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Chapter Four
The Notation of Musical Sounds:
Rhythm
Rhythm and Beat
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Rhythm and Beat are not the same.
Rhythm: the force that generates, controls, and
organized movement and time relationships
Beat: regularly recurring pulse that measures
the duration of musical events. Through the use
of accents, beats can be organized into different
groupings.
Accent: Stress that helps organize beat
Every piece of music will have many beats
……………………………………………………………
Usually, the are organized into a series of
strong and weak beats
>.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >..
>.>. >.>. >.>. >.>. >.>. >.>. >.>. >.>.
Meter
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Groupings of beats with regularly recurring
accents
Groupings of two pulses are duple meter.
Groupings of three pulses are triple meter
Each grouping of beats with a regularly recurring
accent is organized in written music as a
measure or bar. Measures are divided with bar
lines.
Note Names and Values
Rest Names and Values
Anatomy of a Note
Beams
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Used instead of having many notes with
flags
Beamed notes do not have to have the
same rhythmic value
Notes must be grouped into the beat unit
Meter Classification
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
Meters are classified by the number of
beats per measure and if they are simple
or compound
Number of beats will be expressed as:
duple, triple, quadruple, quintuple,
sextuple, septuple, etc.
Tempo
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Pace at which the beat moves
Andante: slow, walking tempo
Moderato: moderate speed
Allegro: rapidly
Durational Dots
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A dot added to the right of the notehead
will increase the value of the note by half.
Dots are always placed in the space –
even if the note is on a line.
Adding a second dot will increase the
value of the original note by one quarter.
Dots can be added to rests as well as
notes.
Tie


A tie is a curved line that connects two
noteheads of the same pitch and is used
to indicate the note values are to be
added together.
Using a tie, a note value of any duration
can be written.
Meter Signature
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
Placed at the beginning of a piece of
music
The top number indicates the number of
beats in a measure.
The bottom number indicates the beat
unit.
Simple Meter

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
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The beat unit is divided into two regular division.
Simple meter signatures can have any number
on top with the exception of numbers that are 6
or greater and divisible by three.
The top number is the number of beats per
measure.
The bottom number is the beat unit.
Compound Meter


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
The beat unit is divided into three regular division.
Compound meter signature have top numbers that are
six or greater AND divisible by three.
The top number is the number of divisions of the beat in
one measure. (To determine the number of beats per
measure, divide the top number by three.)
The bottom number is the division of the beat unit. Since
the beat unit is divided into three regular divisions,
“adding” three of the bottom notes will yield the beat
unit. (e.g. If the bottom note is 8, the division of the
beat unit is the 8th note. Three eighth notes added
together will yield a dotted quarter note.)
The beat unit in compound meter will always be dotted.
Borrowed Meter



When a beat unit that is normally divided
into two is divided into three OR when the
beat unit that is normally divided into
three is divided into two – TEMPORARILY
In simple meter, a triplet would be
borrowed.
In compound time, a duplet would be
borrowed.
Beaming



Beams are used instead of having many
notes with flags.
Beamed notes do not have the same
rhythmic value.
NOTES MUST BE GROUPED ACCORDING
TO THE BEAT UNIT.
Anacrusis


Upbeat or pickup
Beats or parts of beats that occur before
the first bar line.
Metronome

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A devise used to measure tempo.
Invented by a friend of Beethoven –
Maelzel – in 1816.