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Two political groups in the USA
1. Lived in urban
1. Lived in rural
2. Lived in northern 2. Lived in southern
3. Believed that the 3. Believed that the
power of the country
power of the country
should exist in
should exist within
Washington, D.C.
each state
(President & Congress)
4. Industrial
(strong governor)
4. Agricultural
5. Believed in a strong 5. Frightened by a
federal government
strong federal government
6. Believed the federal 6. Supported the right
government should
of each state to
make a decision on
decide on the issue
the issue of slavery
of slavery
(Slavery is evil)
(Slavery is a state decision)
Kentucky &
Virginia Resolutions
(birth of states’rights)
In 1798, Congress passed a
tariff (tax) called the Tariff of
1798. Money was collected for
the federal government. This
tariff was very unpopular in
the southern states. Most
southerners did not support a
strong federal government. In
particular, Kentucky was
against this tariff.
Thomas Jefferson, author of
the Declaration of
Independence, wrote a paper in
protest of the Tariff of 1798.
Jefferson called it the Kentucky
Resolutions. Jefferson was a
strong supporter of states’
rights. Jefferson argued that if
a state had the right to secede
(leave the Union) if a
disagreement was too severe.
Thomas Jefferson
Declaration of Independence
Each state was sent a copy of
the Kentucky Resolutions.
Jefferson asked for other states
to support Kentucky’s protest.
One state agreed with
Kentucky. It was Virginia.
James Madison, Father of the
Constitution, wrote a paper
word for word in support of
Jefferson. Madison called his
paper, The Virginia
James Madison: Father of the Constitution
Both leaders agreed that
states’ rights were most
important. Both Jefferson &
Madison agreed that a state
could secede if a situation
became too severe with the
federal government.
Southerners had it in their
minds that states’ rights were
most important and the idea of
secession was born.
Part II
Nullification Crisis of 1832
The federal government
created a new tax called the
Tariff of 1832. Again, this was
a very unpopular tax in the
southern states particularly in
South Carolina.
The people of South Carolina
decided not to pay the tax.
They declared the Tariff of
1832 to be nullified. (not
existing) South Carolina also
indicated that if forced to pay
the tax it would secede from the
President Andrew Jackson was
shocked a state would challenge
his authority.
If South Carolina seceded, then
other southern states would
start to secede. It would be like
dominos falling. One state
seceding after another.
Biography of Andrew Jackson
 Born in South Carolina
 Older brother killed by British
troops in the Revolutionary
 At age 13, he refused to shine
the boots of a British officer
and took a sabre slash across
his face
 Sent to a prisoner of war camp
with his other brother, that
dies while a prisoner of the
 1796: elected to the House of
 1797: appointed to the Senate
 Led the U.S. military at the
Battle of New Orleans in War
of 1812
 Elected President
(Rachel story)
 The Nullification Crisis of
1832 occurs while he was
Jackson’s solution
1. President Jackson gave a
very tough response to
South Carolina intended to
scare other neighboring
southern states.
Jackson wanted to
intimidate the other states
so they would not think of
joining South Carolina. He
didn’t want the dominos to
start falling one at a time.
Jackson threatened to
personally lead the U.S.
Army into South Carolina
and hang anyone talking of
secession from the nearest
tree. And, he said he was
bringing extra trees in case
he ran out.
2. He wrote a letter to the
South Carolina legislature
promising to remove the tax
within six months if talk of
secession ended
South Carolina did not secede
in 1832. The tax was nullified
by Jackson within six months
as promised. The people of
South Carolina trusted Jackson
because he was a southerner
born in South Carolina. But,
the people remained angry and
lacked trust in the federal
government. Secession was
becoming an option for
southern states.