very unpopular tax in the southern states particularly in South Carolina. The people of South Carolina decided not to pay the tax. They declared the Tariff of 1832 to be nullified. (not existing) South Carolina also indicated that if forced to pay the tax it would secede from the Union. President Andrew Jackson was shocked a state would challenge his authority. If South Carolina seceded, then other southern states would start to secede. It would be like dominos falling. One state seceding after another. Biography of Andrew Jackson Born in South Carolina Older brother killed by British troops in the Revolutionary War At age 13, he refused to shine the boots of a British officer and took a sabre slash across his face Sent to a prisoner of war camp with his other brother, that dies while a prisoner of the British 1796: elected to the House of Representatives 1797: appointed to the Senate Led the U.S. military at the Battle of New Orleans in War of 1812 Elected President (Rachel story) The Nullification Crisis of 1832 occurs while he was President Jackson’s solution 1. President Jackson gave a very tough response to South Carolina intended to scare other neighboring southern states. Jackson wanted to intimidate the other states so they would not think of joining South Carolina. He didn’t want the dominos to start falling one at a time. Jackson threatened to personally lead the U.S. Army into South Carolina and hang anyone talking of secession from the nearest tree. And, he said he was bringing extra trees in case he ran out. 2. He wrote a letter to the South Carolina legislature promising to remove the tax within six months if talk of secession ended immediately. Conclusions: South Carolina did not secede in 1832. The tax was nullified by Jackson within six months as promised. The people of South Carolina trusted Jackson because he was a southerner born in South Carolina. But, the people remained angry and lacked trust in the federal government. Secession was becoming an option for southern states.