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Transcript
Name: ___________________________ Period: _______ Date: ________
Chapter 9 Section 3 THE FALL OF ROME
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___________________: Emperor of Rome from A.D. 312 to 337; strongly encouraged the spread of Christianity
Constantine saw a ____________ in the sky while waiting for battle.
Another legend says that Constantine had a _________ and then he had his soldiers’ shields marked with a
Christian symbol.
 Constantine vowed to become a ____________________.
1. From Good Rule to Bad
 The ____________ ____________ provided comfort and authority at a time when the mighty Roman Empire
was close to collapse.
 By the time _________________ took power, he could do little to stop the empire’s fall
 The trouble had started _____ years ago when Marcus Aurelius died and left his son _______________ in power
 Commodus stood by as others worked to _____________________ the power and prestige of the senate
 Commodus did not seek approval from the _____________ before he acted; instead he kept power by bribing the
army to support him.
2. The Empire Crumbles
 The decline of the Roman Empire began under ____________________
 __________________ problems led to the fall of Rome
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A. Weak, Corrupt Rulers
After Commodus, emperors were former successful generals who:
o Stole money from the ____________
o Used _________________ to enrich themselves
o Paid for the __________________ of their soldiers
Government and economy became ______________, and the senate ________________ power
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B. Mercenary Army
The army was filled with ___________________
o ______________: A soldier who serves for pay in a foreign army
Mercenaries were motivated by ____________, not by _______________ to any cause
They often _________________ sides if it was to their personal advantage
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C. The Size of the Empire
The Roman Empire had grown too ________________
__________________ launched attacks all over the empire
The Roman army spent its time ___________________ the empire instead of extending its authority
As a result, the empire ____________________
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D. Serious Economic Problems
When Rome stopped conquering new lands, new sources of _________________ were no longer available
The empire struggled to pay for its _________________
To raise money, the government raised __________________
The people of the empire suffered severe ____________________
Food was ______________, so prices went up
To pay for food, the government produced more ________________
o The value of those ___________ was dependent upon the amount of ________________ in them
o But because the government did not have much, _____________ of this metal was put in each coin
o This resulted in __________________
 _________: An economic situation in which the government issues more money with lower value
When inflation is not controlled, money buys _______ and ________
Roman coins soon became ____________
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E. Efforts to Stop the Decline
Some _______________ tried to stop the empire’s decline by working to strengthen Rome
Diocletian:
o Enlarged the ____________
o Built new ____________ at the borders
o Improved the ______________ system
o Divided the empire into ____ parts to make it easier to ___________
Constantine and Christianity
For ______ years after A.D. 305, there was a struggle for power between generals
Constantine became the sole ruler of the Roman Empire in the ___________
Licinius and Maximinus became joint rulers of the Roman Empire in the ______________
A. Freedom of Religion
Under emperors in the past, __________________ had been tortured and punished for their beliefs
Under the rule of Constantine and Licinius, they proclaimed ____________ of ___________ for people across
the empire
Now Rome no longer persecuted the Christians, so they were free to:
o Practice their _______________ openly
o Organize ______________
o Get ____________________ back that was taken from them
Christianity soon became the official ________________ of the Roman Empire
B. Another Christian Victory
Constantine became emperor of both the East and West parts of the Roman Empire after winning several battles
against _______________
________________ ended the last of the persecutions of Christians in the East; he saw his victory over Licinius
as ___________ that the Christian God was working through him
C. Building a Faith
During his ______ years as emperor, Constantine worked to strengthen the Christian ____________
Stopped the church from almost ___________ apart when eastern and western church leaders disagreed on
certain issues
Constructed many important Christian places of _____________
D. A New Capital
Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire east from Rome to the city of _______________ (presentday Turkey)
Spent a lot of money enlarging ________________ and filling it with riches
At first, Constantine called Byzantium “_____________”; eventually changed the name to _________________,
“the city of Constantine”
With the emperor and the empire’s ____________ in Constantinople, the power of the Roman Empire was firmly
in the East
Invasions and Collapse
After Constantine died, ____________ from the north swept across Rome’s borders and overwhelmed the empire
In the past, the Roman army had been able to defeat the _______ tribes, but now they could not stop the intruders
In the 400s, the ____________________ tribes overran the empire
The Visigoths and the Vandals ______________ and _______________ Rome
The last Roman emperor was ____-year-old _________________ Augustulus
No emperor ruled over Rome and the ______________ part of the empire again
But the _______________ part of the empire remained strong
The capital, Constantinople, remained the center of a new empire, the Byzantine Empire for ___________ years