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Chapter Four The Notation of Musical Sounds: Rhythm Rhythm and Beat Rhythm and Beat are not the same. Rhythm: the force that generates, controls, and organized movement and time relationships Beat: regularly recurring pulse that measures the duration of musical events. Through the use of accents, beats can be organized into different groupings. Accent: Stress that helps organize beat Every piece of music will have many beats …………………………………………………………… Usually, the are organized into a series of strong and weak beats >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.. >.>. >.>. >.>. >.>. >.>. >.>. >.>. >.>. Meter Groupings of beats with regularly recurring accents Groupings of two pulses are duple meter. Groupings of three pulses are triple meter Each grouping of beats with a regularly recurring accent is organized in written music as a measure or bar. Measures are divided with bar lines. Note Names and Values Rest Names and Values Anatomy of a Note Beams Used instead of having many notes with flags Beamed notes do not have to have the same rhythmic value Notes must be grouped into the beat unit Meter Classification Meters are classified by the number of beats per measure and if they are simple or compound Number of beats will be expressed as: duple, triple, quadruple, quintuple, sextuple, septuple, etc. Tempo Pace at which the beat moves Andante: slow, walking tempo Moderato: moderate speed Allegro: rapidly Durational Dots A dot added to the right of the notehead will increase the value of the note by half. Dots are always placed in the space – even if the note is on a line. Adding a second dot will increase the value of the original note by one quarter. Dots can be added to rests as well as notes. Tie A tie is a curved line that connects two noteheads of the same pitch and is used to indicate the note values are to be added together. Using a tie, a note value of any duration can be written. Meter Signature Placed at the beginning of a piece of music The top number indicates the number of beats in a measure. The bottom number indicates the beat unit. Simple Meter The beat unit is divided into two regular division. Simple meter signatures can have any number on top with the exception of numbers that are 6 or greater and divisible by three. The top number is the number of beats per measure. The bottom number is the beat unit. Compound Meter The beat unit is divided into three regular division. Compound meter signature have top numbers that are six or greater AND divisible by three. The top number is the number of divisions of the beat in one measure. (To determine the number of beats per measure, divide the top number by three.) The bottom number is the division of the beat unit. Since the beat unit is divided into three regular divisions, “adding” three of the bottom notes will yield the beat unit. (e.g. If the bottom note is 8, the division of the beat unit is the 8th note. Three eighth notes added together will yield a dotted quarter note.) The beat unit in compound meter will always be dotted. Borrowed Meter When a beat unit that is normally divided into two is divided into three OR when the beat unit that is normally divided into three is divided into two – TEMPORARILY In simple meter, a triplet would be borrowed. In compound time, a duplet would be borrowed. Beaming Beams are used instead of having many notes with flags. Beamed notes do not have the same rhythmic value. NOTES MUST BE GROUPED ACCORDING TO THE BEAT UNIT. Anacrusis Upbeat or pickup Beats or parts of beats that occur before the first bar line. Metronome A devise used to measure tempo. Invented by a friend of Beethoven – Maelzel – in 1816.