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The Hot QCD White Paper:
Exploring the Phases of QCD at RHIC and the LHC
A White Paper on Future Opportunities in Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics
The past decade has seen huge advances in experimental measurements made in heavy
ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and more recently at the Large
Hadron Collider (LHC). These new data, in combination with theoretical advances from
calculations made in a variety of frameworks, have led to a broad and deep knowledge of the
properties of thermal QCD matter. Increasingly quantitative descriptions of the quark-gluon
plasma (QGP) created in these collisions have established that the QGP is a strongly
coupled liquid with the lowest value of specific viscosity ever measured. However, much
remains to be learned about the precise nature of the initial state from which this liquid
forms, how its properties vary across its phase diagram and how, at a microscopic level, the
collective properties of this liquid emerge from the interactions among the individual quarks
and gluons that must be visible if the liquid is probed with sufficiently high resolution. This
white paper, prepared by the Hot QCD Writing Group as part of the U.S. Long Range Plan
for Nuclear Physics, reviews the recent progress in the field of hot QCD and outlines the
scientific opportunities in the next decade for resolving the outstanding issues in the field.
Principal Authors, representing the US Heavy-Ion Community:
Yasuyuki Akiba
RIKEN Nishina Center
David Morrison
Physics Department
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Aaron Angerami
Department of Physics
Columbia University
Mateusz Ploskon
Nuclear Science Division
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Helen Caines
Department of Physics
Yale University
Joern Putschke
Department of Physics
Wayne State University
Anthony Frawley
Physics Department
Florida State University
Krishna Rajagopal
Physics Department
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Ulrich Heinz
Department of Physics
Ohio State University
Ralf Rapp
Physics Department
Texas A&M University
Barbara Jacak
Physics Department
University of California, Berkeley
Gunther Roland
Physics Department
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Jiangyong Jia
Chemistry Department
StonyBrook University
Paul Sorensen
Physics Department
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Tuomas Lappi
Department of Physics
Jyväskylä University
Urs Wiedemann
Theory Division
Wei Li
Physics Department
Rice University
Nu Xu
Nuclear Science Division
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Abhijit Majumder
Department of Physics
Wayne State University
W.A. Zajca
Department of Physics
Columbia University
Writing Committee Chair
Acronyms and Abbreviations
List of Figures
1 Executive Summary
2 Introduction
3 Progress Since the Previous Long-Range Plan; Current Status
3.1 Facilities Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Hydrodynamics and Collective Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Parton Energy Loss and Jet Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Leading hadron suppression and jet transport coefficients
3.3.3 Full jet reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4 Jet modifications by the medium . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.5 Heavy quark energy loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.6 Outlook and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Initial State for Plasma Formation and Low-x Phenomena . . . .
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 Quarkonia Suppression and Enhancement . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 Open Heavy Flavor Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Thermal Radiation and Low-Mass Dileptons . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Mapping the Phase Diagram of QCD via a Beam Energy Scan . .
3.8 Topological Fluctuations within Quark-Gluon Plasma . . . . . . .
3.9 Broader Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.1 Dark Photons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.2 Antimatter Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.3 Chiral Magnetic Effect in Condensed Matter Systems . . .
4 Future Prospects
4.1 Facilities Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Facility and experiment upgrades at RHIC . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Facility and experiment upgrades at the LHC . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Mapping the Crossover and Searching for the QCD Critical Point . .
4.3 Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Future jet physics capabilities at RHIC and LHC . . . . . . .
4.3.3 Future jet probes of the QGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.4 Future challenges in the theory of jet modification . . . . . .
4.3.5 Future Quarkonia measurements at RHIC and the LHC . . . .
4.4 Towards Quantitative Understanding: Opportunities and Challenges in
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
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. . . . .
5 Summary
6 Acknowledgements
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronyms and abbreviations used in this white paper:
AdS: Anti de Sitter space
ALICE: A Large Ion Collider Experiment (at the LHC)
AMPT: A Multi-Phase Transport (theoretical model)
ASW: Armesto, Salgado, and Wiedemann (theoretical formalism)
ATLAS: A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS (experiment at the LHC)
BES: Beam Energy Scan (at RHIC)
BNL: Brookhaven National Laboratory
BT: Braaten-Thoma (as used in Figure 10)
BW: Brookhaven-Wuppertal (theoretical collaboration)
CERN: Historical acronym in current use for European Organization for Nuclear Research
CFT: Conformal Field Theory
CGC: Color Glass Condensate
CL: Confidence Limit
CME: Chiral Magnetic Effect
CMS: Compact Muon System (experiment at the LHC)
CNM: Cold Nuclear Matter
CUJET: Columbia University Jet and Electromagnetic Tomography (theoretical formalism)
CVE: Chiral Vortical Effect
DOE: Department of Energy
EIC: Electron Ion Collider
EM: ElectroMagnetic (radiation)
EMCAL: ElectroMagnetic CALorimeter
EOS: Equation Of State
EPD: Event Plane Detector (STAR)
FCS: Forward Calorimetric System (STAR)
FF: Fragmentation Function
FRIB: Facility for Rare Isotope Beams
FTS: Forward Tracking System (STAR)
GEM: Gas Electron Multiplier
GLV: Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev (theoretical formalism)
HFT: Heavy Flavor Tracker (STAR)
HQ: Heavy Quark
HT-BW: Higher Twist Berkeley-Wuhan (theoretical formalism)
HT-M: Higher Twist Majumder (theoretical formalism)
IP-Glasma: Impact Parameter dependent saturation - color Glass condensate plasma
iTPC: Inner TPC (STAR)
JET: Jet and Electromagnetic Tomography (theory-experiment topical group)
JEWEL: Jet Evolution With Energy Loss (Monte Carlo model)
LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory
LHC: Large Hadron Collider
LO: Leading Order (in QCD)
L1: Level 1 (experimental trigger level)
LS1: Long Shutdown 1 (LHC)
LS2: Long Shutdown 2 (LHC)
MADAI: Models and Data Initiative (experimental/ theoretical collaboration)
MARTINI: Modular Algorithm for Relativistic Treatment of heavy IoN Interactions (Monte Carlo
MIE: Major Item of Equipment (DOE)
MTD: Muon Telescope Detector (STAR)
MUSIC: Monotonic Upstream-centered Scheme for Conservation laws for Ion Collisions
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NLO: Next to Leading Order (in QCD)
PHENIX: Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction experiment (at RHIC)
pQCD: perturbative QCD
PS: Proton Synchrotron (CERN)
PYQUEN: PYthia QUENched (Monte Carlo model)
QCD: Quantum Chromodynamics
QM: Qin-Majumder (as used in Figure 10)
RHIC: Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
SCET: Soft Collinear Effective Theory
SLAC: Stanford Linear ACcelerator
SM: Standard Model
SPS: Super Proton Synchrotron (CERN)
STAR: Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC
TAMU: Texas A&M University
TECHQM: Theory meets Experiment Collaboration in Hot QCD Matter
TG: Thoma-Gyulassy (as used in Figure 10)
TPC: Time Projection Chamber
VTX: (silicon) VerTeX tracker (PHENIX)
YaJEM: Yet another Jet Energy-loss Model
WHDG: Wicks, Horowitz, Djordjevic, and Gyulassy (theoretical formalism)
List of Figures
RHIC luminosity, past and present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic view of the LHC accelerator complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LHC luminosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elliptic flow v2 compared to a hydrodynamic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydrodynamic and transport models compared to flow observables . . . . . . . .
Constraints on the equation of state from RHIC and LHC data . . . . . . . . .
Temperature dependence of the viscosity to entropy density η/s . . . . . . . . .
RHIC and LHC data compared to different pQCD energy loss energy loss schemes
Qualitative summary of current jet/photon-hadron correlation measurements . .
Nuclear modification factor for semi-leptonic decay electrons from B and D mesons
Color fields of the two nuclei before the collision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PHENIX data for J/ψ production compared to theory calculations . . . . . . . .
Comparison of RHIC and LHC data on J/ψ production . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J/ψ elliptic flow measurements at RHIC and LHC compared to theory . . . . . .
CMS measurements of Υ production compared to theory . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RHIC measurements of Υ production compared to theory . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spatial diffusion coefficient for charm quarks and D-mesons . . . . . . . . . . .
STAR measurements of D-meson production compared to theory . . . . . . . .
STAR Beam Energy Scan results on di-electron yields . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PHENIX results on direct photon spectra and flow compared to theory . . . . .
The QCD phase diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Charge separation results from STAR and ALICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baryon separation as a function of collision centrality from STAR . . . . . . . .
The timeline for future RHIC and LHC heavy ion running. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Projected RHIC luminosity increase at low energies from electron cooling . . . .
Proposed sPHENIX upgrade and its evolution to an EIC detector . . . . . . . .
Projected sPHENIX statistical uncertainties on RAA for γ’s, jets, b-jets and h± .
STAR upgrade plan towards an EIC detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
eSTAR layout with proposed upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Observables showing non-monotonic behavior as a function of sNN . . . . . .
Graphical representation of a future physics goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Projected sPHENIX statistical uncertainties on modified fragmentation functions
Projected quarkonia results from a 20 week Au+Au run with sPHENIX . . . . .
Executive Summary
Executive Summary
Over the past decade a panoply of measurements made in heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic
Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), combined with theoretical
advances from calculations made in a variety frameworks, have led to a broad and deep knowledge
of the properties of hot QCD matter. However, this recently established knowledge of what
thermal QCD matter does in turn raises new questions about how QCD works in this environment.
High energy nuclear collisions create exploding little droplets of the hottest matter seen anywhere
in the universe since it was a few microseconds old. We have increasingly quantitative empirical
descriptions of the phenomena manifest in these explosions, and of some key material properties of
the matter created in these “Little Bangs”. In particular, we have determined that the quark-gluon
plasma (QGP) created in these collisions is a strongly coupled liquid with the lowest value of
specific viscosity ever measured. However, we do not know the precise nature of the initial state
from which this liquid forms, and know very little about how the properties of this liquid vary
across its phase diagram or how, at a microscopic level, the collective properties of this liquid
emerge from the interactions among the individual quarks and gluons that we know must be
visible if the liquid is probed with sufficiently high resolution. These findings lead us to the
following recommendations:
Recommendation #1:
The discoveries of the past decade have posed or sharpened questions that are central
to understanding the nature, structure, and origin of the hottest liquid form of matter
that the universe has ever seen. As our highest priority we recommend a program to
complete the search for the critical point in the QCD phase diagram and to exploit
the newly realized potential of exploring the QGPs structure at multiple length scales
with jets at RHIC and LHC energies. This requires
• implementation of new capabilities of the RHIC facility needed to complete its
scientific mission: a state-of-the-art jet detector such as sPHENIX and luminosity
upgrades for running at low energies,
• continued strong U.S. participation in the LHC heavy-ion program, and
• strong investment in a broad range of theoretical efforts employing various analytical and computational methods.
The goals of this program are to 1) measure the temperature and chemical potential dependence
of transport properties especially near the phase boundary, 2) explore the phase structure of the
nuclear matter phase diagram, 3) probe the microscopic picture of the perfect liquid, and 4)
image the high density gluon fields of the incoming nuclei and study their fluctuation spectrum.
These efforts will firmly establish our understanding of thermal QCD matter over a broad range
of temperature. However, the precise mechanism by which those temperatures are achieved
beginning from the ground state of nuclear matter requires a new initiative dedicated to the
study of dense gluon fields in nuclei, which leads to our second recommendation1 :
This recommendation is made jointly with the Cold QCD Working Group
Executive Summary
Recommendation #2:
A high luminosity, high-energy polarized Electron Ion Collider (EIC) is the U.S. QCD
Community’s highest priority for future construction after FRIB.
The EIC will, for the first time, precisely image the gluons and sea quarks in the proton and nuclei,
resolve the protons internal structure including the origin of its spin, and explore a new QCD
frontier of ultra-dense gluon fields in nuclei at high energy. These advances are made possible by
the EICs unique capability to collide polarized electrons with polarized protons and light ions at
unprecedented luminosity and with heavy nuclei at high energy. The EIC is absolutely essential
to maintain U.S. leadership in fundamental nuclear physics research in the coming decades.
QCD theory and modeling, benefitting from continuous experimental guidance, have led to the
development of a standard model to describe the dynamic space-time evolution of the Little
Bangs created in high energy nuclear collisions [1]. Collective behavior observed via correlations
among the particles produced in the debris of these explosions led to the discovery that, soon
after the initial collision, dense QCD matter thermalizes with a very high initial temperature and
forms a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Surprisingly, this matter that filled the early
universe turns out to be a liquid with a specific viscosity (the ratio of viscosity to entropy density)
η/s smaller than that of any other known substance [2, 3] and very near a limiting value for this
quantity that is characteristic of plasmas in infinitely strongly interacting gauge theories with a
dual gravitational description [4].
Despite continued progress, estimates of the η/s of QGP generally remain upper bounds, due
to systematic uncertainties arising from an incomplete knowledge of the initial state. However,
the unanticipated recent discovery that ripples in the near-perfect QGP liquid bring information
about nucleonic and sub- nucleonic gluon fluctuations in the initial state into the final state [5]
has opened new possibilities to study the dense gluon fields and their quantum fluctuations in
the colliding nuclei via correlations between final state particles. Mapping the transverse and
longitudinal dependence of the initial gluon fluctuation spectrum will provide both a test for QCD
calculations in a high gluon density regime as well as the description of the initial state necessary
to further improve the determination of η/s.
Understanding strongly coupled or strongly correlated systems is at the intellectual forefront
of multiple areas of physics. One example is the physics of ultra-cold fermionic atoms, where
application of a magnetic field excites a strong resonance. In an atomic trap, such atoms form
a degenerate Fermi liquid, which can be studied in exquisite detail [6]. At temperatures below
∼ 0.1 µK the atoms interact via a Feshbach resonance to form a superfluid [7]. Strongly
correlated electron systems in condensed matter provide another strongly coupled system [8].
Here, the elementary interaction is not strong, but its role is amplified by the large number
of interacting particles and their ability to dynamically correlate their quantum wave functions.
In conventional plasma physics strong coupling is observed in warm, dense matter and dusty
plasmas [9] residing in astrophysical environments, such as the rings of Saturn, as well as in
thermonuclear fusion.
A unique feature of QCD matter compared to the other strongly coupled systems is that the
interaction is specified directly at the Lagrangian level by a fundamental theory. Thus we have
a chance to understand how a strongly coupled fluid emerges from a microscopic theory that
is precisely known. The high temperature achieved in nuclear collisions, combined with the
precision achieved by the numerical solutions of lattice gauge theory, permits ab initio calculation
of equilibrium properties of hot QCD matter without any model assumptions or approximations.
At the same time, the discovery of strongly coupled QGP poses many questions. How do its
properties vary over a broad range of temperature and chemical potential? Is there a critical point
in the QCD phase diagram where the hadron gas to QGP phase transition becomes first-order?
What is the smallest droplet of hot QCD matter whose behavior is liquid-like? What are the initial
conditions that lead to hydrodynamic behavior, and can they be extracted from the experimental
data? Can the underlying degrees of freedom in the liquid be resolved with jets and heavy flavor
probes? An understanding of how the properties of the liquid emerge requires probing the matter
at varied, more microscopic, length scales than those studied to date, as well as examining its
production in systems of different size over a range of energies.
Answering these and other questions will depend also on an intensive modeling and computational effort to simultaneously determine the set of key parameters needed for a multi-scale
characterization of the QGP medium as well as the initial state from which it emerges. This
phenomenological effort requires broad experimental input from a diverse set of measurements,
including but not limited to
1. A more extensive set of heavy quark measurements to determine the diffusion coefficient of
heavy quarks.
2. Energy scans to map the phase diagram of QCD and the dependence of transport coefficients
on the temperature and chemical potential.
3. Collisions of nuclei with varied sizes, including p+A and very high multiplicity p+p collisions,
to study the emergence of collective phenomena and parton interactions with the nuclear
4. The quantitative characterization of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Little
Bangs and its spectral anisotropies.
5. A search for chiral symmetry restoration through measurements of lepton pair masses.
6. Detailed investigation of medium effects on the production rates and internal structure of
jets of hadrons, for multi-scale tomographic studies of the medium.
This program will illuminate how “more” becomes “different” in matter governed by the equations
of QCD.
RHIC and the LHC, together provide an unprecedented opportunity to pursue the program listed
above and to thereby resolve the open questions in thermal properties of QCD matter. While
collisions at the LHC create temperatures well above those needed for the creation of QGP and
may thus be able to explore the expected transition from a strongly coupled liquid to a weakly
coupled gaseous phase at higher temperatures, the RHIC program uniquely enables research
at temperatures close to the phase transition where the coupling is strongest. Moreover, the
unparalleled flexibility of RHIC provides collisions between a variety of different ion species over a
broad range in energy. The combined programs permit a comprehensive exploration of the QCD
phase diagram, together with detailed studies of how initial conditions affect the creation and
dynamical expansion of hot QCD matter and of the microscopic structure of the strongly coupled
QGP liquid.
This varied program at these two colliders, covering three orders of magnitude in center of mass
energy, has already led to an array of paradigmatic discoveries. Asymmetric Cu+Au and 3 He+Au
collisions [10], and collisions between deformed uranium nuclei at RHIC [11] are helping to
constrain the initial fluctuation spectrum and to eliminate some initial energy deposition models.
The recently discovered unexpected collectivity of anisotropic flow signatures observed in p+Pb
Progress Since the Previous Long-Range Plan; Current Status
collisions at the LHC [12, 13] suggests that similar signatures seen in very-high-multiplicity p+p
collisions at the LHC [14] and in a recent re-analysis of d+Au collisions at RHIC [15] might also
be of collective origin. How collectivity develops in such small systems cries out for explanation.
The unavoidable question “What is the smallest size and density of a droplet of QCD matter
that behaves like a liquid?” can only be answered by systematically exploiting RHIC’s flexibility
to collide atomic nuclei of any size over a wide range of energies. The additional running in 2015
of p+Au and p+Al collisions at RHIC will augment the d+Au and 3 He+Au data and represents
an important first step in this direction.
Future precision measurements made possible by increases in the energy and luminosity of the
LHC will quantify thermodynamic and microscopic properties of the strongly coupled plasma
at temperatures well above the transition temperature TC . At the same time, RHIC will be
the only facility capable of both of providing the experimental lever arm needed to establish
the temperature dependence of these parameters while also extending present knowledge of the
properties of deconfined matter to larger values of the baryon chemical potential µB , where a
critical point and first order phase transition may be awaiting discovery. There is no single facility
in the short- or long-term future that could come close to duplicating what RHIC and the LHC,
operating in concert, will teach us about Nature.
Both RHIC and the LHC are also capable of probing new, unmeasured physics phenomena at
low longitudinal momentum fraction x. Proton-lead collisions at the LHC allow the study of
previously unreachable regions of phase space in the search for parton saturation effects. However,
a complete exploration of parton dynamics at low x will require an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC).
Accordingly, a cost-effective plan has been developed for a future transition of the RHIC facility
to an EIC. While forward rapidity studies in p+A and A+A collisions at RHIC and the LHC can
provide access to low-x physics in a complementary kinematic range, an EIC will be needed to
deliver crucially missing precise information on the nuclear parton distribution functions within the
most desirable kinematic regime. However, this white paper focuses on the future opportunities
in the realm of thermal QCD, noting where relevant the need for our knowledge to be extended
by the compelling insights to be derived from a future EIC [16].
The remainder of this white paper presents experimental and theoretical progress since the last
Long Range Plan in Section 3 in order to assess the current status of the field and its facilities.
Section 4 then describes future prospects for advancing our understanding of thermal QCD and
thereby addressing the deep intellectual questions posed by recent discoveries.
Progress Since the Previous Long-Range Plan; Current
Enormous progress has been made in the experimental and theoretical study of hot QCD matter
since the 2007 Long Range Plan [17]. A new energy frontier at the LHC, in concert with a wide
variety of experimental tools honed at RHIC, enabled rapid yet refined analyses of the highest
energy heavy ion collisions studied to date. At the same time, upgrades to both RHIC and its
experiments allowed not only exploration of a new low-energy regime but also greatly improved
3.1 Facilities Status
experimental sensitivity at RHIC’s top energy. In combination with increasingly sophisticated
theoretical models, these developments have led to new insights into the behavior of nuclear
matter under extreme conditions. This section details the advances in both the experimental
facilities and the results derived from them since the last Long Range Plan.
Facilities Status
Collisions of heavy nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies are studied at two facilities: the Relativistic
Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and (since 2010) the Large
Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland. The impressive experimental progress in the field
since the 2007 Long Range Plan that is presented in what follows has been made possible by the
outstanding performance of these two facilities.
RHIC began operations in 2000 with the capability of colliding nuclei from deuterons to Au at
center-of-mass energies of 200 GeV per nucleon pair.2 Recommendation IV of the 2007 Long
Range Plan endorsed the “RHIC II” luminosity upgrade, envisioned as a 10-20 fold increase
above the design luminosity of 2 × 1026 cm−2 s−1 for full energy Au+Au collisions. While this
upgrade was a high priority of the nuclear science community, the then-estimated cost of ∼$150M
drove a proposed funding profile that would have provided this capability no earlier than 2016.
Remarkably, breakthroughs in both transverse and longitudinal stochastic cooling by the BNL
Collider-Accelerator Department scientists have made it possible to achieve luminosities well
above the RHIC II specification 3 years earlier at roughly 15% of the cost projected in 2007. The
new RHIC luminosity performance is shown in the left panel of Figure 1, demonstrating that the
Au+Au luminosity from the 2014 RHIC run routinely exceeded RHIC II luminosities. As a result,
the integrated luminosity for Au+Au collisions acquired in Run 14 significantly exceeds the sum
of all previous RHIC runs [19], as shown in the right panel of Figure 1.
Figure 1: Left: the luminosity for sN N = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions as a function of time in
the 2014 RHIC Run, compared to RHIC and RHIC II design luminosity. Right: the integrated
luminosity for all RHIC heavy ions runs.
RHIC also can collide polarized protons at energies up to s = 510 GeV. This unique capability forms the
basis of the RHIC Spin program [18] discussed in the Cold QCD Town Meeting White Paper.
3.1 Facilities Status
RHIC’s capabilities were extended in 2011 with the commissioning of an Electron Beam Ion
Source [20] (EBIS)3 , which replaced the aging Tandem Accelerator as a source for injection
into the AGS/RHIC accelerator chain. The new physics enabled by EBIS was demonstrated in
definitive fashion in 2012, when RHIC became the first collider to produce 238 U+238 collisions.
The intrinsic deformation of the 238 U nucleus provides a valuable tool in constraining models of
the initial state energy deposition and separating the effects from overlap geometry and quantum
fluctuations in the initial state on the hydrodynamic flow in the final state. Similarly, in 2014 RHIC
provided the first 3 He+Au collisions to study the development of odd-harmonic hydrodynamic
flow resulting from the three nucleons in 3 He. Both of these developments are described in more
detail in Section 3.2.
Another demonstration of the flexibility of the RHIC is the Beam Energy Scan (BES) in search
of the QCD critical point. Phase I of this campaign was conducted in 2010, 2011 and 2014.
In addition to full energy Au+Au collisions at sN N = 200 GeV, data were taken for Au+Au
collisions at sN N 62.4 GeV, 39 GeV, 27 GeV, 19.6 GeV, 14.5 GeV, 11.5 GeV and 7.7 GeV.
As discussed in more detail in Section 3.7 this range of energies explores the region in the QCD
phase diagram (as a function of baryon chemical potential µB and temperature) in which it is
predicted that the smooth cross-over transition observed at the highest RHIC energies transforms
into a first-order phase transition. The capability to explore this regime is a unique feature of
Both the PHENIX [21] and the STAR [22] experiments at RHIC have undergone significant
upgrades since the last Long Range Plan. PHENIX extended its measurement capabilities at
forward angles with a Muon Piston Calorimeter [23], which is now being upgraded with a
pre-shower detector [24]. STAR increased its data acquisition and triggering capabilities via
the DAQ1000 [25] and High Level Trigger [26] projects. The Time of Flight [27] detector
greatly extended their particle identification capabilities and together with the muon telescope
detector [28] significantly improved its capabilities to study physics in the di-lepton channel. Both
experiments installed silicon-based tracking systems for vertexing and heavy-flavor detection, the
VTX [29, 30] and FVTX [31] for PHENIX and the HFT [32, 33] for STAR. These new capabilities,
together with the greatly increased RHIC luminosity, are the realization of the RHIC II upgrade
envisioned in the 2007 Long Range Plan.
Late 2009 marked the beginning of CERN LHC operations, with a pilot run providing first
proton+proton collisions with collision energies of 0.9 and 2.36 TeV. The first year of LHC physics
running began with p+p running at 7 TeV in April 2010 and ended with first Pb+Pb collisions at
sNN = 2.76 TeV in November and December, increasing the center-of-mass energy explored
in heavy ion collisions by a factor of 14 compared to RHIC. The heavy ion program, which was
foreseen in LHC planning from the beginning, uses most of the elements of the LHC accelerator
chain shown in in Figure 2, beginning from the electron cyclotron resonance ion source and linear
accelerator, which provide 208 Pb ions stripped to Pb29+ at 4.2 MeV/n. After further carbon foil
stripping, bunch shaping and electron cooling in the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), Pb54+
ion bunches are sent to the CERN PS, accelerated and fully stripped, yielding Pb82+ . After
acceleration in the SPS to to 177 GeV/n, injection and acceleration in the LHC are the final
EBIS was partially funded by NASA for the study of space radiation effects on extended human space missions
at NASA’s Space Radiation Laboratory located at BNL.
3.1 Facilities Status
Figure 2: Schematic view of the LHC accelerator complex
steps. Using 120 colliding bunches for each beam, a peak luminosity of 3 × 1025 cm−2 s−1 was
achieved in the 2010 LHC run. This corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 7 µb−1 delivered
to each of three interaction regions for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments participating in
heavy-ion data taking.
Figure 3: Left: Delivered and recorded integrated luminosities at CMS for sN N = 2.76 GeV
Pb+Pb collisions as a function of time for the 2010 and 2011 LHC Pb+Pb runs. Right: Integrated
luminosity for the sN N = 5.02 TeV p+Pb 2013 LHC Run.
3.2 Hydrodynamics and Collective Flow
For the November–December 2011 run, an increase in the number of colliding bunches to 360 per
ring, as well as improved focusing, allowed an increase in peak luminosity by a factor of 15–20,
reaching close to design collision rates. The total delivered luminosity per interaction region was
about 150 µb−1 , with delivered and recorded luminosity in CMS shown in Figure 3 (left).
The third heavy-ion data taking period in early 2013 provided proton+lead and lead+proton
collisions at 5.02 TeV, following a pilot run in fall 2012. Although this mode of operation was
not foreseen in the baseline design of the LHC, beams were commissioned in 10 days. The
physics requirements of all experiments were met in three weeks of physics running, resulting in
an integrated luminosity of up to 35 nb−1 and record intensity levels, Figure 3 (right). A p+p
reference data set at 2.76 TeV was also recorded.
All four major LHC detectors have participated in heavy-ion data taking in the 2009–2013 period
(Run I), with ALICE, ATLAS and CMS taking p+p, p+Pb and Pb+Pb data, and LHCb taking p+p
and p+Pb data. ALICE [34] has been optimized for heavy-ion operations, with large kinematic
coverage, in particular at low transverse momenta, and charged particle identification over a wide
momentum range using a variety of techniques. ATLAS [35] and CMS [36] are general purpose
collider detectors, with a particular focus on high data taking rates, full azimuthal coverage over
a wide rapidity range and high resolution at very high transverse momenta. Although designed for
discovery physics in p+p collisions, the high granularity of ATLAS and CMS makes them suitable
for heavy-ion collisions as well, in particular for high momentum probes where they complement
the strengths of the ALICE detector. The heavy-ion related program of LHCb [37] was focussed
on quarkonia measurements in p+Pb collisions at forward rapidities.
Hydrodynamics and Collective Flow
The initial discovery of strong elliptic flow at RHIC [38] and the characteristic hydrodynamic
signature of mass ordering in the medium response [39, 40] focussed a great deal of attention on
improving the relativistic hydrodynamic description of the quark-gluon plasma. (See Ref. [41]
for a recent review.) One of the most important recent discoveries made in heavy ion collisions
since the last Long-Range Plan is the persistence of density fluctuations from the initial state.
Recent work [42–51] demonstrates that these fluctuations survive through the expansion of
the fireball and appear as correlations between produced particles. Most previous approaches
had approximated the incoming nuclei as smooth spheres and the initial overlap region as an
ellipse. The survival of density and geometry fluctuations was first hinted at in measurements
of cumulants related to the shape of the elliptic flow distribution [52, 53]. The picture started
to become more clear after measurements were made in Cu+Cu collisions where the relative
fluctuations were more prominent in the smaller system [54]. Ultimately, a new paradigm emerged
as the structure of the initial state was found to play a central role in determining the azimuthal
anisotropies with respect to the event plane angles Φn , parameterized in terms of transverse
momentum pT and azimuthal angle φ as
d2 n
∼ 1+2v2 (pT ) cos 2(φ−Φ2 )+2v3 (pT ) cos 3(φ−Φ3 )+2v4 (pT ) cos 4(φ−Φ4 )+. . . (1)
pT dpT dφ
3.2 Hydrodynamics and Collective Flow
Previous measurements that were focused almost exclusively on the dominant v2 were generalized
to vn , a spectrum carrying information about both the initial densities in the collision and the
dissipative properties of the subsequent plasma phase [55]. The survival of the initial state
fluctuations is related to the earlier finding that the QGP discovered at RHIC is the most perfect
fluid known [56–58] with a viscosity to entropy ratio near the string theory limit [4]. The low
viscosity plasma phase acts as a lens (albeit of strongly non-linear character), faithfully transferring
the geometric structure of the initial density distributions, with its associated distribution of
pressure gradients which act as a hydrodynamic force, into the final state. There it shows up
most prominently as correlations between produced particles. Quantum fluctuations in the initial
state cause these correlations to fluctuate from event to event.
Descriptions of these new phenomena have required the development of a new dynamical
framework for heavy-ion collisions. It includes i) modeling of initial-state quantum fluctuations of
nucleon positions and sub-nucleonic color charges and the color fields generated by them, ii) a
description of the pre-equilibrium dynamics that evolves the initial energy-momentum tensor by
solving either the (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills equations for the gluon fields (weakly-coupled
approach) or Einstein’s equations of motion in five-dimensional anti-deSitter space (stronglycoupled approach), followed by iii) the rapid transition, event-by-event, to second-order viscous
relativistic fluid dynamics, and iv) a late-stage hadron phase described by microscopic transport
calculations. While there is widespread agreement on the general structure of such a standardized
dynamical approach, it has not yet reached the level of uniqueness that would justify calling
it the “Little Bang Standard Model” [1]. Model comparisons with experimental data that
illustrate the state of the art in dynamical modeling can be found in Refs. [3, 58–66]. With
the existence of a reliable equation of state from lattice QCD calculations [67–70] a crucial
degree of uncertainty in hydrodynamic modeling could be eliminated, enabling the development
of a complete hydrodynamic space-time model. With this full space-time picture in hand,
p the
comparisons of model calculations to harmonic decompositions of correlation functions ( vn2 ) at
RHIC and the LHC (shown in Figure 4) have reduced the uncertainty on η/s by a factor of 10 [41].
With this newfound precision, studies suggest that η/s is smaller for RHIC collisions (right panel
of Figure 4) than it is at the LHC (left panel), consistent with a temperature dependent η/s with
a minimum near the critical temperature. In the next phase of study we seek to 1) accurately
determine the temperature dependence of η/s (aided by the Beam Energy Scan Program at
RHIC described in Sections 3.7, 4.1 and 4.2) and 2) develop a clearer picture of the high density
gluon fields discussed in Section 3.4 that form the precursor of the plasma phase (aided by the
p+A program and ultimately by an Electron Ion Collider).
What is needed to turn this standard dynamical framework into the “Little Bang Standard
Model”? One fundamental challenge along the way is the need to determine simultaneously
the space-time picture of the collective expansion and the medium properties that drive this
expansion [1]. A unique and reliable determination of these two unknowns will be informed by
measurements of multiple flow observables sensitive to medium properties in different stages of
the evolution [55, 71, 72]. Due to the large event-by-event fluctuations in the initial state collision
geometry, the matter created in each collision follows a different collective expansion with its
own set of flow harmonics (magnitude vn and phases Φn ). Experimental observables describing
harmonic flow can be generally given by the joint probability distribution of the magnitude vn
C. Gale,
Viscous flow at RHIC and
LHC flow
3.2 Hydrodynamics
and Collective
RHIC ⌘/s = 0.12
= 0.2
pT [GeV]
〈vn 〉
0.120.2 v
0.15 5
v {2}, p 30-40%
>0.2 GeV
η/s filled:
= 0.2STAR prelim.
open: PHENIX
η/s = 0.2
0 0
0 0
0.10.1 0.1
v2 RHIC 200GeV,
30-40% EP
3 filled: STAR prelim.
STAR prelim.
4 open: PHENIX
η/s = 0.12
0.05 0.05
0.25 0.25
v2 v2
v v3
0.20.2 30.2
v4 v4
Hydro evolution
40 1.5 50
T [GeV]
centrality p
0 0
0 0.50.5 0.5 1 1
1 1.51.5 1.5 2 2
pT [GeV]
0 0
0 0
4: Model
to than
of the
az- at LHC nee
⌘/s compared
at LHC
imuthal correlations produced in heavy ion collisions [41]. The left panel shows model calculationsat LHC need
at vincreasing
⌘/s with increasing
data for
sN N = 2.76⌘/s
n vs. collision centrality in Pb+Pb
similar studies
for theenergies
pT dependence
of vbe
in used
200 GeVtoat
The comparison
at more
) to
of the two energies provides insight on the temperature dependence of η/s.
BNL, March 2013
Experimental data:
Experimental data:
Experimental data:
A. Adare
et al.Φ(PHENIX
A. 252301
Adare et(2011)
al. (PHENIX Collaboration), Phys.Rev.Lett. 107, 252301 (2011)
n of flow
Adare et al. (PHENIX Collaboration), Phys.Rev.Lett. 107, 252301 (2011)
Y. Pandit (STAR Collaboration), Quark Matter 2012, (2012)Y. Pandit (STAR Collaboration), Quark Matter 2012, (2012)
Y. Pandit (STAR Collaboration), Quark Matter 2012, (2012)
1 collaboration,
ATLAS collaboration, Phys. Rev. C 86, 014907 (2012)
Phys. Rev. C 86, 014907 (2012)
collaboration, Phys. Rev. C. 86, 014907 (2012)
p(vn , vm , ..., Φn , Φm , ...)ATLAS
Björn Schenke (BNL)
RHIC AGS Users’ Meeting
19/28 2013, B
n (BNL)
n dΦm
Björn Schenke (BNL)
RHIC AGS Users’ Meeting 2013, BNL
Specific examples include the probability distribution of individual harmonics p(vn ), correlations
of amplitudes or phases between different harmonics (p(vn , vm ) or p(Φn , Φm )), and flow decorrelations in transverse and longitudinal directions. These observables can be accessed through
measurements of correlations with three or more particles. The joint probability distribution (2) can
be fully characterized experimentally by measuring the complete set of moments recently identified
in Ref. [73]. With the added detail provided by these measurements, hydrodynamic models can
be fine-tuned and over-constrained, thereby refining our understanding of the space-time picture
and medium properties of the QGP created in heavy ion collisions. Initial measurements of some
of these observables [74–76] and comparison to hydrodynamic and transport models [3, 77–79]
have already provided unprecedented insights into the nature of the initial density fluctuations
and dynamics of the collective evolution, as seen in Figure 5.
The agreement between the models and the data shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 suggests that
the essential features of the dynamic evolution of heavy ion collisions are well described by our
current models. However, these model calculations depend on the values assumed for many
parameters, so reliable determination of the QGP properties requires a systematic examination of
the full parameter space. An example of such an exploration [80] is shown in Figure 6 where the
shape of the QCD equation of state (EOS) is treated as a free parameter. he left panel shows a
random sample of the thousands of possible Equations of State, constrained only by results on
the velocity of sound obtained by perturbative QCD at asymptotically high temperature and by
lattice QCD at the crossover transition temperature. They are compared to the EOS determined
from lattice QCD [70].The right panel shows a sample of the Equations of State allowed by
experimental data. The results of this study suggest that data at RHIC and the LHC require an
3.2 Hydrodynamics and Collective Flow
Figure 5: Comparision of the p(v2 ) (left panel) and correlation between Φ2 and Φ4 (right panel)
measured for Pb+Pb collisions at sN N = 2.76 TeV with hydrodynamic model [3] or transport
model [79] calculations.
EOS consistent with that expected from QCD. This demonstrates that our model of heavy-ion
collisions describes the dynamics of the collisions well enough that we can extract information
on the emergent properties of finite temperature QCD from the experimental traces left by the
tiny droplet of QGP created in the collisions. These state-of-the-art models can therefore be
used to both determine properties of finite temperature QCD currently inaccessible to lattice
calculations and to provide an accurate space-time profile needed for modeling other processes
like jet quenching. Figure 7 shows a schematic representation of our current uncertainty on
the temperature dependence of η/s in QCD matter. While many of the existing measurements
are accurate enough, as seen in Figure 4, to determine η/s with much greater precision if all
other model parameters were already known, the non-linear simultaneous dependence of the
observables on multiple parameters does not yet allow one to translate the high quality of these
experimental data into a more precise estimate of η/s. The studies shown in Figures 4, 5 and
6 suggest, however, that a more complete set of measurements of the moments of the joint
probability distribution (2) at the LHC and RHIC (particularly in the Beam Energy Scan), coupled
with extensive quantitative modeling, will provide the desired access to (η/s)(T ) in and around
the transition temperature where hadrons melt into quark-gluon plasma, and strongly reduce the
width of the blue uncertainty band in Figure 7.
While the paradigm of collective flow phenomena in a strongly coupled, opaque QGP fluid
has been firmly established in sufficiently central collisions of heavy nuclei, it was generally
expected that the magnitude of collectivity would diminish as the system size decreases. As
the mean-free-path of the matter approaches the characteristic size of the system, the effects
of viscous damping become more important and the validity of a hydrodynamic description
becomes more suspect. Evidence for this trend has been observed in peripheral A+A collisions.
As such, no collective flow was anticipated in p+p and p+A collisions. Surprisingly, correlations
that are long-range in rapidity and similar to those measured in A+A collisions have now also
been observed at the LHC in rare high-multiplicity p+p collisions [14] (corresponding to high
gluon-density initial states). In several ways, these resemble the correlations in central A+A
collisions which have been widely accepted as evidence of collective flow [81, 82]. Subsequent
3.2 Hydrodynamics and Collective Flow
Figure 6: Studies of the QCD equation of state from Lattice QCD calculations and from models
constrained by data from RHIC and the LHC [80]. The right panel shows that data prefer an
equation of state consistent with lattice QCD demonstrating that our model of the collision
dynamics is good enough to allow us to study the emergent properties of QCD.
measurements revealed similar phenomena in high multiplicity p+Pb and d+Au at both the
LHC [12, 83, 84] and RHIC [15]. The dependence of the correlations in p+Pb or d+Au on pT ,
multiplicity [13, 85–87], pseudorapidity [88], and particle species [89, 90] reveal similarities to
those observed in A+A collisions. In particular, the mass ordering of vn (pT ) is reminiscent of the
effect from a common radial flow boost in A+A collisions [89–91], and multi-particle correlations
show unambiguously that the novel correlations in high-multiplicity p+Pb collisions are collective
in nature [76].
The origin of collectivity in these small systems is a topic of debate. While hydrodynamic models
with strong final-state interactions may provide a natural interpretation for many of the observed
features in the data [92–96], their apparent applicability in such small systems, along with the
required assumption of rapid thermalization, challenges our understanding [97]. Meanwhile,
other novel mechanisms, mainly related to the initial-state quark and gluon correlations, have
also been proposed as alternative interpretations of the observed long-range correlations in p+A
and d+A collisions, and they have even provided qualitatively successful descriptions for p+p
collisions [98–102]. Disentangling initial- and final-state effects to distinguish between these
various approaches poses a theoretical and experimental challenge. Recent data from 3 He+Au
collision may shed some light on the question, as will improved correlation measurements at
forward rapidity, where the presence of the correlation structures is most surprising. Further
insights are expected as comprehensive studies of the system-size and geometric dependence
become available in p+A d+A and 3 He+A collisions [103] where the relative contributions of
3.2 Example:
and Collective of
Flow(⌘/s)(T )
approximate range of
maximal initial temperatures
probed by RHIC
by LHC
AdS/CFT limit
Figure 7: The temperature dependence of the viscosity to entropy density η/s. The blue band
represents the range allowed by our current understanding based on models compared to data
Schenke (BNL)
April 2013and the string theory limit are
a minimum
at the transition temperature. pQCDBNL,
also shown. The shaded vertical regions represent the ranges of initial temperatures probed by
RHIC and the LHC.
initial- and final-state correlations are expected to vary. This program will allow us to explore the
boundary of perfect fluidity in QCD matter at the smallest scales ever achieved [104].
Addressing these open questions on the possible role of hydrodynamics in the smallest hadronic
systems will play an important role not only in completing our standard model of a strongly
coupled QGP matter, but also in providing new opportunities to probe the structure of protons.
If indeed final-state effects described by hydrodynamic flows are proven to be the dominant
source of correlations, the presence of a tiny low viscosity fluid enables the study of protons and
sub-nucleonic scale fluctuations at very short time scales [95, 105, 106]. The high-density gluon
state inside a proton is of fundamental interest as the equations of QCD are expected to become
classical [107, 108]. This transition has the potential to reveal how a classical system can emerge
from QCD. In light of recent exciting observations, this topic should be studied in future p+A
programs covering the wide kinematic range provided by RHIC and the LHC and ultimately in an
EIC which is the highest priority for new construction in our community.
3.3 Parton Energy Loss and Jet Modification
Parton Energy Loss and Jet Modification
In processes involving a hard scattering, highly virtual partons are produced; these then undergo
successive branchings resulting in a parton shower [109]. The ensemble of produced particles
is highly collimated about the direction of the initial parton and contains a range of different
momentum scales. The properties of these objects, known as jets [110], and how they emerge
from perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations have been extensively studied in high-energy
physics [111, 112].
One of the successes of the early portion of the RHIC program was the discovery of jet quenching [113, 114]: the phenomenon in which jet showers are modified by interactions with the
medium [115]. The most noticeable outcome of this scattering in the medium is an enhanced
rate of bremsstrahlung leading to a loss of energy and momentum by the most energetic (leading)
partons in the shower, which results in a depletion of high momentum hadrons. The first
measurements of the suppression of high-pT hadrons and di-hadron correlations established that
the medium was highly opaque to colored probes. This indicated that the medium contains a high
density of unscreened color charges which lead to considerable modification of hard jets. Later
measurements of single and dihadron observables at both RHIC and the LHC have significantly
restricted the variety of viable theoretical approaches to jet modification in a dense medium.
The virtuality of a hard parton within a jet represents its intrinsic scale, which is also the scale
at which it resolves fluctuations in the medium. As partons in the jet cascade down to lower
virtualities, they probe the medium over a multitude of length scales. As long as the virtuality
(and the related resolution scale) of a parton is much larger than ΛQCD , it will be weakly coupled
to the medium and pQCD describes its propagation, via both scattering and radiation in the
medium. The largest virtualities reside, on average, with the leading or highest energy parton,
with lower energy partons decaying more rapidly to lower virtualities. It is this expectation that led
to the formulation of the earlier pQCD based leading parton energy loss calculations [116–121].
While scattering in the medium slows down the rate at which the virtuality (and the related
resolving power) decreases, several partons within a jet still may lose sufficient amounts of energy
and/or virtuality in the medium and encounter non-perturbatively strong coupling [122–125].
While the fate of such partons is under some debate, the evolution of the leading hard partons
with virtualities Q2 Λ2QCD has been successfully described using pQCD and factorized transport
coefficients. This formalism and the experimental results related to it are described Section 3.3.2.
With the tremendous improvement in experimental abilities at the LHC, it has now become
possible to reconstruct and isolate an entire jet from the dense fluctuating medium. Experimental
issues related to this development are described in Section 3.3.3. The modification of entire
jets in a medium involves dynamical processes at energy scales ranging from the perturbative
hard scale down to the non-perturbative soft scale of the medium. Recent empirical observations
along with new theoretical insight dealing with phenomena at intermediate scales are discussed
is subsection (3.3.4). As jets provide probes at a variety of scales, a program of systematic jet
measurements can be used to study the emergence of strongly-coupled behavior that has been
observed at long wavelengths in flow measurements, as well as its interplay with short distance
3.3 Parton Energy Loss and Jet Modification
fluctuations which affect the jet core.
Leading hadron suppression and jet transport coefficients
At the time of this writing, jets have been measured at the LHC with energies up to several
hundred GeV, while jets at RHIC have been measured with energies up to 50 GeV. These exhibit
non-trivial interaction with the medium over a wide range of scales. The collimated shower of
partons contain a central, hard core that consists of the leading partons, which carry a majority
of the jet’s momentum. These partons are the dominant contributors to leading hadron analyses
such as the single hadron inclusive nuclear modification factor, or leading hadron triggered near
and away side correlations. Calculations that focus solely on this hard core [126–131] have been
quite successful at describing several of these single particle observables.
When produced in vacuum, jets tend to shower to several partons with progressively lower
virtualities. In the case where the jet is produced in a medium, those partons in the jet with
virtualities that considerably exceed ΛQCD are weakly coupled to the medium. Therefore, the
radiation from and scattering of these partons are calculable in pQCD. The scatterings induce
shifts both in the momentum of the propagating partons and in their virtuality. As a result,
these scatterings change the radiation pattern of the shower by inducing longitudinal drag (and
associated longitudinal diffusion), transverse diffusion, and enhanced splitting of the propagating
partons. The transport coefficients q̂ [132] and ê [133] quantify the transverse diffusion and
longitudinal drag experienced by a single hard parton, and are the leading transport coefficients
that modify the propagation and in-medium splitting of hard jets.
The transport coefficient q̂ characterizes the mean-squared momentum per unit length acquired
by a parton transversing the medium. Formally, it is the Fourier transform of the Lorentz-forceLorentz-force correlator, which for a near on-shell parton traveling in the negative light cone
direction with momentum q − in a gauge with A− = 0 gauge is
Z 2
8π 2 αS CR
d y⊥ dy − d2 k⊥ −i 2qk⊥− y− +i~k⊥ ·~y⊥ +µ −
q̂(x ) =
hF (x + y − , ~y⊥ )Fµ+ (x− , 0)i.
Nc2 − 1
In this expression, h· · · i implies an expectation over the state (or states) of the medium. The
field strength tensor F µ+ ≡ F aµ+ ta represents the soft color field of the medium off which the
hard parton with color Casimir CR scatters (trace over color indices is implied). These soft
matrix elements are factorized from the hard processes of parton propagation and splitting [134].
In simplified scenarios, such as in a static thermal medium, they may be calculated from first
principles assuming that the medium is weakly coupled [135], strongly coupled [136], on the
lattice [137], or using a combination of weak coupling and lattice techniques [138]. However,
for the dynamical rapidly expanding medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, the
only recourse is to extract averaged soft matrix elements by comparing experimental results to
calculations that involve detailed treatments of hard parton production, shadowing, and final
state parton propagation in media simulated with viscous fluid dynamics. In such calculations,
q̂ is either recalculated assuming a weakly coupled medium once the coupling constant in the
3.3 Parton Energy Loss and Jet Modification
Figure 8: A comparison of several different pQCD based energy loss energy loss schemes to the
measured leading hadron suppression in central events at RHIC and the LHC, and the extracted
transport coefficient q̂ along with its dependence on temperature.
medium is fit to data (as in Ref. [126–128]), or it is scaled with an intrinsic quantity in the
hydrodynamic simulation, with the overall normalization fit to data (as in Ref. [131]).
In either of these approaches, one obtains a very good description of the experimental results
on the suppression of leading hadrons from both RHIC and the LHC. Some of these fits are
shown in the left panel of Figure 8. The extracted values of the leading transport parameter
q̂ and its temperature dependence are plotted in the right panel of Figure 8. Using identical
initial states and hydro simulations, the JET Collaboration4 [139] has carried out the analyses
of comparing the spread in values of q̂ due to systematic differences in the pQCD based energy
loss schemes [140]. In sharp contrast to similar comparisons carried out earlier in Ref. [141],
where extracted q̂ values differed by almost an order of magnitude, current calculations reported
in Ref. [140], differ at most by a factor of 2, indicating the very considerable progress in our
understanding of hard processes in the QGP since the time of the last Long Range Plan.
Beyond the success of applying pQCD based energy loss techniques to the in-medium modification
of leading partons in a hard jet, this five-fold reduction in the uncertainty of the extracted values
of transport coefficients is greatly significant, as it allows, for the first time, to discern a possible
non-monotonic dependence of q̂ on the temperature of the medium. Hence, such theoretical
analyses have reached a level of sophistication where qualitative and quantitative properties
of the QGP may be extracted, with quantified systematic uncertainties, using jet modification.
These successes, enabled by improvements on the theoretical and experimental side, provide an
The JET Collaboration is one of the Topical Collaborations in nuclear theory established by the DOE Office
of Nuclear Physics in response to a recommendation in the 2007 Long-Range Plan for Nuclear Physics.
3.3 Parton Energy Loss and Jet Modification
anchor in our study of the modification of full jets in a medium, which involves an interplay of
several different scales, as one moves from leading partons to the softer segments of the jet and
their interaction with the medium. The incorporation of such theoretical improvements, and the
ensuing measurements over the next decade will allow jets to be used as calibrated and controlled
precision probes of the microscopic structure of the quark-gluon plasma over a wide range of
Full jet reconstruction
Fully reconstructed jets have been a crucial tool used in high energy physics, both to provide
precision tests of pQCD and to understand the topology of the hard-scattering event. Recently
these techniques have been adapted to the heavy ion environment resulting in a new set of
observables sensitive to jet quenching. Reconstructed jets are expected to be related to initial
parton kinematics and thus manifest the kinematics of the hard scattering in the absence of
medium effects. Some of the first LHC heavy-ion results included the observation of highly
asymmetric dijet events, which provided a striking visual demonstration of the energy loss [142,143].
Since these initial measurements experimental control over the measured jet energies and the
understanding of the role of underlying event fluctuations has improved substantially, resulting
in precise measurements of jet suppression and the properties of quenched jets. Color-neutral
objects such as a photons are not expected to experience quenching, and measurements of direct
photon production rates at RHIC [144] were important in the interpretation of the high-pT hadron
suppression. Recently, these measurements have been extended to much higher pT [145–147],
and additional probes such as the W and Z [148–151] are accessible at the LHC. In events where
these objects recoil against a jet, they serve as relatively clean probes of the jet kinematics before
energy loss. The first photon-jet measurements at the LHC [152] have shown that the energy of
these jets is significantly degraded and that in many cases no recoil jet is distinguishable from
the bulk medium.
Jet modifications by the medium
While the experiments at RHIC have discovered that the medium created in heavy-ion collisions is
opaque to energetic partons and initiated ground breaking attempts to measure the parton energy
loss with jets, it was at the LHC where experimentalists have been able to leverage high kinematic
reach of the collisions and unambiguously provide the evidence for jet momentum modifications.
Utilizing the inclusive rates of high-energy jets and the momentum balance of back-to-back jets,
photon-jet and hadron-jet coincidences, well described by pQCD in elementary/pp collisions, the
experimental findings at the LHC strongly advanced the understanding of the depletion of the
energetic jets in heavy-ion collisions. From these measurements two fundamental properties of
jet-medium interactions have been established:
• the energy that is deposited into the medium is not recovered/contained within the jet
cone as the rates of high-energy fully reconstructed jets in heavy-ion collisions are much
Jets balanced when
including pT > 0.2GeV
3.3 Parton Energy Loss and Jet Modification
We can observe medium modifications of jet
momentum and angular structure
Energy balance found
outside of jet cone
Jet shapes
Jets @ RHIC
Fragmentation functions
Jets @ LHC
RAA radius dependence
Awayside DAA (GeV/c)
detector uncertainty
v2 and v3 uncertainty
trigger jet uncertainty
sNN = 200 GeV
Strong radius
dependence of jet RAA
many high-pT observables from RHIC. After the intrinsic
transverse momentum imbalance, kT , of the initial hard
scattering was tuned to provide the best fit to the p+p
2.5(YAS,p+p ), this model
5 < pTlargely
< 9 GeV/c
x 0.5 <several
phT < 7 GeV/c
of the2quantitative and qualitative features observed in
/3 Au+Au and p+p widths match
data. At high
the jet |yields
π/6suppressed, while the missing energy appears as an enhancement and broadening of the
1 fragments.
soft jet
0.5conclude, jet-hadron correlations are used to investigate the properties of the Quark-Gluon
- globalPlasma
sys = cre± 6%
0 heavy-ion collisions by studying
ated in
jet quenching
0 trigger/nearside
e↵ects. The
jet1sample is 1.5
highly biased
φ- π|<not
π/2)interacted with the medium,
towards jets Ithat
which may enhance
e↵ects of jet-quenching on the
IAA(|∆φ- πthe
recoil/awayside jet. While the widths of the awayside
jet peaks
1 are suggestive of medium-induced broadening,
they are highly dependent on the shape of the subtracted
0-40% Au+Au @ 200 GeV (b)
It is observed that the suppression of the
Awayside Gaussian Width σAS
pjet,rec =
10-15 GeV/c 20-40 GeV/c
Data Au+Au, 0-20%
Data p+p
YaJEM-DE p+p
Gunther Roland
FIG. 3. (Color online.) The (a) Gaussian widths of the awayside jet peaks ( AS ) in Au+Au (solid symbols) and p+p (open
symbols) and (b) awayside momentum di↵erence DAA are
shown for two ranges of pjet,rec
: 10 15 GeV/c (red circles)
and 20 40 GeV/c (black squares). Results for 15 20 GeV/c
(not shown) are similar. The boundaries of the passoc
bins are
shown along the upper axes. YaJEM-DE model calculations
(solid and dashed lines) are from [42].
are the same in p+p and Au+Au on average, indicating
that jets containing high-pT fragments are not largely
deflected by the presence of the medium. The widths
at low passoc
are indicative of broadening. However, as
the low-passoc
widths are anticorrelated with the magT
nitude of v3assoc v3jet , measurements of vnjet are necessary
before quantitative conclusions are drawn. The awayside
DAA , shown in Fig. 3(b), exhibits suppression of highpassoc
hadrons and enhancement of low-passoc
jet fragT
ments in Au+Au, indicating that jets in Au+Au are significantly softer than those in p+p collisions. The amount
of high-passoc
suppression, quantified by summing DAA
only over bins with passoc
> 2 GeV/c, ranges from 2.5
to 5 GeV/c as jet pT increases. Summing DAA over all
bins to obtain the ⌃DAA values, shown in Table I,
indicates that the high-passoc
suppression is balanced in
large part by the low-passoc
Theoretical calculations from YaJEM-DE [47], a
Monte Carlo model of in-medium shower evolution, are
also shown for AS and DAA in Fig. 3 [42]. This model incorporates radiative and elastic energy loss, and describes
sance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University
Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and
Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (U.S.A), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports,
Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the
Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientı́fico e Tecnológico and Fundação de
Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China (P. R. China), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, and Institut National
de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules
(France), Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung,
Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), Hungarian National Science Fund, OTKA (Hungary), Department of
Atomic Energy and Department of Science and TechnolQCD
ogy (India), Israel Science19
Foundation (Israel),
Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry
Education Science and Technology (Korea), Ministry of
Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the U.S. Civilian Research
and Development Foundation for the Independent States
of the Former Soviet Union, the US-Hungarian Fulbright
Foundation for Educational
Exchange, and the US-Israel
Binational Science Foundation.
Weak radius
dependence of jet RAA
high-pT associated
yield1is in large 1.5
part balanced
by low-passoc
enhancement. The experimentally-observed
redistribution of energy from high-pT fragments to lowpT fragments that remain correlated with the jet axis is
FIG. 3: (Color online) The top panel shows the I
for the
consistent with radiative/collisional energy loss models AA
full away-side (|∆φ−π| < π/2) (circles) and for two restricted
for parton interactions within the Quark-Gluon Plasma.
and LHC
away-side integration ranges, |∆φ
− π|at
π/3 (squares)
We thank the RHIC Operations Group and RCF at
BNL, the NERSC Center at LBNL, the KISTI Center
of the IAA
for |∆φ − π| <
and the
for proπ/2 toresources
|∆φ − π|
< support.
This work was supported
in part by the Offices of NP and HEP within the U.S.
DOE Office of Science, the U.S. NSF, CNRS/IN2P3,
FAPESP CNPq of Brazil, Ministry of Ed. and Sci. of the
ment, we can look at the ratio of IAAMoE
’s with
Russian Federation, NNSFC, CAS, MoST and
some ofGA
the Korean
MSMT and systematic
to all
cancel. The
the Czech
Republic, FIAS
of Germany,
CSIR panel
of India,
of Poland,
of National
Fig. 3 shows
of the full awayNational
Research Foundation
Min-case. From
side integration
range to the
|∆φ − π| < π/6
istry of Sci., Ed. and Sports of the Rep. of Croatia, and
this ratio it is clear that there is a significant variation
RosAtom of Russia. Finally, we gratefully acknowledge
IAA as
a for
the 2006ofrun
The average
ratio for Corporation.
ξ > 0.8 is 1.9±0.3(stat) ±0.3(syst),
Little change at
small r, high pT
at intermediate r, pT
at large r, low pT
Vacuum Jet
indicating that the enhancement in IAA seen at large ξ
is predominately at large angles (|∆φ − π| > π/6).
In summary, we have presented evidence for medium
[1] J. Adams et al. (STAR), Nucl. Phys. A757, 102 (2005).
of jet fragmentation, measured via compar√
ison of direct photon-hadron correlations in sN N = 200
v2 and v3 Jet
p+p collisions.
of Au+Au to
(GeV/c) (GeV/c) Uncert. Uncert.
yields indicates+0.2
that particles
at low ξ or
10 15
0.6 ± 0.2
, due to energy
loss of quarks
15 momentum
1.8 ± 0.3 fraction,
an increasing
20 40
± 0.8
0.1ratio exhibits
trend toward high ξ, exceeding one at ξ ≥ 1.0. RestrictTABLE I. Awayside ⌃DAA values with statistical and sysing theuncertainties
to detector integration
e↵ects, the shape
of thereduces the
andξ the
trigger jet energy
at high
suggests that
the medium enhances production of soft particles in parton fragmentation, relative to p+p, preferentially at large
We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and
Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We also thank
Thorsten Renk for providing unpublished calculations
and for valuable discussions. We acknowledge support
from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science
Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renais-
radius dependence
Gunther Roland
Radius r
Jets at RHIC and LHC
PHENIX Spokesperson: [email protected]
K. Adcox et al. (PHENIX Collaboration), Nucl. Phys. A
757, 184 (2005).
J. Adams et al. (STAR Collaboration), Nucl. Phys. A
757, 102 (2005).
B. B. Back et al. (PHOBOS Collaboration), Nucl. Phys.
A 757, 28 (2005).
I. Arsene et al. (BRAHMS Collaboration), Nucl. Phys.
A 757, 1 (2005).
K. Adcox et al. (PHENIX Collaboration), Phys. Rev.
Lett. 88, 022301 (2002).
C. Adler et al. (STAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett.
89, 202301 (2002).
U. Weidemann, Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics, LandoldtBoernstein, vol. 23 (Springer-Verlag, 2010).
R. Baier, D. Schiff, and B. Zakharov, Annu. Rev. Nucl.
Part. Sci. 50, 37 (2000).
S. Afanasiev et al. (PHENIX Collaboration), Phys. Rev.
Lett. 109, 152302 (2012).
X.-N. Wang, Z. Huang, and I. Sarcevic, Phys. Rev. Lett.
77, 231 (1996).
A. Adare et al. (PHENIX Collaboration), Phys. Rev. D
82, 072001 (2010).
G. Y. Qin, J. Ruppert, C. Gale, S. Jeon, and G. D.
Moore, Phys. Rev. C 80, 054909 (2009).
S. S. Adler et al. (PHENIX Collaboration), Phys. Rev.
Figure 9: Qualitative summary of current jet/photon-hadron correlation measurements at RHIC
(left panel) and selected full jet, b-jet RAA and jet fragmentation function measurements at the
LHC (right panel).
less (about a factor of two) as compared to the expectation from proton-proton collisions
(Figure 9, right panel);
• the interaction with the medium does not alter the direction of the propagating jet: although
the distribution of the di-jet energy balance is strongly modified there is no sign of medium
induced accoplanarity of the jet pairs.
Moreover, studies of the internal jet structure revealed that the recoiling jets that are selected to
lose a significant portion of their energy on average show moderate or only small modifications of
their fragmentation pattern as compared to jets fragmenting in vacuum (Figure 9, right panel).
On the other hand, the subsequent search for the radiated energy has provided evidence that it
is redistributed over large angles away from the jet axis and hadronizes into soft (of the order
of GeV) particles. In contrast, measurements utilizing jet/photon-hadron correlations at RHIC
indicate that (on average) the fragmentation pattern is suppressed at high pT and significantly
enhanced at low pT accompanied by only a moderate broadening of the jet structure (Figure 9,
left panel). There now exist several model studies [153, 154] as well as a Monte-Carlo study [155]
based on pQCD which demonstrate similar effects. It should also be pointed out that, at a
qualitative level, such observations are not inconsistent with expectations for how jets should
lose energy in a strongly coupled plasma that are based upon calculations done in model systems
that can be analyzed using holographic duality. Reconciling these findings in a coherent and
quantitative theoretical parton energy loss framework will ultimately require from the experimental
side a suite of similar jet measurements at RHIC to allow a direct comparison to LHC results.
(~2% of jet energy)
QCD Town M
3.3 Parton Energy Loss and Jet Modification
Heavy quark energy loss
Heavy quarks (in particular b and c quarks) provide both a systematic test of the underlying
formalism of energy loss as well as access to a slightly different set of transport coefficients in
the medium. As such they constitute a vital addition to the suite of jet observables. It should be
made clear that here we refer to intermediate energy heavy quarks, i.e., quarks with a momentum
p relative to the medium satisfying p & MB , where MB is the mass of the bottom quark. Heavy
quarks that have a lower momentum interact strongly with the medium and will be covered in
Section 3.5, while quarks with momenta that are orders of magnitude larger than the mass can
be treated as light quarks. It is in this intermediate momentum region where a considerable
suppression in the yield of heavy quarks has been observed, either via the nuclear modification
factor of non-photonic electrons at RHIC or via the nuclear modification factors of heavy flavor
mesons at the LHC. At high momentum one expects heavy quark energy loss to be similar to
that of light flavors.
The extra and unexpected suppression at intermediate momenta has been the subject of intense
theoretical work over the last several years. In Figure 10, we show the experimental measurements
for the nuclear modification factor for non-photonic electrons (the data are identical in all three
plots). These measurements are compared with theoretical calculations from the ASW [156],
Higher-Twist [157], and WHDG [158] schemes. Both the WHDG and Higher-Twist calculations
contain drag loss in addition to radiative loss and fit the data much better than the ASW curve
which only contains radiative loss.
Such measurements and associated theory calculations showed already at RHIC that heavy quarks
are much more sensitive to transport coefficients such as ê than the quenching of light flavors.
Statistics accumulated at the LHC allowed for much more improved comparisons by observing
the B and D contributions separately. Indeed, at the jet energies significantly higher than the
quark mass the experimental measurements of high-pT b-quark jets show a similar suppression
pattern to that of inclusive jets. In contrast, comparison of D-meson production and non-prompt
J/ψ from B-meson decays (for pT up to 20 GeV/c) indicate the predicted mass hierarchy: heavy
quarks loose significantly less energy as compared to the lighter flavors. The extension of these
B/D separated measurements to RHIC is a major focus of the program discussed in Section 4.1.
Outlook and Conclusions
Even though these studies have provided a qualitative milestone in understanding of the jetmedium interactions they call for further investigations and demand precision. As but one
example, the higher statistics of future runs at the LHC are needed both to determine precisely
the in-cone modifications of the energy flux associated to the jet as well as to map out the full
kinematic range of the observed phenomena down to lowest jet energies. Moreover, the higher
precision is needed for gamma-jet coincidences and b-jets measurements, as well as new channels
of studies will become available, such as Z-jet coincidences. With these measurements and their
rather complete toolkit at the LHC it is compelling to perform similar measurements at the
lower center-of-mass energy provided by RHIC to determine the temperature dependence of the
3.3 Parton Energy Loss and Jet Modification
c+b →e
STAR 0-5%
PHENIX 0-10%
p (GeV/c)
(a) Calculations from ASW formalism [156].
c+b →e
STAR 0-5%
PHENIX 0-10%
rad+el (QM)
rad+el no log (QM)
p (GeV/c)
(b) Calculations from Higher Twist formalism [157].
c+b →e
STAR 0-5%
PHENIX 0-10%
rad+el (TG)
rad+el (BT)
p (GeV/c)
(c) Calculations from WHDG scheme [158].
Figure 10: Nuclear modification factor for semi-leptonic decay electrons from B and D mesons,
as measured by the PHENIX [159] and STAR [160] collaborations compared to theory curves
from various formalisms. The Higher Twist and WHDG contain both radiative and drag loss, the
ASW calculations only contain radiative loss.
3.4 Initial State for Plasma Formation and Low-x Phenomena
observed phenomena. The required program, which relies on RHIC’s greatly increased luminosity
and upgrades to PHENIX and STAR, is discussed in detail in Section 4.3.
Initial State for Plasma Formation and Low-x Phenomena
Figure 11: Color fields of the two nuclei before the collision, from [161]
At the high collision energies of RHIC and the LHC, the phase space available for radiating small-x
gluons and quark-antiquark pairs is very large. Since each emitted parton is itself a source of
additional gluons, an exponentially growing cascade of radiation is created which would eventually
violate unitarity. However, when the density of partons in the transverse plane becomes large
enough, softer partons begin to recombine into harder ones and the gluon density saturates. This
limits the growth of the cascade and preserves the unitarity of the S-matrix. The transverse
momentum scale below which these nonlinear interactions dominate is known as the saturation
scale Qs . The saturation scale grows with collision energy, but also with the size of the nucleus
as Q2s ∼ A1/3 . For high enough energies Qs is large and the corresponding QCD coupling weak
αs (Qs ) 1. This makes it possible to calculate even bulk particle production using weak coupling
methods, although the calculation is still nonperturbative due to the large field strengths. Because
the gluonic states have large occupation numbers, the fields behave classically. The classical field
theory describing the saturation domain is known as the “Color Glass Condensate” (CGC) [108].
The ideal probe of the CGC state are dilute-dense collisions, where a simple small projectile
collides with a large nucleus. At RHIC and the LHC proton-nucleus collisions provide such a
tool for understanding saturation phenomena. Significant progress has been made in describing
the systematics of particle production as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity in
proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions with CGC calculations [162–166], which are consistent
with the collinearly factorized perturbative QCD description [167] at high transverse momenta.
The case of saturation effects in the multiparticle correlations as a function of azimuthal angle
3.4 Initial State for Plasma Formation and Low-x Phenomena
and rapidity discussed in Section 3.2 remains more open. While there are contributions to these
correlations that originate already in the nuclear wavefunctions [100], experimental evidence points
to strong collective behavior also in the final state of proton-nucleus and even proton-proton
collisions. The versatility of RHIC to systematically change the size of the projectile nucleus and
complement p+A with d+A, 3 He+A etc. collisions over a wide range of collision energies is
unparalleled and a key to exploring where these collective effects turn on.
Yet another approach to probe the nuclear wave-function is provided by virtual photons produced
in ultra-peripheral p+A and A+A collisions. Such measurements are sensitive to the gluon
structure of the nucleus at low x as well as to cold nuclear matter absorption effects on produced
hadrons such as the J/ψ . At RHIC studies have been of made of ρ(1700 production [168]
and of coherent production of J/ψ ’s and high-mass e+ e− pairs [169]. Much higher virtual
photon fluxes are provided by the higher collision energies of the LHC, where detailed studies
have explored the role of gluon shadowing in photoproduction of J/ψ ’s in both p+Pb [170] and
Pb+Pb collisions [171–173], demonstrating sensitivities to Bjorken-x values in both the proton
and the Pb nucleus down to x ∼ 10−5 .
Significant further insight into the structure of high energy nuclei can be obtained from a polarized
p+A program uniquely provided by RHIC [18]. For example, it has been suggested [174, 175]
that comparing transverse single spin asymmetries measured in polarized p+p and polarized
p+A collisions for different nuclei and at different beam energies could be very sensitive to the
saturation scale Qs . Further, as noted, proton-nucleus collisions have also provided surprises in
their own right — we now understand the resolution of these to be sensitive to the detailed spatial
structure of partons in both protons and heavier nuclei. The importance of a polarized p+A
program is therefore two-fold: (i) It will provide unique and essential information on the parton
structure of proton and nuclear wave functions. (ii) The implementation of this information in
models of heavy-ion collisions will provide more sensitive tests of and precise extraction of the
parameters of the Little Bang Standard Model. Precise and controlled access to the high energy
nucleus is needed to disentangle the effects of strong collectivity in the initial wave functions and
the final state. An ideal complement to a polarized p+A program will be an Electron-Ion Collider
that can measure the transverse and longitudinal structure of the small-x gluons in nuclei.
Studying both electron-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions will allow the direct comparison of a
color neutral to a colored probe of the nuclear medium [16]. In electron-nucleus collisions, the
parton kinematics are well measured. Furthermore, viewed in the appropriate Lorentz frame, the
target is probed with a quark-antiquark dipole, which is theoretically well-controlled and tunable.
In proton-nucleus collisions, on the other hand, coherent multiple scattering effects are more
complicated. The combination of data from electron-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions is
needed to separate the structure of the medium from the dynamics of the probe. The effect
of the cold QCD medium on a colored probe must be consistent with theoretical descriptions
developed for partonic interactions in a hot and dense QCD medium. Thus electron-nucleus
and proton-nucleus collisions also provide an important control experiment for our theoretical
understanding of jet quenching.
The theoretical description of the initial stage of quark-gluon plasma formation has become
increasingly detailed. State of the art calculations [3, 176] now combine a fluctuating nuclear
geometry with a microscopic QCD description of the dynamics of matter formation that is
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
consistent with our understanding of proton-nucleus collisions and deep inelastic scattering. This
extends the description of the initial state geometry well beyond that provided by Glauber modeling
at the nucleonic level. As discussed in Section 3.2, these initial state calculations, combined with
detailed measurements of correlations and fluctuations in the observed flow patterns, have helped
to significantly improve the precision of the first quantitative experimental determinations of e.g.
the viscosity/entropy ratio η/s.
Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
Hadrons containing heavy quarks (charm and bottom) play a special role in hot QCD matter
studies. The heavy-quark masses, mc,b ' 1.5, 5 GeV, are large compared to the temperatures
typically realized in the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions. This has important consequences.
First, the production of heavy quarks is essentially restricted to the initial impact of the incoming
nuclei. After that, they “diffuse” through the produced medium, much like Brownian particles.
The modifications of their momentum spectra relative to the initial spectra can thus serve
as a rather direct measure of their coupling strength to the hot medium. This is so because
their thermal relaxation time is increased compared to that for light particles by a factor of
order mQ /T ' 5-20, implying that heavy quarks in the QGP (or hadrons in hadronic matter)
are not expected to fully thermalize over the course of the fireball lifetime, and thus retain
a “memory” of their interaction history. Moreover, at small and intermediate momenta, the
heavy-quark interactions become dominantly elastic and may be amenable to a potential-type
prescription. In the vacuum, the potential approach is well established for the description of
heavy quarkonia, i.e., bound states of a heavy quark and its anti-quark. The vacuum potential
is characterized by a color-Coulomb interaction at short distances and a linearly rising “string”
term at intermediate and large distance associated with confinement. When embedded into a
QGP, the properties of heavy quarkonia in the QGP will thus reflect the modifications of the
in-medium QCD potential. With increasing temperature one expects a subsequent dissolution of
the bound states, as the medium-induced screening penetrates to smaller distances. However, this
simple picture is complicated by inelastic collisions with medium particles, leading to a dynamical
dissociation of the bound state. These processes generate in-medium widths and need to be
accounted for in the description of quarkonium spectral functions at finite temperature. In heavy
ion collisions, the in-medium properties of quarkonia have to be inferred from their production
yields and momentum spectra in the final state. A thorough interpretation of the data thus
requires systematic analyses of the centrality, energy and species dependence of quarkonia. This
usually requires transport approaches to calculate the time evolution of quarkonium distributions
including both dissociation reactions and formation processes through recombination of diffusing
heavy quarks. In the following we briefly summarize recent progress in both open and hidden
heavy flavor probes of hot and dense QCD matter.
Quarkonia Suppression and Enhancement
Theoretical studies of heavy quarkonia in QCD matter are carried out both from first principles
using lattice-discretized QCD computations [177, 178] and within effective model approaches.
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
The latter aid in interpreting the lattice results and form the bridge to phenomenological
implementations in heavy-ion collisions.
One of the key quantities computed in lattice QCD is the free energy, FQQ̄ (r, T ), of a static QQ̄
pair at distance r in a medium at temperature T . In the vacuum it reduces to the well-known
Cornell potential between the two quarks, but in the medium an additional entropy term develops,
FQQ̄ = UQQ̄ − T SQQ̄ . Accurate calculations for FQQ̄ (r, T ), which are now available for full
QCD with realistic light quark masses, show marked deviations from its vacuum form, through a
progressive “Debye screening” toward smaller distances as temperature increases. When utilizing
the free energy as a potential in a Schrödinger equation [179], the charmonium groundstate,
J/ψ dissolves slightly above the critical temperature, while the excited states melt at or even
below Tc ; only the bottomonium groundstate, Υ, survives up to 2-3 Tc . On the other hand, if
the potential is approximated with the internal energy, UQQ̄ , the J/ψ survives to significantly
higher temperatures, possibly up to 2 Tc . These limiting cases are sometimes referred to as weakand strong-binding scenarios, respectively. It has also become clear that a proper inclusion of
absorptive processes in the QQ̄ system, characterizing its dissociation by dynamical processes, is
essential to arrive at a realistic and quantitative description of its in-medium properties.
Lattice computations also provide detailed information on QQ̄ correlation functions in euclidean
space-time (where the “imaginary-time” coordinate is related to the temperature of the system).
Extracting the physical (real-time) QQ̄ spectral function requires an inverse integral transform on a
limited number of “data” points. This usually is done using maximum likelihood methods [180,181],
sometimes guided by a parametric ansatz for the spectral function [182]. In the bottomonium
sector one can additionally utilize nonrelativistic heavy-quark effective theory [183]. The heavyquark transport coefficient has been extracted from the low energy limit of the spectral functions
in quenched QCD (no dynamical quarks) [182,184,185], highlighting the close connection between
quarkonia and open heavy flavor in the QGP (cf. Section 3.5.2). The “reconstructed” charmonium
spectral functions from lattice QCD have not yet led to definite conclusions about the fate of
bound states in the QGP. A promising complementary source of information are spatial correlation
functions [186, 187]; they are related to the 3-momentum dependence of the quarkonium spectral
functions, but also encode information on modifications of the spectral (energy) strength in
Fruitful connections to lattice QCD results have been established with potential models, either
through a Schrödinger equation [188] or a thermodynamic T -matrix formulation [189]. Here,
the calculated spectral functions can be straightforwardly integrated to obtain the euclidean
correlation functions computed on the lattice. Both strong- and weak-binding scenarios for the
QQ̄ appear to be compatible with the lattice data, once absorptive parts and a proper treatment
of the continuum are included in the calculations. A better discrimination power arises when
analyzing the interactions of open heavy flavor with the medium. This has been pursued in the
T -matrix approach [190]; only the strong-binding scenario produces sufficient strength in the
heavy-quark transport coefficient to come close to open heavy-flavor observables in heavy-ion
collisions (cf. Section 3.5.2). Recent progress in the determination of the in-medium QQ̄ potential
has been made by utilizing the spectral functions of the so-called Wilson loop correlator, including
absorptive parts [191]. Here, the real part of the potential turns out to be close to the free energy.
Further theoretical work, exploiting the insights derived from both lattice QCD and effective
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
models, is needed to clarify these issues and arrive at a consistent picture of quarkonia and open
heavy flavor in the QGP.
To confront (and eventually extract) the equilibrium properties of quarkonia with (from) data in
heavy-ion experiments, one typically adopts Boltzmann-type transport approaches to model the
space-time evolution of quarkonium phase-space distributions, from their initial production until
the fireball freezes out. The quarkonium equilibrium properties are functions of the binding energy,
in-medium heavy-quark masses (defining the continuum threshold) and inelastic reaction rates,
e.g., g + J/ψ → c + c̄. In some approaches [192, 193], the in-medium quarkonium properties
implemented into the transport equation have been checked against the euclidean correlators
from lattice-QCD described above. Here too, current heavy ion phenomenology appears to favor
a strong-binding scenario [192–195], which would be consistent with the phenomenology for open
heavy flavor.
The principle of detailed balance requires that one account for quarkonium formation reactions
(called “regeneration” or “coalescence”), if the quarkonium state under consideration exists at
the local medium temperature (relative to the “melting temperature”). An accurate assessment
of quarkonium formation reactions not only requires knowledge of the reaction rate, but also of
the phase-space distributions of open heavy flavor. Again, this couples the problem of quarkonium
production with heavy-flavor diffusion, providing both challenges and opportunities.
The quarkonium transport equations need to be evolved over a realistic space-time evolution of a
given collision system and energy. Current approaches include expanding thermal fireball models
with QGP and hadronic phase [192,196] or co-mover interactions [197], ideal hydrodynamics [198],
and viscous hydrodynamics with local momentum anisoptropies [195]. Systematic investigations
of how sensitive the final results are to details of medium evolution models need to be conducted.
Most of the calculations include cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects to construct the initial
conditions of the quarkonium phase space distributions, as well as a gain term in the rate equation
which is essential for a realistic description of charmonia at collider energies. For the Υ states,
regeneration effects seem to be rather small, even at the LHC [193]. Quarkonium production
has also been evaluated via statistical recombination at the QCD phase boundary [199–201]. In
essence, this approach corresponds to the equilibrium limit of the transport approaches, but it
allows for a more complete incorporation of open and hidden charm hadrons to account for their
relative chemical equilibrium (at fixed charm-quark number).
An extensive program of J/ψ measurements in A+A collisions has been carried out at the SPS
( sN N = 17.3 GeV), RHIC ( sN N = 200 GeV) and the LHC ( sN N = 2.76 TeV). These
measurements were motivated by the possibility of observing signals of color deconfinement
through the suppression of J/ψ in the case of QGP formation [202]. In fact, a strong suppression
of the J/ψ is observed at all three energies, but it has become clear that the manifestation of
color screening in the observed modifications can not be uniquely determined without a good
understanding of two significant competing effects. The first of these is the modification of J/ψ
production cross sections in a nuclear target (known as cold nuclear matter effects); it has been
addressed at RHIC using d+Au collisions and at the SPS and LHC using p+Pb collisions. The
second effect is the recombination of charm and anticharm discussed above.
Using p+Pb and d+Au data as a baseline, and under the assumption that cold nuclear matter
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
effects can be factorized from hot matter effects, the suppression in central collisions due to the
presence of hot matter in the final state has been estimated to be about 25% for Pb+Pb at
the SPS [203], and about 50% for Au+Au at RHIC [204], both measured at midrapidity. The
modification of J/ψ production in Au+Au collisions has been measured at sN N =39, 62 and 200
GeV by PHENIX [205] and STAR [206, 207]. The results for the rapidity range 1.2 < |y| < 2.2 is
shown in Figure 12, where it is compared with a theoretical calculation [192] that includes cold
nuclear matter effects and the effects of regeneration. The experimental observation is that the
modification is similar at all three collision energies, in spite of the differences in energy density.
Similar observations apply to data measured by STAR at mid-rapidity (|y| < 1) [206, 207]. In
the model calculation, this is expected because the increased direct suppression at the higher
energy due to stronger Debye screening is nearly compensated by the increase in the regeneration
component [208].
RAA (200 GeV) PRC 84, 054912 (2011)
J/ψ R
200 GeV
62 GeV
39 GeV
Global sys.= ± 9.2%
RAA (62.4 GeV) = PHENIX data/Our estimate
Global sys.= ± 29.4%
RAA (39 GeV) = PHENIX data/FNAL data
Global sys.= ± 19%
Direct (x0.5)
Regeneration (x0.5)
Au+Au Npart
Figure 12: The nuclear modification factor for J/ψ production for sN N =200, 62 and 39 GeV
Au+Au collisions from PHENIX [205], compared with theory calculations [192] showing the
contributions from direct suppression and regeneration.
The first J/ψ data in Pb+Pb collisions at sN N = 2.76 TeV from ALICE [212], measured at
forward rapidity, are shown alongside forward rapidity PHENIX data in the left panel of Figure 13.
The suppression in central collisions is found to be far greater at RHIC than at the LHC. A
similar result is found at midrapidity. This is consistent with a predicted [213] strong coalescence
component due to the large production rate of charm and anti-charm quarks in a central collision
at the LHC. This explanation is corroborated by the transverse-momentum spectra [210,214,215],
which exhibit the expected [211, 213] low-momentum enhancement generated by the coalescence
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
ALICE (2.5<y<4.0,
syst.), sNN=2.76
st.), sNN=2.76
Fig. 3. TeV
(Color online.) Centrality dependence
of the nuclear
R AA ,
J/ψ production in Pb–Pb
at sNN
= 2syst.),
.76 TeV,s measured
% syst.), sof
mid-rapidity and at forward-rapidity. The point to point uncorrelated systematic
uncertainties (type II) are represented as boxes around the data points, while the
statistical ones are shown as vertical bars. Global correlated systematic uncertainties
(type I) are quoted directly in the legend.
J/ ψ
uous dissociation and (re)generation of charmonium takes place
the deconfined stage.
STAR, 200 GeV Au+Au, 0-60%, |y|<1
PHENIX, 200 GeV Au+Au, 0-60%, |y|<0.35
ALICE, 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb, 0-90%, 2.5<y<4
Transport Model I (Y.-P. Liu et al), RHIC
Transport Model II, (X. Zhao et al), RHIC
Transport Model II, LHC, w/ shadowing
Transport Model II, LHC, w/o shadowing
is observed, independent of centrality for ⟨ N part ⟩ > 70. Although
0.6 the mid-rapidity R AA shows a suppreswith larger uncertainties,
sion of the J/ψ yield too. The centrality integrated R AA values
are R AA
= 0.72 ±0.4
0.06(stat.) ± 0.10(syst.) and R AA
= 0.58 ±
0.01(stat.) ± 0.09(syst.) at mid- and forward-rapidity, respectively.
The systematic uncertainties on both R AA values include the con0.4
0.2⟨ T ⟩ calculations. This amounts to 3.4% of
tribution arising from
the computed ⟨ T AA ⟩ value and is a correlated systematic uncer0.2
forward rapidity
forward rapidity
tainty common to the0 mid- and forward-rapidity measurements.
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
1000 1200 1400 1600
PHENIX mid- (| y | < 0.35) and forward-rapidity (1.2 < | y | < 2.2)
1 2
9 10
dNch/dη |
/dη |
pT (GeV/c)
cha much
inclusive J/ψ R AA at sNN = 0.2 TeV exhibit
p (GeV/c)
stronger dependence on the collision centrality and a suppression
Fig. 4. (Color online.) Top panel: transverse momentum dependence of the central√
of about
a factor
of three larger
in the
ce of the
ity integrated J/ψfactor
R AA measured
in Pb–Pb collisions
NN = 2.76
forat the
NN =
The measured inclusive J/ψ R AA includes contributions from
ty density (at η=0) for midrapidity (left panel) and at forward
tum dependence
of the
J/ψ TeV
R AA measured
in the
0%–20% most
GeV Au+Au
and for
sN N =
prompt and
J/ψ ; the
first onefrom
from direct
he data
are integrated
pT and
col- Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV
compared to PHENIX [9] results in the 0%–20%
J/ψ production
The data are[227]
the ccharged
at midrapidity,
central Au–Au collisions
at sNN = 0.2 TeV. which is used as a
at the Non-prompt
LHC. NoteJ/ψ
one arisescollaboration
from beauty hadron decays.
for energy
Right: The
transverse momentum distributions for the same
in the
to the prompt
ones, since
their suppression
In the top panel of Fig. 4, the J/ψ R AA at forward-rapidity is
sets, together
with higher-momentum
low momentum
is insensitive
to color screening
or regeneration mech- data from STAR [210] showing the
shown as a function of p T for the 0%–90% centrality integrated
anisms. Beauty
J/ψ production
enhancement that would be expected from a large
Pb–Pb coalescence
collisions. It exhibits
a decreaseatfrom
to energy.
0.36, indiandquestion
a measurement
of the non-prompt
R AAmeasured
is therefore
er on the
of (re)generation.
atconhigh cating that high p T J/ψ are more suppressed than low p T ones.
are in-medium
to alosstransport
model [211] which incorporates the effects of gluon
ced suppression of J/ψ in Pb–Pb compared to pp collisions and Furthermore, at high p T a direct comparison with CMS results [20]
therein). At mid-rapidity,
the contribution from beauty
and coalescence.
s that hadron
of open-charm
hadrons, see Fig. 16. This may indicate at the same sNN is possible, the main difference being that the
feed-down to the inclusive J/ψ yield in pp collisions at
√ form either D or J/ψ mesons had the same dynamics, CMS measurement covers a slightly more central rapidity range
uarks that
s = 7 TeV is approximately 15% [48]. The prompt J/ψ R AA can be
(1.6 < | y | < 2.4). In the overlapping p T range a similar suppresprompt
in QGP
and aaccording
late hadronization.
to R AA
( R AA − R AA
)/(1 − F B ) where
sion is13.
found. One should add here that the two CMS points are
in the right
panel of Figure
fraction (inclusive
of non-prompt
measured in [230],
pp collisions,
in pJT/ψ
) production
showed not independent and correspond to different intervals of the J/ψ
B isthe
the nuclear
of beauty
p T (3 <
< 30 screening
GeV/c and 6.and
5 < pcoalescence
of the
in the
J/ψbotT < 30 GeV/c). In
in Pb–Pb collisions. Thus, the prompt J/ψ R AA at mid-rapidity is
tom panel of Fig. 4, the forward-rapidity J/ψ R AA for the 0%–20%
, see Fig. 17. The
J/ψ elliptic flow. All other hadrons acquire flow
expected to
be about 7%issmaller
than by
the the
measurementof the
and byif transport
in Fig.
18. most central collisions is shown. The observed p T dependence of
the beauty
collivelocities through their interaction with the QGP
the medium
R AA for most
collisions is very
close tosignificant
the one in the
ons, thesions
of deconfine= 1)can
17% largera ifprobe
the beauty
is fully
0%–90% centrality class. This is indeed expected since almost 70%
flow and strongofnuclear
disassociation of J/ψś from color
d [175],suppressed
but mayelliptic
the medium.
Within ofInthecontrast,
(R AAbe a “thermometer”
= 0). At forward-rapidity,
the non-prompt
J/ψ yield is contained in the 0%–20% centrality class. Our
is predicted
with the absence of a flow signal,
of to
be- datamodification
J/ψ fraction
was measured
by the LHCb
to be about
are compared to results obtained by PHENIX in 0%–20% most
11(7)% phases.
in while
pp collisions
s = regenerated
) TeV in
p T range
will carry
Au–Au collisions
at flow
sNN =from
0.2 TeV,
the rapidity rethe hadron
of the
ered by this analysis
[28,49]. Then,
the R AA
< | y | < the
2.2 [9].
A striking difference
the J/ψ R AA
the hadronization
they between
are formed.
of prompt J/ψ and the one for inclusive J/ψ is expected to be of
patterns can be observed. In particular, in the low p T region the
from fits
of statistical model
the LHC
a corresponding
about −6%elliptic
and 7% flow
in the measurements
two aforementioned[216–218]
extreme cases
as- RHIC
R AA result
is a factor
of up towith
four higher
compared to the
beauty production.
with the
calculation [219]. The data are consistent (within the current large statistical
about 60-70% of the J/ψ yield in Pb–Pb collisions originates
with a model incorporating disassociation from color screening at both RHIC and the LHC in
c and c̄ quarks, the rest being primordial J/ψ mesons that have
with significant
of J/ψś at the LHC from coalescence of thermalized
ed medium. These
models show
[223, 225] that,
as expected,
inantly a low-pT phenomenon, as illustrated by the measured of the coalescence mechanism at the LHC results
much higher
hown in Fig. 19.
of cross
J/ψ elliptic
the production in the initial phase of the collision at
e of limited statistical
LHC energies as compared to RHIC. There isingreat promise that the future availability of data sets
rmalization. The
data at RHIC
are compatible
precision at
thea null
widely spaced collision energies of RHIC and the LHC,
in combination with studies constraining CNM effects with p+A data, will lead to a quantitative
understanding of the role of coalescence from nearly thermalized charm and anti-charm quarks.
However, a more direct window on the Debye screening and dissociation effects alone is expected
from a systematic analysis of bottomonium production, as we will now discuss.
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
STAR, 200 GeV Au+Au, |y|<1
ALICE, 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb, 2.5<y<4
CMS Preliminary, 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb, |y|<2.4
CMS Preliminary, 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb, 1.6<|y|<2.4
Transport Model (Y.-P. Liu et al), RHIC
Transport Model, LHC, B thermalized
Transport Model, LHC, B not thermalized
p (GeV/c)
Figure 14: The transverse momentum dependent elliptic flow measurements of J/ψś from
STAR [216], ALICE [217], and CMS [218] compared with the theoretical calculations [219].
Bottomonium production is believed to have several advantages over charmonia as a probe of
deconfinement in the QGP. First, the Υ(1S), Υ(2S) and Υ(3S) states can all be observed with
comparable yields via their dilepton decays. Second, bottom production in central collisions is ∼
0.05 pairs at RHIC and ∼ 5 pairs at LHC [204]. At RHIC, one expects this to effectively remove
any contributions from coalescence of bottom and anti-bottom quarks (although some care has to
be taken, since the ratio of bottomonium over open bottom states in pp collisions is ∼0.1% and
thus a factor of 10 smaller than in the charm sector; thus, even small regeneration, even from a
single pair in the reaction, can potentially be significant). This makes the Υ suppression at RHIC
dependent primarily on color screening and dissociation reactions, as well as cold nuclear matter
effects. Recent theoretical calculations [193] support the assertion that the coalescence production
for Υ’s is small at RHIC. At LHC energies, bottom coalescence could become comparable with
charm coalesence at RHIC, i.e. at the 10’s of percent level. Since the Υ(1S), Υ(2S) and Υ(3S)
have a broad range of radii, precise measurements of bottomonia modifications at RHIC and LHC
energies will provide information over a large range of binding energies at two widely different
initial temperatures, for a case where the modification is dominated by Debye screening effects.
The CMS experiment at the LHC has mass resolution that is sufficient to cleanly separate all
three of the Υ states at midrapidity using dimuon decays [220]. The data obtained in Pb+Pb
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
collisions at sN N =2.76 TeV for the Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) states are shown in Figure 15, where
they are compared with a model calculation [193] that includes both cold nuclear matter effects
and regeneration. The data show much stronger suppression of the Υ(2S) than the Υ(1S).
The Υ(3S) is even more strongly suppressed, and as a result the yield is too small to determine
accurately the nuclear suppression factor. The theory is in good agreement with the data,
although better statistical precision is needed for strong theoretical constraints. Future Pb+Pb
data at the LHC will be measured at sN N =5.5 TeV, and will have greatly increased statistical
sNN = 2.76 TeV
ϒ (1S)
CMS data
ϒ (2S)
CMS data
Nuc. Abs.
Figure 15: The nuclear suppression factor RAA for the Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) states measured at
sN N =2.76 TeV by CMS [220]. The theory calculation [193] includes cold nuclear matter
effects and the contributions from the surviving primordial J/ψ and those which are formed by
regeneration are shown, as well as the total.
By the end of Run 3 at the LHC (approximately 2023) CMS will have measured very precise
cross sections for the three Υ states in p+p, p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions. A mass-resolved
measurement of the modifications of the three upsilon states with similar precision at RHIC energy
would be extremely valuable for all of the reasons outlined above. However Υ measurements at
RHIC have been hampered by a combination of low cross sections and acceptance, and insufficient
momentum resolution to resolve the three states. At RHIC there are measurements of the
modification of the three states combined in Au+Au by PHENIX [221] and STAR [222]. These
data are shown in Figure 16, along with two theory calculations [193, 195] of the modification of
the three Upsilon states combined. The data available so far have limited statistical precision,
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
and do not place strong constraints on models.
Figure 16: The nuclear suppression factor RAA for the Υ(1S + 2S + 3S) states measured at
sN N =200 GeV by PHENIX [221] and STAR [222]. The theory calculations are from [193, 195],
There are, however, good prospects for future Υ measurements at RHIC. STAR recorded data in
the 2014 RHIC run with the new Muon Telescope Detector (MTD), which measures dimuons
at midrapidity [28]. The MTD has coverage of |η| < 0.5, with about 45% effective azimuthal
coverage. It will have a muon to pion enhancement factor of ∼ 50, and the mass resolution will
provide a clean separation of the Υ(1S) from the Υ(2S + 3S), and likely the ability to separate
the 2S and 3S states by fitting.
On a longer time scale, the proposed sPHENIX detector [223] at RHIC discussed in Section 4.1
would begin operation in 2021. It is designed to measure Υ’s via their dielectron decays at
midrapidity. The 100 MeV mass resolution is sufficient to cleanly separate all three Υ states.
Pions are suppressed relative to electrons by a factor of 90. A combination of very high luminosity,
good mass resolution, good background rejection and large acceptance (about a factor of 7 larger
than the MTD) leads to a data set with precision comparable to that expected from the CMS
data by 2023, and on a similar time scale.
Open Heavy Flavor Dynamics
The diffusion of a heavy particle through a heat bath of light particles can be quantified by
the spatial diffusion coefficient Ds . In relativistic systems, such as the QGP, it is convenient to
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
express this transport coefficient in units of the thermal wavelength of the medium, 1/2πT . This
renders Ds (2πT ) a dimensionless quantity which characterizes the (inverse) coupling strength
of the diffusing particle to the medium. As such, it is expected to be proportional to the ratio
of shear viscosity to entropy, η/s. For example, in the strong coupling limit of conformal field
theories, one has Ds (2πT ) ' 1 [125, 224] and η/s = 1/4π (where small values for each of these
quantities indicate strong coupling).
In contrast to the result for strongly coupled theories, perturbative systems generate much
large values for the heavy quark diffusion coefficient. For example, early calculations based on
perturbative methods of the diffusion coefficient for charm and bottom quarks in a QGP [225]
produced values of Ds (2πT ) ' 30 ∼ O(1/αs2 ) for a strong coupling constant of αs ' 0.3-0.4,
and with a value varying only weakly with temperature. We now know from a phenomenological
point of view that these values for Ds are too large to account for the open heavy-flavor (HF)
observables in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC [226]. Later it was found that the formal
convergence of the perturbative series requires much smaller values for αs [227]. This calls for
nonperturbative methods to assess the heavy-flavor diffusion coefficient in QCD matter.
5 0
D -m
c -q
c -q
c -q
4 5
4 0
e s
u a r
u a r
u a r
o n
k ,
k ,
k ,
, H R
, Q q + Q g T - m a tr ix , U - p o t.
, Q q + Q g T - m a tr ix , F - p o t.
, p Q C D w i t h αs = 0 . 4
c - q u a r k , la ttic e D in g e t a l.
c - q u a r k , la ttic e B a n e r je e e t a l.
3 5
2 5
2 0
( 2 πT )
3 0
1 5
1 0
0 .6
0 .8
1 .0
1 .2
T /T
1 .4
1 .6
1 .8
2 .0
Figure 17: Spatial diffusion coefficient for charm quarks in the QGP (T > Tc ) and D-mesons in
hadronic matter (T < Tc ), in units of the thermal wavelength. The data points are extracted
from quenched lattice QCD [182, 184, 185] while the bands are obtained from potential-based
T -matrix calculations [190,228] using either the free (green) or internal (red) energies from lattice
QCD. The dash-dotted line corresponds to leading order perturbation theory [225].
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
Progress has been made to extract Ds from first principles in thermal lattice QCD, by computing
euclidean heavy-quark (HQ) correlation functions and reconstructing the low-energy limit of the
pertinent spectral function (which defines the transport coefficient). Thus far this has been done
in quenched QCD (i.e., in a gluon plasma without dynamical quarks) [182, 184, 185], resulting in
a range of values of Ds (2πT ) ' 2-6 for temperatures between 1-2 Tc , as shown in Figure 17.
To make closer contact to experiment, it will be necessary to extend these studies to QCD with
dynamical quarks, and to compute the 3-momentum dependence of the transport coefficient.
The latter can be alternatively expressed through the thermal relaxation rate, γQ = T /(mQ Ds ),
where mQ is the HQ mass in the QGP, or heavy-meson mass in hadronic matter.
Non-perturbative calculations of the HQ transport coefficients have also been carried out in the
thermodynamic T -matrix formalism [190, 228, 229], which is based on a potential approximation
for HQ scattering off thermal partons. The in-medium potential can, in principle, be extracted
from thermal lattice QCD, see, e.g., Ref. [191]. Current uncertainties are usually bracketed by
employing either the HQ internal or free energies from the lattice. Using the internal energy one
finds values of Ds (2πT ) ' 3-5 at temperatures close to Tc , increasing to about 10 at 2 Tc , for
both charm and bottom quarks, see Figure 17. For the free energy, the Ds values are about a
factor of 2-4 larger. The relaxation rates from the T -matrix formalism predict an appreciable
3-momentum dependence, decreasing toward perturbative values at high momenta. Close to
Tc , resonant structures develop in the heavy-light quark T -matrices, suggestive of the onset of
Recent work has demonstrated the importance of also treating the D meson diffusion in the
hadronic phase. The pertinent transport coefficient has been estimated in heavy-meson chiral
perturbation theory [230] and in effective hadronic theories including resonance scattering [231–
234]. The D-meson diffusion coefficient significantly decreases as Tc is approached from below.
There is increasing consensus that its hadronic values [231,234] come close to the nonperturbative
approaches on the QGP side. This suggests that the heavy-flavor diffusion coefficient develops a
minimum across the phase transition region, with a near-continuous temperature dependence
when passing from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom, as one would expect in a cross-over
transition [231, 234, 235].
Remarkable results for open heavy-flavor observables have recently been obtained at both RHIC
and the LHC. The STAR [236] and ALICE [242–244] collaborations have, for the first time, been
able to extract the nuclear modification factor (RAA ) and elliptic flow (v2 ) of D mesons. The
STAR measurement of D mesons in 200 GeV Au-Au reaches down to rather low transverse
momenta (pT ) [236], showing intriguing evidence for a maximum in the RAA (pT ) as seen in
Figure 18. Such a structure is a tell-tale signature for collective behavior of D mesons, which in
turn requires a strong coupling of c quarks and D mesons to the expanding medium. As part of the
thermalization process, the heavy-flavor particles are dragged along in the fireball expansion and
accumulate in a momentum range characteristic of the medium’s collective flow velocity, while lowand high-momentum states are depleted. This feature can be described by theoretical calculations
which implement (a) a sufficiently small diffusion coefficient of Ds (2πT ) ≤ 5 into dynamical
evolution models [238, 239, 241], and (b) heavy-light quark coalescence in the hadronization
process. The precise location of the flow bump turns out to be rather sensitive to the underlying
bulk evolution model. Systematic comparisons of the different ingredients to the theoretical
3.5 Quarkonia and Open Heavy Flavor
Nuclear Modification Factor (R )
40-80% (a)
10-40% (b)
STAR Au+Au → D + X @ 200 GeV Central 0-10%
Duke w shad.
Duke w/o shad.
p (GeV/c)
Figure 18: Nuclear modification factor of D-mesons in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at various
centralities as measured by STAR [236], compared to theoretical calculations [237–241]
models and improved precision in the data are required to disentangle the different effects and
arrive at quantitative results for the heavy-quark transport coefficient. Additionally, measurements
of the RAA of Ds mesons (containing one charm and one strange anti-/quark), would be very
3.6 Thermal Radiation and Low-Mass Dileptons
helpful as coalescence processes of c quarks with the enhanced strangeness content of the QGP
significantly augment the flow bump [235].
A critical role in the determination of the transport coefficient is played by measurements of the
elliptic flow parameter v2 of the heavy-flavor particles. Electrons and muons from semileptonic
decays of D- and B-meson have been found to carry a rather large v2 in heavy ion collisions at
both RHIC [159,245] and the LHC [246]. Important midterm goals at RHIC are to disentangle the
B and D contributions to the semileptonic decays, and to obtain an independent measurement of
the v2 of directly reconstructed D mesons. The former will be extracted from existing RHIC 2014
Au+Au displaced vertex measurements by PHENIX (using the VTX and FVTX detectors) [247],
and by STAR (using the HFT detector) [32, 33]. The v2 of directly reconstructed D mesons
will be obtained from the same data set using the STAR HFT [33]. At the LHC, ALICE has
conducted first measurements of the D-meson v2 in 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions [243], and found
large values; CMS has been able to extract a B-meson RAA through their displaced-vertex decays
into J/ψ’s (so-called non-prompt J/ψ’s [248], which is approximately unity for small momenta
and turns into a suppression leveling off at ∼0.5 at high momenta. As in the D-meson sector,
this is consistent with collective behavior and thus indicative for a strong bottom coupling to the
medium, providing further valuable model constraints.
An outstanding issue is the determination of the temperature dependence of the transport
coefficient. Experimentally, one lever arm is provided by the correlation between v2 and the
RAA . Since the bulk medium v2 takes several fm/c to build up, a large v2 of the HF particles is
indicative for a strong coupling in the later QGP phases of the fireball evolution, and through
hadronization. A suppression in the RAA , on the other hand, begins immediately in the early
high-density phases, especially at high pT . Model calculations to date cannot easily account
for the large D-meson v2 at LHC without overestimating the suppression in the RAA . This
corroborates a strong coupling in the vicinity of Tc . The second lever arm is provided by going to
lower collision energies where the system starts out at smaller QGP temperatures, closer to Tc .
First data for the heavy-flavor electron RAA and v2 have been extracted from a 62 GeV run at
RHIC [249, 250], and show evidence for a non-vanishing v2 and marked modifications in the RAA .
They are not imcompatible with model calculations that utilize a strong heavy-flavor coupling
around Tc [251], but the data precision does not yet suffice for clear conclusions. While varying
the collision energy is a valuable tool to explore the temperature dependence of these phenomena,
it is necessary to account for the more pronounced role of the Cronin effect at these energies,
i.e., a modification of the heavy-flavor spectra through cold nuclear matter effects, before the
QGP forms. Here p+A collisions will be important to quantify these effects in order to provide a
realistic starting point for assessing the hot-medium effects.
Thermal Radiation and Low-Mass Dileptons
Electromagnetic (EM) radiation from the fireballs created in heavy-ion collisions has long been
recognized as a valuable probe of hot and dense matter [252, 253]. Once produced, photons and
dileptons traverse the fireball and reach the detectors without further re-interaction. Therefore,
their measured spectra are direct signals from the hot and dense phases of the fireball. In
3.6 Thermal Radiation and Low-Mass Dileptons
particular, thermal radiation from the locally equilibrated matter contains unique information
about the QCD medium.
The physics potential of EM radiation can be gleaned from the expression for its local emission
rate. At a temperature T it is given by
REM = const f (E; T ) ρEM (M, p; T )
where f (E; T ) ' exp(−E/T ) is the thermal distribution function and ρEM (M, p; T ) the EM
spectral function;
M is the invariant mass of the dilepton (M =0 for photons), p its 3-momentum
and E = M 2 + p2 its energy. The mass dependence of ρEM reflects the operational degrees of
freedom: in vacuum, the low-mass region (M ≤ 1 GeV) is saturated by the light vector mesons
ρ, ω and φ, while the intermediate-mass region (1.5 ≤ M/ GeV ≤ 3) is characterized by a
perturbative quark-anti-quark continuum.
Calculations of thermal dilepton and photon spectra suitable for comparison to experiment require
the emission rate, Eq. (4), to be integrated over a realistic space-time evolution of the fireball in
heavy-ion collisions, e.g., by using hydrodynamic models. The following properties of the QCD
medium can then be studied with EM emission spectra in heavy-ion collisions.
In-Medium Properties of Vector Mesons. In the low-mass region, dilepton radiation from
the fireball monitors the medium effects on the vector mesons as the QCD phase transition
is approached and surpassed. In the vacuum, the properties of light hadrons are governed by
the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry induced by the formation of a quark-anti-quark
condensate. The reduction of the condensate in the QCD medium [254] therefore imposes
marked changes on the hadron spectrum. Low-mass dileptons are a unique observable to
measure these modifications in the vector meson mass spectrum.
Temperature of the Fireball. Dilepton spectra in the intermediate-mass region
(1.5 ≤ M/ GeV ≤ 3) provide a pristine thermometer of the fireball. Since the medium
modifications of the continuum in the EM spectral function, ρEM , are small (suppressed by
the ratio T 2 /M 2 ), the spectral slope of the radiation is solely determined by the temperature
in the thermal distribution function, f (E; T ) ' e−E/T . For large masses, its exponential
form strongly favors radiation from the hottest phases of the fireball [255, 256], so that the
observed spectra are mostly emitted from early in the evolution. Since the mass spectra are
Lorentz-invariant, they are not distorted by a Doppler shift from the collective expansion
of the exploding fireball.
Lifetime of the Fireball. The total yields of thermal EM radiation are a measure of the total
lifetime of the emitting fireball (the expanding 3-volume is constrained by final-state
hadron yields). The optimal mass window for this measurement appears to be M ' 0.30.7 GeV [257], where the radiation yields turn out to be proportional to the fireball lifetime
within about 10%, over a large range of heavy-ion collision energies [257].
Collective Properties of the Emission Source. In contrast to the invariant-mass spectra, the
transverse-momentum spectra of dileptons and photons are subject to a Doppler shift: the
expansion velocity of the medium imparts additional energy on the photons and dileptons
which makes their spectra appear “hotter”. The slope of the transverse-momentum spectra
3.6 Thermal Radiation and Low-Mass Dileptons
is therefore determined by both the temperature and collective-flow properties of the
emitting source. Another powerful observable is the elliptic flow of the EM radiation. Since
the elliptic flow of the bulk medium takes several fm/c to build up, the elliptic flow of the
EM radiation further constrains the origin of its emission.
The physics potential of accurate dilepton data has been demonstrated by the NA60 collaboration
at the CERN SPS in collisions of medium-sized nuclei (Indium with A=114) at an energy of
sN N =17.3 GeV [258–260]. The low-mass spectra confirmed the gradual melting of the ρ-meson
resonance into a structureless quark-anti-quark continuum, while the total yields translate into an
average fireball lifetime of 7 ± 1 fm/c. The inverse slope of the radiation at intermediate masses
gives an average temperature of 205 ± 12 MeV, signaling QGP radiation. The radial-flow pattern
in the transverse-momentum spectra confirms predominantly hadronic and QGP sources at low
and intermediate masses, respectively. Broad dilepton measurements at different energies with
heavy projectiles are needed to exploit this potential for systematic studies across the QCD phase
19.6 GeV × 0.002
27 GeV × 0.03
39 GeV × 2
62.4 GeV × 25
200 GeV × 200
BES: STAR Preliminary
200 GeV: PRL 113 022301
(dN/dy)/(dN /dy)
2 -1
mb dNee /dMee [ (GeV/c ) ]
φ → e+e-(η)
Cocktail w/o ρ
Cocktail + Model
55 ×10
Au+Au 200 GeV 0-80%
Au+Au 200 GeV
Au+Au 19.6 GeV
In+In 17.3 GeV
Th. lifetime 17.3 GeV
Th. lifetime 19.6 GeV
Th. lifetime 200 GeV
dielectron invariant mass, Mee (GeV/c2)
lifetime (fm/c)
π0 → e+e-γ
η → e+ e - γ
c-c → D/Λ → e+eη’ → e+e-γ
ω → e+e-(π)
0.4<M ll<0.75 GeV/c
Figure 19: Di-electron invariant-mass spectra as measured by STAR [261,262] in Au+Au collisions
in the first beam energy scan at RHIC. The left panel shows the invariant-mass spectra for
increasing collision energies (bottom to top); the orange bands represent the sum of theoretically
predicted thermal radiation [263] from QGP and hadronic matter and final-state hadron decays
(including their uncertainty). At intermediate masses (M > 1 GeV) the spectra are dominated by
correlated heavy-flavor decays and are not yet sensitive to thermal radiation. The right panel
shows integrated yields of the normalized dilepton excesses for 0.4 < Mll < 0.75 GeV/c2 as a
function of dNch /dy [260, 264]. The theoretical lifetimes inferred from a model calculation [257]
are also shown
A first step in this direction has recently been made by STAR [261, 262, 264] in the BES program
at RHIC. In Au+Au collisions covering energies from SPS to top RHIC ( sN N =19.6, 27, 39,
3.6 Thermal Radiation and Low-Mass Dileptons
62, 200 GeV), a sustained low-mass excess radiation was found, cf. Figure 19. Both mass and
transverse-momentum spectra are well described by thermal radiation from hadronic matter
and QGP [263] (added to contributions from final-state hadron decays). The data corroborate
the melting of the ρ as a robust mechanism of the low-mass excess in the hadron-to-quark
transition at small and moderate baryon chemical potential. Improved measurements of the
low-mass spectral shape at small chemical potential [261] will be critical to discriminate theoretical
models [265–269]. This is expected from upcoming high-luminosity Au+Au running at 200 GeV.
Lifetime “measurements” via the integrated low-mass excess require less precision. Comparison of
the BES-I data at sN N = 19.6 and 200 GeV to theoretical models indicate that the normalized
excess dilepton yields in the low mass region are proportional to the calculated lifetimes of the
medium, as shown in the right panel of Figure 19. These measurements can be performed with
much improved precision in the upcoming BES-II campaign, providing a tool to detect lifetime
“anomalies” possibly induced in the vicinity of a critical point [257].
Theoretical progress has been made in elaborating the connection of the dilepton data to chiral
symmetry restoration [270]. The broadening ρ-meson spectral function used to describe the
dilepton spectra has been tested with Weinberg and QCD sum rules which relate vector and
axial-vector spectral functions to quark and gluon condensates. With temperature-dependent
condensates taken from lattice QCD [254], solutions for the axial-vector spectral function were
found which accurately satisfy the in-medium sum rules. Thus the melting of the ρ-meson
resonance is compatible with (the approach to) chiral symmetry restoration. Further progress has
been made in evaluating the in-medium vector correlation function, and the associated thermal
dilepton rates, in thermal lattice QCD [271, 272]. The computed correlation functions in the
QGP encode a low-mass enhancement which is quite compatible with the spectral functions that
figure into the explanation of the observed dilepton spectra [273].
An excess signal of low-momentum direct photons, beyond expectations from binary nucleonnucleon collisions and final-state hadron decays, has been measured by PHENIX [280] in 200 GeV
Au+Au collisions. The transverse momentum spectra of the excess photons are of exponential
shape with an inverse slope parameter Tslope ' 240 ± 30 MeV [275, 280]. As noted above,
Doppler shifts due to the collective medium expansion need to be accounted for in extracting
the temperature. Theoretical models suggest that the emission mainly originates from the later
QGP and hadronic stages of the fireball, from a rather broad window of temperatures around
Tpc ' 170 MeV, with an average medium expansion velocity of ∼0.3-0.5c [277, 278]. The
experimental yields tend to be underestimated by currently available calculations for thermal
radiation, as shown in the left panel of Figure 20. Similar measurements are also becoming
available from STAR [281].
The direct photon excess carries a surprisingly large elliptic flow (v2 ) [274, 276] as seen in the
right panel of Figure 20. In fact, the magnitude of the flow is comparable to that of pions, which
are emitted when the fireball decouples. This is incompatible with a large contribution to the
direct photon excess from early QGP radiation [277–279, 282–285], and again points to a later
emission of the excess photons. The elliptic flow strength v2 also is underestimated by current
theoretical calculations, but more precise data are needed to quantify the discrepancies.
The PHENIX data have triggered substantial theoretical activity. To obtain sufficiently large yields
and a large v2 from a thermal photon source the bulk medium would need to develop its final v2
Thermal Radiation and Low-Mass Dileptons
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) 20K40%
Linnyk et
et al.
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van Hees et al., PRC 84,054906 (2011) (a)
Linnyk et al., PRC 89, 034908 (2014)
Shen et al. (η/s = 0.08)
Shen et al. (η/s = 0.2)
d2 N
2p pT dpT dy [(GeV/c) ]
van Hees et al., PRC 84,054906 (2011) (b)
4 44 50
ppT [GeV/c]
Tp [GeV/c]
pT [GeV/c]
Figure 10
20: Direct photon spectra (left panel) and their elliptic flow (right panel) in 0-20%
Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV energy. PHENIX data [274–276] are compared to
theoretical model
calculations [277–279].
rather rapidly, probably before reaching the phase transition regime [277]. This
) could beQM2014*@*Darmstadt
e.g., by10a3 pre-equilibrium radial flow from a glasma evolution [286, 287]. Such favorable collective
properties would also need to be accompanied by large photon rates in the phase transition
288, 289] and in the hadronic phase [290]. An initially gluon-rich plasma [291], or
nonperturbative effects in a QGP [292], could aid in suppressing early electromagnetic emission
when the
10 5bulk v2 is still small and thereby avoid diluting the observed strong v2 pattern with the
azimuthally symmetric distribution expected for photons emitted early in the collision.
Preliminary measurements of the direct-photon triangular
flow (v3 ) [276] support a thermal
pT [GeV/c]
emission source [278] and disfavor more exotic sources, e.g.,QM2014*@*Darmstadt
from strong but short-lived primordial
magnetic fields [293, 294]. The centrality dependence of the excess signal [275] is consistent
with expectations from thermal radiation, but is also compatible with scaling arguments based
on initial-state saturation effects [295]. Improved measurements of the photon spectra and
their collective properties will be critical in resolving these issues, as will be extending these
measurements to other colliding systems.
Closely related but independent observables are the transverse-momentum spectra and v2 of
low-mass dileptons. A first measurement of the v2 has been achieved [296] but does not yet
provide tangible discrimination power. Again, improved and extended experimental measurements
are required, as well as additional calculations. Since photons and dileptons are intimately related
in theoretical calculations, a complete understanding of EM data and its implications for the
thermal history of the medium will need to account for both observables simultaneously.
3.7 Mapping the Phase Diagram of QCD via a Beam Energy Scan
Figure 21: A sketch illustrating the experimental and theoretical exploration of the QCD phase
diagram. Although experiments at highest energies and smallest baryon chemical potential are
known to change from a QGP phase to a hadron gas phase through a smooth crossover, lower
energy collisions can access higher baryon chemical potentials where a first order phase transition
line is thought to exist.
Mapping the Phase Diagram of QCD via a Beam Energy Scan
When the first protons and neutrons and pions formed in the microseconds-old universe, and when
they form in heavy-ion collisions at the highest RHIC energies and at the LHC, they condense
out of liquid quark-gluon plasma consisting of almost as much antimatter as matter. Lattice
calculations [297–299] show that QCD predicts that, in such an environment, this condensation
occurs smoothly as a function of decreasing temperature, with many thermodynamic properties
changing dramatically but continuously within a narrow temperature range around the transition
temperature Tc ∈ [145 MeV, 163 MeV] [70, 299], referred to as the crossover region of the phase
diagram of QCD, see Figure 21. In contrast, quark-gluon plasma doped with a sufficient excess
of quarks over anti-quarks may instead experience a sharp first order phase transition as it cools,
with bubbles of quark-gluon plasma and bubbles of hadrons coexisting at a well-defined critical
temperature, much as bubbles of steam and liquid water coexist in a boiling pot. The point
where the doping of matter over antimatter (parametrized by the net baryon number chemical
potential µB ) becomes large enough to instigate a first order phase transition is referred to as the
QCD critical point. It is not yet known whether QCD has a critical point [300–304], nor where in
3.7 Mapping the Phase Diagram of QCD via a Beam Energy Scan
its phase diagram it might lie. Lattice calculations become more difficult or more indirect or both
with increasing µB and, although new methods introduced within the past decade have provided
some hints [301, 303, 305]. While these theoretical calculations are advancing through both new
techniques and advances in computational power, at present only experimental measurements
can answer these questions definitively.
The phase diagram of QCD, with our current knowledge shown schematically in Figure 21, is
the only phase diagram of any form of matter in Nature that we have the opportunity of both
mapping experimentally and relating directly and quantitatively to our fundamental description
of Nature, the Standard Model. With QCD the only strongly interacting theory in the Standard
Model, mapping the transition region of its phase diagram is a scientific goal of the highest order.
In the long term, successfully connecting a quantitative, empirical understanding of its phases
and the transitions between phases to theoretical predictions obtained from the QCD Lagrangian
could have ramifications in how we understand phases of strongly coupled matter in many other
RHIC’s unique capability to probe the QCD phase diagram
A major effort to use heavy ion collisions at RHIC to survey the phase diagram of QCD is now
underway. The excess of matter over antimatter in the exploding droplet produced in a heavy
ion collision can be increased by decreasing the collision energy, which reduces the production of
matter-antimatter symmetric quark-antiquark pairs and gluons relative to the quarks brought in
by the colliding nuclei, thus increasing µB . Decreasing the collision energy also decreases the
maximum, i.e. initial, temperature reached by the matter produced in the collision. A series
of heavy ion collision measurements scanning the collision energy [306] can therefore explore
the properties of matter in the crossover region of the phase diagram, matter that is neither
quark-gluon plasma nor hadronic nor both at the same time, as a function of the doping µB .
Such a program can scan the transition region of the QCD phase diagram out to µB values
that correspond to collision energies below which the initial temperature no longer reaches the
transition. If the crossover region narrows to a critical point within this experimentally accessible
domain, an energy scan can find it. RHIC completed the first phase of such an energy scan in
2014, taking data at a series of energies ( sN N = 200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 14.5, 11.5 and 7.7
GeV) corresponding to values of µB that range from 20 to 400 MeV. Data from these experiments
at RHIC [306, 307] and from previous experiments confirm that lower-energy collisions produce
matter with higher µB , as anticipated.
RHIC is, and will remain, the optimal facility in the world for mapping the phase diagram of
QCD, including searching for a possible critical point in its so far less well understood regions
with larger µB . What makes RHIC unique is both its wide reach in µB and that it is a collider,
meaning that the acceptance of detectors, and hence the systematics of making measurements,
change little as a function of collision energy. Accelerator and detector performance has been
outstanding during the first phase of this program, referred to as Beam Energy Scan I or BES-I.
Measurements of all the important observables targeted in the planning of this campaign have
now been made in collisions with energies varying by a factor of 25, allowing for a first look at a
large region of the phase diagram of QCD.
A selection of measurements of several observables from BES-I that exhibit interesting non48
3.8 Topological Fluctuations within Quark-Gluon Plasma
monotonic behavior as a function of collision energy is shown in Section 4.2, see Figure 30 there.
As we will discuss in that later section, the BES-I measurements of these observables provide
some evidence for the softening of the equation of state in the crossover region of the phase
diagram which may be indicative of the first hints of the presence of a critical point in the phase
diagram of QCD. Above all, given the size of the present experimental uncertainties these current
measurements provide strong motivation for the next phase of the BES program BES-II, described
in Section 4.2, which will deliver in 2018-19 substantially greater statistics and hence substantially
smaller error bars in collisions with energies at and below sN N =19.6 GeV. Accordingly, we defer
our presentation of highlights from the rich BES-I data set to Section 4.2 where we will discuss
each observable in a way that synthesizes what we have learned from data to date with what can
be learned from their measurement in BES-II in combination with anticipated advances in theory.
Topological Fluctuations within Quark-Gluon Plasma
It has been known for decades that topological effects play an important role in determining
the structure of the vacuum in non-Abelian gauge theories [308]. In QCD, fluctuations that
change the topology of the non-Abelian gauge fields are at the same time fluctuations that create
an imbalance of chirality. Recently, considerable interest has been generated by the possibility
of exploring experimental signatures of such fluctuations in the hot QCD matter produced in
relativistic heavy ion collisions. A key observation is that the incredibly strong magnetic field
that is generated in off-center heavy ion collisions, together with the chiral anomaly in QCD
and the fluctuations in chirality, can produce a Chiral Magnetic Effect [309–312] in which an
electric current flows along (for one sign of the chirality fluctuation) or opposite to (for the other
sign of the chirality fluctuation) the direction of the magnetic field, resulting in a separation of
particles with opposite electric charge in a direction perpendicular to the reaction plane of the
collision, while particles with the same electric charge show a preference for ending up in the
same hemisphere.
Such an effect has been observed by using the three-point correlator method [315] to extract
event-plane dependent charge correlations in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC [314] and at a variety
of collision energies at RHIC [313, 316, 317]. Conclusively establishing that these observations
result from the CME would be an important advance in our ability to study experimentally
the topological phase structure of QCD. In addition, the effect itself can be used to study the
properties of the medium created in the collisions. Since the CME requires the formation of QGP,
e.g. the restoration of the chiral symmetry [312], one would expect that at sufficiently low energy,
the QCD related correlations should disappear. This is precisely what is observed in sN N =11.5
GeV Au+Au collisions [313], as shown in Figure 22.
The same physical mechanism that produces the Chiral Magnetic Effect in the presence of a
~ can also produce a Chiral Vortical Effect (CVE) in the presence of external
magnetic field B
~ [319]. While high energy nuclear collisions produce the strongest known
angular momentum L
magnetic fields ∼ 1018 gauss5 , these fields are largest at the very beginning of the collision and
The magnetic field at the surface of magnetars is on the order of 1015 gauss, several orders of magnitude
lower than the field strength in high-energy nuclear collisions.
3.8 Topological Fluctuations within Quark-Gluon Plasma
30 - 60%
- HOS) × 104
Experimental data
BES II error projection
sNN (GeV)
Figure 22: Collision energy dependence of the charge separation correlation H difference between
same-sign (SS) and opposite sign (OS) pairs in mid-central (30-60%) Au+Au collisions by
RHIC [313] ( sN N = 7.7 − 200 GeV) and Pb+Pb collisions at LHC [314] ( sN N = 2.76 TeV).
The hatched band represents the estimated statistical errors that will be obtained in BES II
measurements at RHIC.
decay away on a timescale that is controlled by the electric conductivity of the matter produced in
the collision [320–322]. Angular momentum, on the other hand, is conserved meaning that if the
plasma is created with nonzero angular momentum this remains. If topological fluctuations and
the associated chirality fluctuations do have observable effects in high energy nuclear collisions,
then in addition to the charge separation along the external magnetic field in the CME one would
expect baryon number separation along the (same) direction of the external angular momentum.
The first measurements of observables that receive a contribution from any CVE were reported
recently for Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV for proton (anti-proton) and Lambda (anti-Lambda)
pairs [318], as shown in Figure 23. The figure indicates a preference for proton and Lambda
pairs, as well as antiproton and anti-Lambda pairs, to be found in the same hemisphere.
The topological fluctuations that drive the CME and CVE in QCD have analogues in other gauge
theories and arise in other contexts. For example, it has been argued that if an electron chirality
imbalance exists in the weakly coupled electroweak plasma at temperatures thousands of times
hotter than those achieved in heavy ion collisions, this may be responsible for the primordial
magnetic fields in the early Universe [323]. Furthermore, the same kinds of topological fluctuations
that make a chirality imbalance in the quark-gluon plasma can make a baryon number imbalance
3.8 Topological Fluctuations within Quark-Gluon Plasma
200GeV Au+Au Collisions at RHIC
(STAR Preliminary)
Λ-p and Λ-p correlations
−− −
Λ-p and Λ-p correlations
Collision Centrality (%)
Figure 23: Baryon separation shown as a function of collision centrality from sN N = 200
GeV Au+Au collisions. Circles and triangles represent the data for the same-baryon-number
and opposite-baryon-number correlations, respectively. Error bars are statistical only. Taken
from [318].
in the much hotter electroweak plasma, meaning that if these fluctuations were in some way
biased they could be responsible for the matter-over-antimatter excess in the Universe. In a third
context, the CME has been realized in condensed matter physics in a (3+1)-dimensional structure
called a Weyl semimetal due to the chiral anomaly [324] and in other systems as reported in
Ref. [325].
As can be seen from Figure 22, the error bars in the current data are still large, especially in
the lower energy region. As a result, it is not yet possible to systematically investigate these
phenomena as a function of energy, nor is it possible to determine the exact collision energy where
the CME disappears. The planned BES-II program at RHIC, discussed in Section 4.2, will provide
high statistics data for CME and CVE studies in Au+Au collisions at energies below 20 GeV. The
estimated errors are shown as the shaded bar in Figure 22. With such measurements, along with
the planned dilepton measurements, we may expect to gain significantly improved quantitative
understanding of the chiral properties of hot QCD matter at nonzero baryon density.
3.9 Broader Impacts
Broader Impacts
The intellectual challenges posed by strongly interacting QCD matter have led to significant
cross-fertilization with other fields. Theoretical tools have been both imported from and in
some cases exported to fields ranging from condensed matter physics to string theory. Recently
results from RHIC experimentalists have been announced that have implications beyond QCD at
high energy and densities. Of particular note are the “dark photon” upper limits and the first
observation of anti-4 He. It is worth noting that neither of these results were envisioned as part of
the experimental program; rather they result from the very large data samples that have been
acquired at RHIC in combination with exceptional experimental sensitivities6 . Also of interest is
a new study in condensed matter physics of the Chiral Magnetic Effect discussed in Section 3.8.
Dark Photons
It has been postulated that an additional U(1) gauge boson, a“dark photon” U that is weakly
coupled to ordinary photons, can explain the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g − 2)µ ,
which deviates from standard model calculations by 3.6σ. By studying π 0 , η → e+ e− decays the
PHENIX experiment has extracted upper limits on U-γ mixing at 90% CL for decays to known
particles, in the mass range 30< mU <90 MeV/c2 [326]. These results show that except for the
small range 30< mU <32 MeV/c2 the U-γ mixing parameter space that can explain the (g − 2)µ
deviation from its Standard Model value is excluded at the 90% confidence level. When combined
with experimental limits from BaBar [327] and and NA48/2 [328], these analyses essentially
exclude the simplest model of the dark photon as an explanation of the (g − 2)µ anomaly.
Antimatter Nuclei
In top energy RHIC collisions matter and antimatter are formed with approximately equal rates.
The rapid expansion and cooling of the system means that the antimatter decouples quickly from
the matter making these types of collisions ideal for studying the formation of anti-nuclei. The
STAR collaboration has reported detection of anti-helium 4 nuclei 4 He, which is the heaviest antinucleus observed to date [329]. The 4 He yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic
and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, providing a suggestion that the detection of even heavier
antimatter nuclei is experimentally feasible. These measurements may serve as a benchmark for
possible future observations from antimatter sources in the universe.
Chiral Magnetic Effect in Condensed Matter Systems
Recently the Chiral Magnetic Effect discussed in Section 3.8 has been observed in a condensed
matter experiment measuring magneto-transport in ZrTe5 [330]. The recent discovery of Dirac
semi-metals with chiral quasi-particles [331–333] has created the opportunity to study the CME in
condensed matter experiments. In these materials it is possible to generate a chiral charge density
Essentially identical statements apply to the LHC detectors.
Future Prospects
by the application of parallel electric and magnetic fields [311]. The resulting chiral current is in
turn proportional to the product of the chiral chemical potential and the magnetic field, leading
to a quadratic dependence on the magnetic field. This is precisely what is observed in Ref. [330],
where the magnetoconductance varies as the square of the applied magnetic field. These studies
can be extended to a broad range of materials, since three-dimensional Dirac semimetals often
emerge at quantum transitions between normal and topological insulators. Interestingly, the
qualitative features observed in [330] have been reproduced in a calculation connecting chiral
anomalies in hydrodynamics with its holographic system in the gauge/gravity duality [334].
Future Prospects
The cornucopia of experimental advances and theoretical insights detailed in Section 3 are but a
representative sample of the advances made in the field since the last Long Range Plan. As in all
healthy scientific enterprises, our increased understanding of hot QCD matter has engendered
new questions. These questions are both quantitative (“What is the precise value of η/s at
the various temperatures accessible at RHIC and the LHC?”) and qualitative (“How does the
perfect liquid behavior of quark-gluon plasma emerge from the QCD Lagrangian?”) in nature. In
addition, opportunities exist to ask and address discovery-oriented questions, such as “Does the
QCD phase diagram have a critical point?” The field is poised to answer definitely such questions
in the next decade, thanks to ongoing and anticipated investments in the experimental programs
at RHIC and the LHC, and in theoretical investigations world-wide. This section describes those
opportunities and delineates the progress that will follow from exploiting them.
Facilities Evolution
Planning is well underway to address the compelling physics questions presented in Section 3.
The evolution of the RHIC and LHC accelerators, accompanied by upgrades to their experiments,
will provide tools uniquely suited for determining the inner workings of thermal QCD matter.
The prospect of these two facilities, operating with increased luminosity and a range of energies
spanning three orders of magnitude, coupled with greatly upgraded detector capabilities, provides
an unprecedented opportunity to resolve fundamental aspects of QCD.
Facility and experiment upgrades at RHIC
At Brookhaven National Laboratory, the goal for the next decade is to complete the science
mission of RHIC on a schedule that permits a smooth and timely transition towards preparations
for an electron-ion collider based on the RHIC complex. A coherent physics program has been
developed to address the outstanding questions in both hot and cold QCD physics relevant to
completing our understanding of the QGP, with a natural physical and intellectual evolution
towards the physics addressed by an electron-ion collider. Accordingly, future heavy ion running
is divided into three campaigns:
4.1 Facilities Evolution
Figure 24: The timeline for future RHIC and LHC heavy ion running.
2014-16: Measure heavy flavor probes of the QGP using the newly installed silicon vertexing
detectors in PHENIX and STAR.
2018-19: Conduct a fine-grained scan of the QCD phase diagram via Phase II of the RHIC
Beam Energy Scan program.
2021-22: Perform precision jet quenching and quarkonia measurements following the installation
Interspersed between these three running periods are two shutdowns, as illustrated in Figure 24.
The first shutdown, in 2017, is to allow for installation of electron cooling to increase RHIC’s
luminosity at low energies7 , as shown in Figure 25. This luminosity upgrade, in combination
with targeted upgrades of the STAR detector described below, greatly increases the discovery
potential of the subsequent beam energy scan in 2018-2019. The second shutdown, in 2020,
will be used to install the sPHENIX detector (discussed below), prior to a period of dedicated
running to explore the microscopic structure of the QGP with high energy jets and quarkonia
measurements. Both the sPHENIX upgrade and the proposed STAR upgrades provide natural
evolution paths towards detectors for the EIC8 .
It should be noted that the current RHIC performance at low energies exceeds the original design values for
luminosity by well over an order-of-magnitude. In fact, the original RHIC design was limited to energies of 20
GeV and above.
In addition to the upgrade paths from sPHENIX to ePHENIX and STAR to eSTAR, consideration has been
given to a new detector explicitly designed for electron-ion capabilities. Details are available in Refs. [16, 335]
4.1 Facilities Evolution
Figure 25: The projected RHIC luminosity increase at low energies provided by electron cooling
of the ion beams. The red squares are the measured average luminosity in RHIC Beam Energy
Scan I. The blue dashed line is the minimum projection for the improvement with electron cooling;
the magenta solid line is the maximum projection. Also shown are the actual luminosities achieved
sPHENIX: The PHENIX collaboration has submitted a proposal [223] to the DOE for MIE
funding (Major Item of Equipment) to replace the PHENIX central detectors in order to provide full
hadronic and electromagnetic calorimetry along with charged particle tracking over a pseudorapidity
interval η < 1 The new apparatus, sPHENIX, shown in Figure 26 would dramatically extend
the range of jets measurable at RHIC and provide precision spectroscopy of quarkonia. With
a mass resolution of better than 100 MeV/c2 , sPHENIX will separately measure the 1S, 2S
and 3S states of the upsilon, providing key information about Debye screening in the QGP. The
full sPHENIX physics program employs inclusive jet, dijet, b-tagged jet, γ+jet, high transverse
momentum charged hadron, jet fragmentation function, and upsilon measurements to enable a
very comprehensive and detailed investigation of the microscopic dynamics of the QGP in the
temperature range where its coupling is at its strongest.
The very high data acquisition bandwidth of sPHENIX, combined with RHIC II luminosities,
brings fundamentally new capabilities to the measurement of hard probes at RHIC. In one year,
sPHENIX will record 100 billion minimum bias Au+Au collisions, providing an extremely large
sample of unbiased jets. This enormous sample will be further augmented by calorimetric triggers
sampling more than 2/3 of a trillion top-energy Au+Au collisions made possible by the RHIC II
luminosity. All told, this enables the measurements of jets in p+p, p+Au and Au+Au beyond
70 GeV and a correspondingly large kinematic reach for other hard probes, as shown in Figure 27.
This reach in Q2 , combined with precision vertexing provides the basis for a compelling program
of direct comparisons to corresponding measurements at the LHC discussed in Sections 4.3.2,
4.3.3 and 4.3.5. The sPHENIX design takes advantage of recent technological advances in sensors
4.1 Facilities Evolution
Figure 26: (top) An engineering rendering of the proposed sPHENIX upgrade to the PHENIX
experiment, showing the inner tracking system, the electromagnetic calorimeter, the BaBar
solenoid and the hadronic calorimeter. (bottom) The evolution of the sPHENIX detector into a
full-capability EIC detector.
4.1 Facilities Evolution
sPHENIX projections
0-20% Au+Au
direct γ
b -jet
p (GeV/c)
Figure 27: Projected statistical uncertainties on the RAA for inclusive photons (green points,
assuming RAA = 1), b-jets (blue points, assuming RAA = 0.6), inclusive jets (red points, assuming
RAA = 0.4) and charged hadrons (black points, assuming RAA = 0.2). These projections are
made with a b-jet tagging efficiency of 50%, 10 weeks of p+p and 22 weeks of Au+Au data
and read-out electronics to minimize costs. In addition, the superconducting solenoid from the
BaBar experiment at SLAC has been transferred to BNL [336] for use in sPHENIX, resulting
in a very considerable cost savings. Finally, the sPHENIX design provides a route for a smooth
evolution to a full-capability EIC detector [337], shown in Figure 26. In addition, there is a an
exciting extended program of polarized p+p and p+A [18, 338] if some of the EIC detector can
be realized earlier.
STAR Upgrades: The STAR experiment has recently installed two new detector sub-systems:
the Heavy Flavor Tracker discussed in Sections 3.1 and Section 3.5.2, and the Muon Telescope
Detector described in Section 3.5.1. With the completion of the HFT and the MTD, STAR’s
upgrade plans next focus on Phase II of the RHIC Bean Energy Scan. The inner sectors of the
TPC will be replaced to allow full coverage of pads increasing the pseudorapidity coverage, and
extending momentum coverage to lower pT . In addition STAR will add an event plane detector
which will enrich the STAR BES program by allowing for an independent measurement of the
event plane and significantly improving its resolution . Both these and longer term upgrades
improve STAR’s forward capabilities in preparation for an eSTAR configuration in the EIC era [339]
as outlined in Figure 28.
The STAR near-term proposed upgrades relevant to BES-II include:
iTPC upgrade: The STAR collaboration has proposed to upgrade the inner sectors of
the read-out plane of the Time-Projection-Chamber (iTPC) [342] in order to increase the
4.1 Facilities Evolution
STAR: Upgrade Plan
-  HFT: Charm
-  Di-lepton
sQGP properties
- QCD phase
- Critical Point
Jet, γ-jet
pA: CNM, spin
Phase structure
with dense
HF-I, (e,µ)
HF-II, p↑A
e-Cooling, iTPC
HFT’, Tracking, EM/HCAL (West side)
EMCAL (East side)
Figure 28: The STAR upgrade plan, showing the evolution from the current configuration focused
on p+p and A+A physics at mid-rapidity to a design emphasizing forward physics in p+p and
p+A collisions [340, 341] and later e+p and e+A physics at an EIC [339].
segmentation on the inner pad plane and to renew the inner-sector wires. This upgrade
will improve the resolution on both momentum and dE/dx resolution, increase the track
reconstruction efficiency and extend the acceptance in pseudorapidity from |η| ≤ 1.1 to
|η| ≤ 1.7. The enhanced performance made possible by the iTPC will not only benefit the
BES-II physics program but will also be crucial for STARs future program with p+p / p+A
and e+p/e+A collisions at the forward high-rapidity regions.
EPD: The proposed Event Plane Detector (EPD) is a dedicated event-plane and centrality
detector placed in the forward rapidity region 2 ≤ |η| ≤ 4. With segmentation in both radial
and azimuthal directions, the detector will provide precise measurements of the collision
centrality and the event plane, as well as serving as a trigger detector for collisions at lower
beam energies. The EPD will be crucial for the physics measurements of collectivity as
well as correlations in a much wider rapidity region.
In the longer term STAR has proposed a series of mid-rapidity and forward upgrades that are
complementary to the sPHENIX physics program described above. The planned upgrades include:
• HFT+ : The current HFT pixel integration time of ∼ 200 µsec is much longer than the
≤ 40 µsec of the STAR TPC . In order to synchronize the TPC and HFT read-out for
maximum rate capability for measuring bottom quark production at RHIC, the STAR
4.1 Facilities Evolution
collaboration has started design studies on the HFT+ , a faster version of the HFT with
the state of art pixel technology. New technological developments permit read-out times
less than 20 µsec without any increase of power consumption, so that the HFT support
infrastructure for cooling and power can be re-used for the HFT+ , making it a very
cost-effective upgrade. The physics enabled by the HFT+ physics is complementary to
sPHENIX’s jet program as well as ALICE’s upgraded heavy flavor program (to begin in
2019) at the LHC. In addition, the faster HFT+ will be helpful for the heavy flavor physics
in the spin program at RHIC.
Forward Upgrades: The STAR collaboration has developed plans [340, 341] for measurements with forward photons, J/Ψ’s, Drell-Yan pairs, and di-jet and hadron/jet correlation
probes, as well as W and Z bosons at top RHIC energy. Measuring these probes in p+A
collisions will further our understanding of cold nuclear matter effects in QCD processes
in cold nuclear matter by studying the dynamics of partons at very small and very large
momentum fractions x in nuclei, and at high gluon density to investigate the existence of
nonlinear evolution effects. STAR’s forward upgrade plan is centered around the unique
capabilities afforded with the existing STAR detector, complemented with detector upgrades
including the forward calorimetric system (FCS) and forward tracking system (FTS), which
are required to carry out the proposed physics program at forward rapidities. The proposed
FCS and FTS upgrades were first envisioned in the STAR Decadal Plan [341] and represent
a natural evolution of the growth of the STAR scientific program. These upgrades will
be an integral part of the eSTAR configuration at eRHIC outlined in the eSTAR letter of
intent [339], see Figure 29.
Facility and experiment upgrades at the LHC
Following the successful Run I p+p, Pb+Pb and p+Pb data taking periods, the LHC is now
preparing for Run II, forseen to include p+p, p+Pb and heavy ion data taking from 2015 to
2018. Run II will be followed by a shutdown from 2018 to 2020 (LS2) and Run III from 2020 to
2023. For both the p+p and Pb+Pb data taking, the LHC upgrades during the current shutdown
should allow for collisions at close to the design energy, i.e., ∼5 TeV for Pb+Pb. In addition, a
large increase in the Pb+Pb instantaneous luminosity is projected, with collision rates expected
to exceed those achieved in Run I by up to one order of magnitude. Combining Run II and III,
the LHC goal is to deliver about 10 nb−1 of Pb+Pb collisions to each of ALICE, ATLAS and
CMS. In combination, the increased collision energy and luminosity will increase statistics for rare
high pT probes by about a factor of 200.
To exploit the improved accelerator performance, ALICE, ATLAS and CMS are undergoing
significant upgrades during the current shutdown and in the future LS2. For ATLAS and CMS,
these upgrades are mostly driven by the needs of the p+p program. Further large luminosity
increases for p+p will produce a larger number of collisions per bunch crossing (“pileup”),
eventually reaching multiplicities per event that are within a factor of 2 of average heavy-ion
collisions. This will require extension (e.g., adding a fourth pixel tracker layer) and eventually
replacement of the silicon inner tracker detectors of the two experiments to cope with the
increased particle densities. In addition, the rejection power of the trigger systems is being
4.1 Facilities Evolution
Z:\Zhangbu Xu\STAR eRHIC Proposal 2014_1-28-14.dwg, 1/28/2014 12:11:25 PM
Figure 29: eSTAR layout with the proposed upgrades of the iTPC, Forward Calorimetry System
(FCS), Forward Tracking System (FTS), Endcap TOF (E/W TOF), BSO Crystal Calorimeter
(CEMC), and a GEM-based transition radiation detector. In this configuration, the electron beam
is from right to left while hadron beam from left to right [339].
improved by increasing the trigger granularity at the hardware (L1) level. Both the inner tracker
and trigger upgrades, as well as other developments, are well matched to the needs of the heavy
ion program in Run II and III. Of particular importance is the improved trigger selectivity for
jets in central events at L1, which is essential to fully sample the expected collision data for
jet-related probes.
ALICE is preparing for Run II with an expansion of the calorimetric coverage (EMCAL) which
will allow for dijet studies and improved jet triggering. During LS2 the experiment’s data taking
capabilities will be significantly enhanced with major upgrades to detector readout and data
acquisition systems to allow the collection of data at the full collision rate. This includes in
particular a replacement of the TPC readout with faster detectors and electronics. In addition, a
replacement of the silicon inner tracking system which would improve precision, acceptance and
readout speed has been proposed as well as a proposal to add a silicon telescope in front of the
current forward muon detector to improve the low pT momentum resolution of the reconstructed
muons. While the main physics driver for the upgrades is precision measurements of the low pT
open heavy flavor program studying e.g. charm production and equilibration, these upgrades also
benefit the intermediate and high pT jet quenching program.
4.2 Mapping the Crossover and Searching for the QCD Critical Point
Mapping the Crossover and Searching for the QCD Critical Point
The need for BES-II and accompanying advances in theory
Several observables from the first phase of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan program (BES-I,
introduced in Section 3.7) exhibit interesting non-monotonic behavior as a function of collision
energy, and hence as a function of baryon number chemical potential µB . A selection of such
measurements is shown in Figure 30. At present, we await with considerable interest the results
from the final run in the BES-I program at sN N = 14.5 GeV, where the data were taken only a
few months ago, since for a number of important observables the measurements made previously
at and below sN N = 19.6 GeV have quite limited statistics. Nevertheless, it is already possible
to see trends and features in the data that provide compelling motivation for both a strong
and concerted theoretical response aimed at quantitative precision as well as for experimental
measurements with much higher statistical precision at and below sN N = 19.6 GeV (i.e. at
the largest achievable values of µB ) that will be provided by the second phase of the Beam
Energy Scan program (BES-II) in 2018 and 2019. The goal of BES-II, as described in more
detail below, is to follow through in order to turn currently observed trends and features into
definitive scientific conclusions. As discussed in Section 4.1.1, the accelerator physicists at RHIC
are planning a machine upgrade to provide electron cooling to increase the beam luminosity at
these energies by about a factor of 10 [306]. Targeted new detector capabilities will also increase
the sensitivity to the signals described below in the BES-II campaign [306].
Experimental discovery of a first-order phase transition or a critical point on the QCD phase
diagram would be a landmark achievement. The first goals of the BES program, however, have
focused on obtaining a quantitative understanding of the properties of matter in the crossover
region of the phase diagram as it changes with increasing µB . Available tools developed over the
last few years now make a quantitative comparison between theory and experiment tractable in
the µB -range below any QCD critical point. Success in this effort, in and of itself, would establish
another major and lasting impact of the RHIC program. Questions that can be addressed in
this regime include quantitative study of the onset of various signatures associated with the
presence of quark-gluon plasma and of the onset of chiral symmetry restoration as one traverses
the crossover region. Data now in hand from BES-I provide key inputs and impetus toward
this goal. Here we give four examples, intended to be illustrative, of areas where a coherent
experimental and theoretical effort is expected to have substantial impact on our understanding
of QCD. In each case we note the substantial impact expected from the additional measurements
anticipated during the BES-II:
1. The directed flow observable dv1 /dy for net protons has been found to feature a dip as a
function of collision energy (see middle panel in Figure 30), with a minimum at energies somewhere
between sN N = 11.5 and 19.6 GeV [350]. This has long been predicted in qualitative terms
as a consequence of the softening of the equation of state in the transition region of the phase
diagram [351, 352]. Several theoretical groups around the world have now begun hydrodynamic
calculations with nonzero baryon density, deploying all the sophistication that has been developed
very recently in the analysis of higher energy collisions, including initial fluctuations and a hadronic
afterburner, in applications to these lower energy collisions. These hydrodynamic+hadronic
cascade calculations will be used to compare the dv1 /dy data with equations of state in the
R2out - R2side (fm2)
4.2 Mapping the Crossover and Searching for the QCD Critical Point
0%-5%; mT = 0.26 GeV
net-proton, 10%-40%
κσ2 net-proton
0%-5% Au+Au; |y|<0.5
0.4 < pT < 0.8 GeV (Published)
0.4 < pT < 2.0 GeV (Preliminary)
sNN (GeV)
Figure 30: Three selected observables that all show interesting non-monotonic behavior as
functions of collision energy around sNN ∼ 15−40 GeV. Top panel: The difference Rout
− Rside
between the squared radii in the outward and sidewards directions measured via two-pion
interferometry vs. sN N using STAR [343], PHENIX [344], and ALICE [345] data. Rout
− Rside
reflects the lifetime of the collision fireball and was predicted [346] to reach a maximum for
collisions in which a hydrodynamic fluid forms at temperatures where the equation of state is
softest. Middle panel: The rapidity-slope of the net proton directed flow v1 , dv1 /dy. This
quantity is sensitive to early pressure gradients in the medium. Bottom panel: The kurtosis
of the event-by-event distribution of the net proton (i.e. proton minus antiproton) number per
unit of rapidity, normalized such that Poisson fluctuations give a value of 1. In central collisions,
published results in a limited kinematic range [347] show a drop below the Poisson baseline
around sN N =27 and 19.6 GeV. New preliminary data over a larger pT range [348], although at
present still with substantial error bars, hint that the normalized kurtosis may, in fact, rise above
1 at lower sN N , as expected from critical fluctuations [349]. The grey band shows the much
reduced uncertainties anticipated from BES-II in 2018-2019, for the 0-5% most central collisions.
4.2 Mapping the Crossover and Searching for the QCD Critical Point
crossover region of the phase diagram obtained from lattice calculations via Taylor expansion in
µB /T [353]. This is a program where a quantitative comparison, successful or not, will be of
great interest, since failure to describe the data could signal the presence of a first-order phase
transition. The precision of a comparison like this will be substantially improved in 2018-19
when BES-II data will allow dv1 /dy to be measured for the first time with tightly specified
centrality; the statistics available in the BES-I data sets limit present measurements to averages
over collisions with widely varying impact parameters [350].
2. A second goal of the hydrodynamic calculations referred to above will be to use identified
particle BES-I v2 data to map, in quantitative terms, where and how hydrodynamics starts to
break down at lower collision energies, and where, to an increasing extent, v2 develops during the
hadron gas phase when viscosities are not small, i.e. where the contribution of the partonic phase
to observed measures of collectivity decreases in importance. A key future experimental input to
this program is the measurement of the elliptic flow v2 of the φ-meson, which will be obtained
with substantially greater precision in the BES-II program. The first measurements of v2 of Ω
baryons at these collision energies, also anticipated in BES-II, will represent a further, substantial
advance. Seeing φ mesons flowing like lighter mesons and Ω baryons flowing like lighter baryons
in collisions at a given energy would indicate that the dominant contribution to the collective
flow in those collisions was generated during the partonic phase [354].
This component of the BES program, together with the following one, will yield guidance as to
what the lowest collision energies are at which temperatures in the transition region of the phase
diagram can be explored. That is, they will tell us the largest value of µB for which it will be
possible to use heavy-ion collisions, anywhere, to study matter in the crossover region and search
for a possible critical point.
3. Heavy-ion collisions at top RHIC energies and at the LHC have now seen several experimental
phenomena [314, 316, 355] that may be related to the chiral magnetic effect (CME [311, 319], see
Section 3.8). In each case, alternative explanations are also being considered [356, 357]. One
of the intriguing BES-I results is that the three-particle correlations that are related to charge
separation across the reaction plane, possibly induced by the CME, are clearly observable over most
of the BES range but then seem to turn off at sN N = 7.7 GeV [313], where the elliptic flow v2
is still robust. This is an indication that v2 -induced backgrounds alone do not explain the observed
correlations. The observation that these three-particle correlations disappear at the lowest energy
could prove crucial to understanding their origin and how they are related to the formation of
QGP. On the theoretical side, lattice QCD calculations probing the response of the equation of
state and transition temperature to the presence of external magnetic fields [358–360] are needed
to understand these signals. Also necessary are hydrodynamic calculations incorporating magnetic
fields and chiral effects; these are being pursued by several groups, with first results starting to
appear [312]. On the experimental side, higher statistics BES-II data will make it possible to
determine with much greater precision the sN N at which this effect turns off and will also
make it possible to measure the (related but theoretically more robust) chiral magnetic wave
phenomenon [361, 362], which has also been seen at top RHIC energy and at the LHC [363, 364],
and which should turn off below the same sN N where the CME-related observables turn off, if
these interpretations are correct.
4. Theoretical developments over the past decade have identified specific event-by-event fluctua63
4.2 Mapping the Crossover and Searching for the QCD Critical Point
tion observables most likely to be enhanced in collisions that cool in the vicinity of the critical
point [365, 366]. Higher moments of the event-by-event distribution of the number of protons, or
the net proton number, are particularly sensitive [366–368]. STAR has now measured the first
four moments (mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis) of the event-by-event distribution of net
proton number and net charge at the BES-I energies [347, 369]. At the lowest collision energies,
although the statistics are at present rather limiting, there are interesting trends, including for
example the drop in the normalized kurtosis of the net-proton distribution at sN N = 27 and
19.6 GeV (see bottom panel in Figure 30). This drop in and of itself can be at least partially
reproduced via prosaic effects captured in model calculations that do not include any critical
point. Theoretical calculations of the contributions from critical fluctuations predict [349] that if
the freezeout µB scans past a critical point as the beam energy is lowered, this kurtosis should
first drop below its Poisson baseline and then rise above it. Both the drop and the rise should
be largest in central collisions in which the quark-gluon plasma droplet is largest and therefore
cools most slowly, allowing more time for critical fluctuations to develop [370]. A recent and
still preliminary analysis [348] that includes protons over a larger range in pT than measured
before [347], also shown in the bottom panel of Figure 30, features a more substantial drop in
the net proton kurtosis at sN N = 27 and 19.6 GeV as well as intriguing hints of a rise above
one at sN N = 11.5 and 7.7 GeV in central collisions, but the uncertainties are at present too
large to draw conclusions. If this kurtosis does rise at sN N values below 19.6 GeV, it would be
difficult to understand in conventional terms and thus would be suggestive of a contribution from
the fluctuations near a critical point. Determining whether this is so requires the higher statistics
that BES-II will provide, as illustrated by the grey band in the bottom panel of Figure 30.
The present data on moments of both the net proton number and the net charge at the higher
BES-I energies are already very useful, as they can be compared to lattice calculations of the
Taylor expansions (in µB /T ) of the baryon number and charge susceptibilities [371]. First versions
of this comparison have been reported recently and are being used to provide an independent
determination of how the freeze-out values of µB and T change with collision energy [372–375].
However, looking ahead, theoretical calculations will need to faithfully account for the dynamical
evolution of the medium formed in the collision for a full quantitative exploitation of the
experimental data. For the higher statistics BES-II data on the net proton kurtosis, skewness,
and other fluctuation observables at low collision energies to determine the location of the critical
point on the phase diagram of QCD, if one is discovered, or alternatively to reliably exclude
its existence within the experimentally accessible region of the phase diagram, a substantial
theoretical effort will be needed that couples the sophisticated hydrodynamic calculations referred
to above with a fluctuating and dynamically evolving chiral order parameter.
As the following fifth example illustrates, BES-II will also open the door to measurements that
were not yet accessible in the first phase of the BES program:
5. Dileptons are unique penetrating probes with which to study the chiral properties of hot and
dense matter (see Section 3.6). The dielectron invariant mass distributions measured in the BES-I
(in data taken at sN N = 200, 62.4, 39 and 19.6 GeV; see Figure 19) have shown that there is a
significant enhancement of low mass dileptons below 1 GeV relative to a hadronic cocktail [262].
The data so far are qualitatively consistent with a model in which hadron properties are modified
in the medium and there is a partonic contribution as well [376]. However, data at lower energies
4.3 Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
with higher statistics are crucial in order to test the predicted strong dependence of dilepton
yields on baryon density and draw firm conclusions. The dilepton measurements at and below
sN N = 19.6 GeV that BES-II will provide will yield a qualitatively new understanding of the
chiral properties of QCD matter with significant baryon density. There are two interesting dilepton
mass windows to be studied at BES-II: the low mass window (300 MeV – 700 MeV) and the
high mass window (800 MeV – 1.5 GeV). The former will provide indirect information on chiral
symmetry restoration via the interaction of vector mesons with (excited) baryons, while the latter
will probe chiral restoration directly via the mixing between vector and axial-vector mesons in the
hot and dense environment.
Each of these five examples makes it clear that in order to maximize the physics outcome from
BES-I and BES-II, a coherent effort between experimentalists and theorists working on QCD
at nonzero T and µB is essential. Indeed, there has been considerable progress in lattice QCD
recently on the calculation of various QCD susceptibilities [377, 378] and the QCD equation
of state in the regime where µB is nonzero but sufficiently small compared to 3 Tc [379, 380].
These lattice calculations provide the necessary inputs for extending the kind of sophisticated
hydrodynamic calculations (including initial fluctuations and a late stage hadron cascade) that
have been developed over the past few years to nonzero µB . For some purposes, these calculations
additionally require coupling to a fluctuating and evolving chiral order parameter. In concert, such
developments will provide the critical tools for obtaining from BES-I and BES-II data answers
to fundamental questions about the phases, the crossover, and perhaps the critical point and
first-order transition, in the QCD phase diagram.
The examples that we have sketched show that BES data, at present and in the future from
BES-II, together with the concerted theoretical response that present data motivates will yield
quantitative understanding of the properties of QCD matter in the crossover region where QGP
turns into hadrons. If there is a critical point with µB < 400 MeV, BES-II data on fluctuation and
flow observables together with the theoretical tools now being developed should yield quantitative
evidence for its presence. The span in T and µB that the flexibility of RHIC makes accessible,
along with the technical advantages of measuring fluctuation observables at a collider mentioned
in Section 4.2, together with the recent and planned detector and facility upgrades (low energy
electron cooling in particular), mean that RHIC is uniquely positioned in the world to discover a
critical point in the QCD phase diagram if Nature has put this landmark in the experimentally
accessible region. Late in the decade, the FAIR facility at GSI [381] will extend this search to
even higher µB if its collision energies continue to produce matter at the requisite temperatures.
Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
High transverse momentum single hadrons, fully reconstructed jets, open heavy flavor and heavy
quarkonia provide information about the strongly coupled QGP that complements the information
provided by the bulk and collective observables of the soft sector. The higher momentum and
mass scales of these hard probes drive their production to the earliest times in the collision; these
same properties imply that these probes don’t completely thermalize during the evolution of the
produced medium. The information imprinted on hard probes by QGP production mechanisms
and its later dynamics can therefore survive into final state observables, making them uniquely
4.3 Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
valuable as investigative tools of the complex emergent physics of the QGP. However, accessing
these very positive attributes of hard probes is complicated in many cases by small production
cross sections or the need for specialized techniques and detectors.
In this section we first outline the future of jet studies over the next decade, enabled by major
developments in the RHIC and LHC accelerator facilities and experiments described in 4.1. After
that, we focus on the coming prospects for open heavy flavor and heavy quarkonia measurements.
Previous studies at RHIC and the LHC have clearly demonstrated the ability to reconstruct jet
observables in the high multiplicity heavy ion environment. Comparisons of hadronic and jet-based
measurements to model calculations in a perturbative QCD framework have allowed the extraction
of the QGP transport coefficient q̂ with an uncertainty of about 50%. Full jet measurements have
demonstrated the modification of the dijet and photon-jet momentum balance due to energy loss
in the QGP, and have provided the first look at the modification of the jet structure itself due
to interactions of the hard probe with the medium. These studies demonstrate the transport of
energy from the jet core to low transverse momenta, close to thermal momentum scales, and
away from the jet axis towards large angles far outside of the typical jet cone definition.
Future jet-based studies, built on the achievements at RHIC and the LHC, will address fundamental
questions about the nature of QGP. These include precise measurements of QGP transport
coefficients as a function of temperature, a detailed characterization of the QGP response to
the parton energy loss and studies of the modification the jet angular and momentum structure
as a function of angular and momentum scale. In combination, the goal of these studies is
to determine the microscopic (or quasi-particle) nature of QGP and to understand how the
macroscopic QGP liquid emerges from the underlying QCD degrees of freedom by probing the
QGP dynamics over a wide range of length scales, see Figure 31 for a graphical representation.
This program will be enabled by the evolution of the RHIC and LHC accelerator facilities, upgrades
to the existing experiments and the construction of sPHENIX, a state-of-the-art jet detector at
RHIC. In parallel, experiment/theory collaborations will be strengthened and expanded, to fully
utilize the increased precision and range of experimental observables.
Future jet physics capabilities at RHIC and LHC
Section 4.1 has provided an outline of the RHIC and LHC accelerator and experiment upgrade
plans. These upgrades benefit jet physics studies at the two facilities in three major ways:
1. The statistical precision and kinematic reach for commonly used jet physics observables is
vastly increased, as shown in 31). For single charged hadrons and reconstructed jets, the
pT reach will be extended by a factor of 2–3, up to 40 GeV for hadrons and 70 GeV for
jets at RHIC (see Figure 27) and 300 GeV and 1 TeV, respectively, at LHC. The increased
lever arm will be crucial in further improving the extraction of e.g. the q̂ coefficient from
model comparisons. Equally importantly, the larger data sets will allow a more detailed
4.3 Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Dijet Asymmetry
Dijet selection:
microscope resolving power [1/fm]
Leading jet pT,1 > 120GeV/c
Subleading jet pT,2> 50GeV/c
> 2 /3
Quantify dijet energy imbalance by asymmetry ratio:
Aj =
pT,1 - pT,2
at t
pT,1 + pT,2
Removes uncertainties in overall jet energy scale
Christof Roland
Quark Matter 2011, Annecy
t th
RHIC tomorrow
LHC tomorrow
LHC today
RHIC today
pT [GeV]
Figure 31: Graphical representation of the future physics goal: Hard scattered partons at the
LHC and at RHIC evolve through splittings and interaction with the medium, providing sensitivity
to QGP dynamics over a wide range of length scales. The kinematic reach of future RHIC and
LHC jet observables and their important kinematic overlap, enabled by new instrumentation at
RHIC, is shown in an artist rendering.
determination of q̂ as a function of path length and medium conditions, e.g. in very
peripheral collisions in the two energy regimes.
2. Beyond increasing the kinematic range and statistical precision for current “workhorse”
measurements, the combination of the increased luminosity at RHIC and LHC, increased
LHC collision energy and the experiment upgrades will move the focus of experimental and
theoretical studies to rare, highly specific observables. Key examples are measurements of
isolated photon + jet correlations at RHIC and LHC, as well as Z 0 +jet correlations at LHC.
As a benchmark, the number of recorded photon+jet events at LHC with pγT > 60 GeV is
expected to reach more than 3 × 105 , compared to about 3000 in the Run I data sets. Using
the photon tag, the initial energy of the scattered parton is determined on an event-by-event
basis to about 15%. The photon tag also identifies the partons as quarks and provides their
initial direction. Furthermore, the comparison of photon+jet events at RHIC and the LHC
allows the selection of nearly identical initial hard scattering configurations embedded in
4.3 Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
different initial medium conditions in terms of temperature and energy density (see Figure
31). As jets and the medium co-evolve from their initial virtuality and conditions to final
state hadrons, the comparison of various observables between the RHIC and LHC events
will provide key insights into the temperature dependence of the jet-medium interactions.
Future measurements enabled by this program include the absolute quark energy loss as a
function of quark energy and path length, modifications of the jet momentum and angular
structure and the large angle momentum flow and medium response as a function of
event-by-event jet energy loss.
3. Finally, the very high statistics jet samples to be collected at the LHC and with a future
state-of-the-art jet detector at RHIC will allow analyses based on a new generation of jet
shape observables. There is intense activity in the development of generalized jet structure
variables at the LHC to maximize the efficiency of discovery measurements by improving
quark/gluon discrimination and the tagging of boosted objects. Heavy ion studies of the
modification of the jet momentum and angular structure through medium interactions will
benefit greatly from these developments. Present measurements at the LHC have shown
the jet structure to be modified both within a typical jet cone size (e.g. R = 0.5) and
beyond, with the fragmentation products inside the cone shifted towards lower pT and
larger angles and an associated transport of most of the “lost” jet energy outside of the
typical jet cone size. First results at RHIC, probing different medium conditions, indicate
similarities in the modifications of the jet momentum structure, but possible differences
in the angular modifications. Using common, well-calibrated jet shape observables at
RHIC and the LHC in different regimes of medium conditions will be critical in relating
the observed modifications to the fundamental properties of the QGP, in extracting the
temperature dependence of QGP transport coefficients and ultimately in understanding
the nature of the medium in the vicinity of the phase transition and at temperatures much
larger than TC .
Future jet probes of the QGP
The combination of large increases in delivered luminosity over the next decade, upgrades to
the existing LHC detectors and the construction of a state-of-the-art jet detector at RHIC will
enable a coherent physics program employing well-calibrated common observables to study jet
modifications and jet-medium interactions over a wide range of medium conditions created at
RHIC and the LHC, as shown schematically in Figure 31. Together, RHIC and the LHC will
provide a physics program that includes a precision extraction of QGP transport coefficients
related to jet-medium interactions. Even more importantly, this program will employ jets as a
tool to understand how the observed strongly coupled (liquid) nature of the QGP arises from
the underlying QCD micro-physics by probing the QGP dynamics over a wide range of length
scales (see Figure 31). By conducting these investigations we will move from observing what the
properties of QGP are to understanding how these properties arise from the underlying gauge
In detail, this future program includes:
4.3 Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
sPHENIX FF Modification 40 GeV Jets
Theory E =Eparton × [X=1.0,0.95,0.90,0.85,...]
Projected Uncertainties
z [= p/E]
Figure 32: Modified fragmentation function D(z) in the medium [382] expressed as the ratio of
the modified D(z) to that assuming vacuum fragmentation. The different black curves show
the results of different assumptions for the fraction X of the parton energy retained in the jet
cone, with the original prediction corresponding to X = 1.0 shown as the lower blue curve. The
projected statistical uncertainties are those achievable with sPHENIX for 22 weeks and 10 weeks
of Au+Au and p+p data-taking, shown superimposed on the curve for X = 0.85.
1. Increased precision in extracting the average q̂ and ê transport coefficients, leading to a
determination of their scale, energy and temperature dependence.
2. Combined global analysis of multiple observables at RHIC and the LHC to extract the
temperature dependence of transport coefficients. Both the RHIC and LHC final states
represent an integral of jet-medium interactions over the evolution of both the jet and
the medium from initial to final state. To disentangle the temperature dependence from
this evolution it will be essential to deploy directly comparable observables (theoretically
and experimentally) in different QGP temperature regimes, in particular with respect to
the fraction of their evolution spend in the vicinity to the phase transition region. Only a
combined effort at RHIC and LHC can address this question.
3. Using increased systematic and statistical precision afforded by new probes (e.g. photon-jet)
to identity the medium response to the modified jet radiation and further elucidate the
liquid nature of the medium in its response to local perturbations
4.3 Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
4. Using precision measurements of modifications of the jet structure in angular and momentum
space to characterize the microscopic structure of the QGP. Jet probes here serve to
perform experiments analogous to Rutherford or deep-inelastic scattering off effective QGP
constituents or quasi-particles. Perhaps the most straightforward signal is the modification
of the jet fragmentation function D(z), where z = p/E is the momentum fraction of a
single-particle of momentum p in a jet of energy E. Other interesting observables include
both potential modifications to the back-to-back jet scattering distributions, as well as
modifications of the intra-jet angular structure. For the latter, the correlated angular and
momentum evolution of the jet from the initial scattering to the final hadronic structure
probes probes a wide range of scales, opening a window to interactions of jet and QGP
constituents in between vacuum-like and in-medium cascade regimes. To pin down the
physics of this intermediate window, systematic variations of both the jet conditions and
medium conditions and dynamics are necessary. Combining RHIC and LHC measurements
will allow control over initial density and temperature (in particular in respect to their
vicinity to the critical temperature) and expansion dynamics of the system. The different
energy regimes and tagging of particular initial states (photon+jet, b-tagged jets, multi-jet
events) will allow selection of different or common jet populations in relation to different
medium conditions. Success in this long-term endeavor will require a global analysis of a
diverse set of RHIC and LHC data in an improved, well controlled theoretical framework
that makes explicit contact with the experimental observables.
Future challenges in the theory of jet modification
In the period subsequent to the 2007 long range plan, there has been a major advance in
the theoretical description of jet modifications in a dense medium. The ability of experiments
both at RHIC and LHC to study full jet modification and energy flow with respect to the jet
axis has led to the evolution from formalisms focused only on the leading particle towards full
jet analyses tools. Primarily, this has led to the ongoing development of several Monte-Carlo
codes: YaJEM [383, 384], JEWEL [385], MARTINI [386], Q-PYTHIA [387], PYQUEN [388],
and MATTER [389]. While most of these routines are based on weak coupling, there is also a
recently developed generator that is based on a hybrid strong and weak coupling approach [390].
All of these approaches are based on one of the established analytical formalisms, and as such,
apply to slightly different epochs in the lifespan of a hard jet in a dense medium. As a jet
emanates from a hard interaction, it is far off its mass shell, at such hard scales that the jet
probes the medium at extremely short distances characterized by its high-Q2 structure of a dilute
gas of partons. In this regime, it is expected that the parton’s interactions with the medium are
dominated by radiation of gluons over elastic scattering processes. As the virtuality of the partons
within a jet begins to drop, different parts of the jet enter different regimes. The very energetic
jet fragments undergo several scatterings per emission in which the multiple scattering prevents
their virtuality from falling below q̂τ , where τ is the lifetime of the parton. As a result, those
hard partons remain weakly coupled with the medium. The less energetic partons in the shower
decrease in virtuality to the scale of the medium (of the order of the local temperature) and
become strongly coupled. Currently most of the Monte Carlo descriptions apply to only one of
4.3 Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
these regimes, under the assumption that such a regime dominates the measured observables (with
varying approximations regarding the medium). Nonetheless, several of these event generators
have been tested against a variety of observables, such as jet RAA , dijet energy and angular
imbalance, intra-jet hadron distribution and jet shapes [389, 391–395]. One of the outstanding
challenges in this field will be the development of a generator that smoothly interpolates between
the various regimes of jet quenching while incorporating a fluctuating medium simulated by an
event-by-event viscous fluid dynamical simulation. This will be followed by rigorous testing and
validation against all available jet data.
Full jet reconstruction, however, involves more than simply a perturbative redistribution of the
energy within a jet cone. Rather, as the energy is deposited within an evolving medium it
thermalizes and forms a source of energy and momentum current for the fluid dynamical evolution
of the medium. A significant fraction of the this energy is carried away from the jet at large
angles, with the remainder found within the reconstructed jet cone. To date only initial efforts
have been made to understand the dynamics of energy deposition and redistribution within a
fluid medium [396, 397], and this remains an open issue. In addition to this question of energy
redistribution at the medium scale, another outstanding question is the distribution of radiation at
the perturbative scale. The ordering of radiation from a hard parton in vacuum is well established,
however its modification in the medium is still an open question. There now exist two separate
calculations, one in the radiation dominated regime [398] which shows no ordering, and one in
the scattering dominated regime [399], which shows anti-angular ordering. A resolution of these
issues at NLO remains one of the major opportunities in the theory of pQCD energy loss. It
may indeed turn out that a full understanding of this problem leads to the development of an
effective theory of jet modification in dense matter. To date, great strides have been made in
modifying Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) [400–402] by the addition of off-shell gluon
modes with momenta transverse to the collinear modes within a hard jet. This modified version
of SCET has been uses to calculate the propagation, scattering and emission from hard partons
in a dense medium [403–405]. Extending this beyond the radiation dominated regime to the
multiple scattering regime remains a future goal. Several model calculations [153, 154] have
already laid the groundwork for what a fully developed jet modification theory should look like.
Developing in parallel with the theoretical description of parton showers in a dense medium is
the improved description of transport coefficients, which are the actual measurable quantities
that describe the medium probed by hard jets. A great deal of work has gone into determining
the temperature dependence of the transverse diffusion coefficient q̂. More recently, efforts have
been made to determine the longitudinal energy loss coefficient ê. While light flavor energy
loss is known to be weakly dependent on ê, this is not the case for heavy flavors. Significant
theoretical activity now focuses on determining the dynamics of heavy flavor energy loss and the
sensitivity of these and other heavy flavor observables to ê [157,406,407]. Efforts to extend this to
b−tagged jets are also being carried out [408]. Future developments in the theory of heavy flavor
dynamics in the medium serve not only as a consistency check for the pQCD based formalism of
jet modification, but also provide the primary means to determine the drag coefficient ê.
While the dependencies of the transport coefficients on temperature reveal the dynamics of the
medium as seen by the jet, they also depend on the scale and energy of the jet. Recently there
has been a series of developments to quantify this scale and energy dependence of transport
4.3 Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
coefficients by carrying out NLO calculations of these coefficients, most notably of q̂. Several
calculations, once again performed in different regimes of jet quenching, have obtained rather
different dependencies on energy and scale [134, 409–411]. Much theoretical effort is currently
being devoted to a resolution of these differences. In all of the current jet quenching calculations,
either of leading particles or of full jets, the normalization of the transport coefficients is
determined empirically by fitting to one data set. While this emphasizes the absolute requirement
of parallel theoretical and experimental investigations, it also demonstrates that the current
calculations of jet modifications do not result directly from the QCD Lagrangian. In an effort to
resolve this, several groups have considered the possibility of evaluating such coefficients on the
lattice [137, 138, 412]. These represent extremely difficult calculations which, however, hold the
promise of determining the transport coefficients with no input other than the local temperature.
Future calculations of transport coefficients on the lattice, combined with calculations of the
scale and energy dependence described above will allow for a rigorous and first principles test of
the entire formalism of jet modification.
Future Quarkonia measurements at RHIC and the LHC
++,-- subtracted
Au+Au 0-10%
10B events
Υ (1S,2S,3S)
Strickland & Bazow
NP A879 (2011) 25
Υ (1S)
Υ (2S)
Υ (3S)
correlated bkg
10 10.5 11
invariant mass (GeV/c2)
Figure 33: Projected quarkonia results from a 20 week Au+Au run with sPHENIX. (left) The
di-electron invariant mass distribution for 0–10% central Au+Au events after the combinatorial
background has been removed by subtracting all like-sign pairs. (right) Estimate of the statistical
precision of a measurement of the Υ states assuming that the measured RAA is equal to the
results of a recent theory calculation [195].
In addition to the jet capabilities added at RHIC by the sPHENIX detector upgrade, outlined in
Section 4.1, high precision measurements of the modification of the Υ(1S), Υ(2S) and Υ(3S)
states in A+A and p+A collisions will also be provided by sPHENIX. The key features of the
upgrade that enable this are:
4.3 Hard Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
• The 1.5 T magnetic field of the Babar magnet, combined with precise tracking, will provide
100 MeV mass resolution for measurements of Υ → e+ e− decays at mid rapidity.
• Good signal to background performance is obtained by using low mass tracking to limit
radiative losses for electron tracks and the Electromagnetic and Hadronic calorimeters to
reject combinatoric background from charged hadrons.
• Increased RHIC luminosity combined with the large acceptance of sPHENIX and long
RHIC running times provide the statistical precision for the Υ measurements at RHIC
that will tightly constrain theoretical models of the modification. These measurements
will complement similar high precision measurements at higher temperature from LHC
experiments that will be available on a similar time scale (i.e. by the end of LHC Run 3)
due to LHC machine and detector upgrades, and accumulated luminosity.
Critical variables to manipulate when probing the QGP are the temperature of the QGP and
the length scale probed in the medium. For this reason, measurements at two widely different
temperatures of the three Upsilon states, which span a large range of binding energies and sizes,
are ideal. However for comparisons between data at RHIC and the LHC to be effective, high
precision is required at both facilities.
The planned program of measurements at RHIC starting in 2021 includes p+p p+Au and Au+Au
measurements. A very important feature for Υ measurements with sPHENIX is that the increases
in p+p luminosity at RHIC will permit a measurement of the p+p reference cross section having
similar precision to that which can be attained in Au+Au and p+Au collisions. The projected
invariant mass spectrum for central collisions from a 10 week Au+Au run is shown in Figure 33.
This spectrum is shown after the combinatorial background has been subtracted, and assumes no
modification of the yields relative to p+p collisions.
The projected statistical precision for measuring the nuclear suppression factor RAA in a 20 week
Au+Au run, using p+p reference data also from a 10 week run, is illustrated in Figure 33. For
the sake of this illustration it is assumed that the suppression for each state is equal to that from
a theory calculation [195] in which the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio is a parameter.
The data are expected to provide good constraints on models.
At the LHC, CMS has measured the Υ modification in sN N =2.76 GeV Pb+Pb collisions with
mass resolution that cleanly resolves the three states. It is expected that CMS will accumulate (at
sN N =5.5 TeV) by the end of Run 3 an Υ data set that is roughly 100 times larger than their
existing one, yielding statistical precision that is even better than that expected from sPHENIX.
The different color screening environments caused by the different temperatures attained in
collisions at RHIC and LHC, combined with large differences in the time evolution of the QGP
and in the underlying bottom production rates, make them distinctly different laboratories for
studying the effect of the plasma on the Υ states. The combination of high precision Υ data
from the LHC and RHIC will constrain theoretical models in ways that data measured at only
one energy could not.
4.4 Towards Quantitative Understanding: Opportunities and Challenges in Theory
Towards Quantitative Understanding: Opportunities and Challenges
in Theory
Part of Recommendation IV of the 2007 Long Range Plan was the appreciation that “achieving
a quantitative understanding of the properties of the quark-gluon plasma also requires new
investments in modeling of heavy-ion collisions, in analytical approaches, and in large-scale
computing.” Since then there has been tremendous progress along these lines. A large and
diverse worldwide theory community is working on the challenges posed by the discoveries
of the experimental heavy ion programs at RHIC and at the LHC. This community develops
theoretical tools suited for the upcoming era of detailed experimental investigation. It includes,
amongst others, lattice QCD groups producing ab initio calculations of QCD thermodynamics at
finite temperature and density, nuclear and high energy physicists working on the embedding of
hard partonic processes in a dense nuclear environment, groups advancing the development of
relativistic fluid dynamic simulations of heavy ion collisions and the interfacing of these simulations
with hadronic cascades, field theorists aiming at developing a description from first principles
of the initial conditions of high parton density and their (non-equilibrium) evolution, as well as
people developing many-body approaches to evaluate spectral and transport properties of QCD
matter, and string theorists contributing to the exploration of novel strong coupling techniques
suited for the description of strongly coupled, nearly perfectly liquid, non-abelian plasmas. This
diverse theory community is active and forward looking; it supports, advances and motivates a
multifaceted experimental program, and does so with a long perspective. It develops improved
phenomenological tools that address with increased precision and broadened versatility the diverse
needs of the experimental program and mediates its impacts that branch out into neighboring
fields of theoretical physics, including high energy physics, string theory, condensed matter physics
and astrophysics/cosmology. Here, we highlight only a few important recent developments that
support these general statements:
• Convergence has been reached in lattice QCD calculations of the temperature for the
crossover transition in strongly interacting matter which has now been established at
145 MeV < Tc < 163 MeV] [70, 298, 299, 413]. Continuum extrapolated results for the
equation of state, the speed of sound and many other properties of strong interaction
matter have also been provided [69, 70].
• The modeling of the space-time evolution of heavy-ion collisions has become increasingly
reliable. (2+1)-dimensional, and subsequently, (3+1)-dimensional relativistic viscous fluid
dynamics computations have been performed. All such computations use an equation of
state extracted from lattice QCD. Viscous relativistic fluid dynamic (3+1)-dimensional
simulation tools have been developed and subjected to a broad set of theoretical precision
tests. These tools are instrumental in the ongoing program of extracting material properties
of the produced quark-gluon plasma from the experimentally observed flow harmonics
and reaction plane correlations. Within the last five years, in a community-wide effort
coordinated by, amongst others, the TECHQM [414] initiative, these simulation codes were
validated against each other. The range of applicability of these simulations continues to
be pushed to further classes of experimental observables. Still, already with the limited
data/theory comparison tools that have so far been brought to bear on the large sets of
4.4 Towards Quantitative Understanding: Opportunities and Challenges in Theory
experimental data collected at RHIC and LHC, the specific shear viscosity η/s of QCD
matter created at RHIC could be constrained to be approximately 50% larger than the
limiting value 1/4π = 0.08 obtained in strongly coupled plasmas with a dual gravitational
description [4], and to be about 2.5 times larger than this value at the LHC, see e.g. Ref. [3].
• The JET collaboration [139] has coordinated a similarly broad cross-evaluation of the tools
available for the description of jet quenching in hadron spectra, and have undertaken a
consolidation of the results of different approaches to determining the transport properties
of jets as they traverse the strongly correlated quark-gluon plasma. The range of values
for the jet quenching parameter q̂/T 3 obtained from theory-data comparisons has been
narrowed to 2 < q̂/T 3 < 6 within the temperature range probed by RHIC and the LHC [140].
At the same time, a significant number of tools were developed for the simulation of full
medium-modified parton showers suited for the modeling of reconstructed jets. In the
coming years, these tools will be the basis for a detailed analysis of jet-medium interactions.
• There is a community-wide effort devoted to extending CGC calculations from LO (current
phenomenology) to NLO [415–419]. Doing NLO calculations in the presence of a nonperturbatively large parton density requires overcoming qualitatively novel, conceptually
challenging issues that are not present in standard in vacuo NLO calculations in QCD.
Within the last year, the key issues in this program have been addressed by different groups
in independent but consistent approaches, and the field is now rapidly advancing these
calculations of higher precision to a practically usable level.
• In recent years, there have been significant advances in understanding how thermalization
occurs in the initially overoccupied and strongly expanding systems created in heavy ion
collisions [420–422]. While some of these developments are still on a conceptual field
theoretical level, there is by now the exciting realization that the thermalization processes
identified in these studies share many commonalities with the problem of dynamically
describing the quenching of jets in dense plasmas [423, 424]. This is likely to open
new possibilities for understanding via the detailed measurements of jet quenching how
non-abelian equilibration processes occur in primordial plasmas.
• Systematic efforts are being pursued to unravel key properties of QCD matter with heavyflavor particles. The construction of heavy-quark effective theories benefits from increasingly
precise information from thermal lattice QCD, to evaluate dynamical quantities suitable for
phenomenology in heavy-ion collisions (heavy-flavor diffusion coefficient, quarkonium spectral properties). This will enable precision tests of low momentum heavy-flavor observables,
providing a unique window on how in-medium QCD forces vary with temperature.
• Much progress has been made towards a systematic understanding from first principles of the
properties of strongly interacting matter at non-zero baryon number density. Such studies
rely heavily on the development of theoretical concepts on critical behavior signaled by
conserved charge fluctuation [300,349,367]. They are accessible to lattice QCD calculations
which opens up the possibility, via dynamical modeling, for a systematic comparison of
experimental fluctuation observables with calculations performed in QCD [371–375]. This
will greatly profit from the steady development of computational facilities which are soon
expected to deliver sustained petaflop/s performance for lattice QCD calculations.
4.4 Towards Quantitative Understanding: Opportunities and Challenges in Theory
The significant advances listed above document how theory addresses the challenge of keeping
pace with the experimental development towards more complete and more precise exploration of
the hot and dense rapidly evolving systems produced in heavy ion collisions. We emphasize that all
these research directions show strong potential for further theoretical development and improved
interfacing with future experimental analyses. Some of the challenging issues over which we need
to get better control include: i) the pre-equilibrium “glasma” dynamics of coherent gluon fields,
and the approach to thermalization; ii) the extraction of the values and temperature dependences
of transport parameters that reflect the many-body QCD dynamics in deconfined matter; iii) the
initial conditions at lower collision energies where the Glasma framework breaks down; iv) the
proper inclusion of the physics of hydrodynamic fluctuations; v) an improved treatment of hadron
freeze-out and the transition from hydrodynamics to transport theory, in particular the treatment
of viscous corrections that can influence the extraction from data of the physics during the earlier
collision stages. Quantitative improvements in these aspects of the dynamical modeling of a
heavy-ion collision will lead to increased precision in the extraction of the underlying many-body
QCD physics that governs the various collision stages. Additional conceptual advances in our
understanding of QCD in matter at extreme temperatures and densities are required to answer a
number of further outstanding questions. We list a few of them:
• A complete quantitative understanding of the properties of the nuclear wave functions
that are resolved in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions remains elusive to date.
Progress requires the extension of computations of the energy evolution of these wave
functions in the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework to next-to-leading logarithmic
accuracy as described above, matching these to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD
computations at large momenta, and pushing the development of these calculations into
predictive tools. Simultaneously, conceptual questions regarding the factorization and
universality of distributions need to be addressed for quantitative progress. These ideas
will be tested in upcoming proton-nucleus collisions at RHIC and the LHC, and with high
precision at a future EIC.
• How the glasma thermalizes to the quark-gluon plasma is not well understood. There has
been significant progress in employing classical statistical methods and kinetic theory to the
early stage dynamics — however, these rely on extrapolations of weak coupling dynamics to
realistically strong couplings. Significant insight is also provided from extrapolations in the
other direction — from large couplings – using the holographic AdS/CFT correspondence
between strongly coupled N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions and
weakly coupled gravity in an AdS5 ×S5 space. Significant numerical and analytical progress
can be anticipated in this fast evolving field of non-equilibrium non-Abelian plasmas, with
progress on the question of how characteristic features of thermalization processes can be
constrained in an interplay between experimental and theoretical developments.
• A novel development in recent years has been the theoretical study of the possible role of
quantum anomalies in heavy-ion collisions. A particular example is the Chiral Magnetic
Effect (CME), which explores the phenomenological consequences of topological transitions
in the large magnetic fields created at early times in heavy-ion collisions. How the sphaleron
transitions that generate topological charge occur out of equilibrium is an outstanding
question that can be addressed by both weak coupling and holographic methods. Further,
4.4 Towards Quantitative Understanding: Opportunities and Challenges in Theory
the effects of these charges can be propagated to late times via anomalous hydrodynamics.
While there have been hints of the CME in experiments, conventional explanations of
these data exist as well. For the future beam energy scan at RHIC, quantifying the
predictions regarding signatures of quantum anomalies is crucial. This requires inclusion of
the anomalies into the standard hydrodynamical framework. We note that the study of
the CME has strong cross-disciplinary appeal, with applications in a number of strongly
correlated condensed matter systems.
• As observed in Section 4.3, progress has been made in quantifying the jet quenching
parameter q̂, which characterizes an important feature of the transverse response of the
quark-gluon medium. However, significant challenges persist. Another important transport
parameter ê, characterizing the longitudinal drag of the medium on the hard probe, also
needs to be quantified. Much recent theoretical effort has gone into extending the splitting
kernel for gluon radiation by a hard parton traversing a dense medium to next-to-leadingorder accuracy. In this context Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), imported from
high energy theory, has proven a promising theoretical tool whose potential needs to be
further explored. There have been recent theoretical developments in understanding how
parton showers develop in the quark-gluon medium; confronting these with the available
jet fragmentation data requires their implementation in Monte-Carlo codes coupled to a
dynamically evolving medium, and the community-wide validation of these jet quenching
event generators. There have been recent attempts to compute the jet quenching parameter
using lattice techniques; while very challenging, such studies provide a novel direction to
extract information on the non-perturbative dynamics of the strongly correlated quark-gluon
• Quarkonia and heavy flavor, like jets, are hard probes that provide essential information
on the quark-gluon plasma on varied length scales. Further, the two probes find common
ground in studies of b-tagged and c-tagged jets. In proton-proton and proton-nucleus
collisions, non-relativistic-QCD (NRQCD) computations are now standard, and these have
been extended to nucleus-nucleus collisions, even to next-to-leading order accuracy. Lattice
studies extracting quarkonium and heavy-light meson spectral functions have increased in
sophistication, and clear predictions for the sequential melting of quarkonium states exist
and need to be confronted with experiment. The direct connection to experiment requires,
however, considerable dynamical modeling effort. For instance, the question of how the
fluid dynamic evolution can be interfaced with microscopic probes that are not part of
the fluid, such as charm and beauty quarks or jets, and how the yield of electromagnetic
processes can be determined with satisfactory precision within this framework, are questions
of high phenomenological relevance for the experimental program in the coming years, and
the community is turning now to them.
• An outstanding intellectual challenge in the field is to map out the QCD phase diagram. We
have described the path toward this goal that starts from experimental measurements made
in a beam energy scan in Section 4.2. While the lattice offers an ab initio approach, its
successful implementation is beset by the well known sign problem, which is also experienced
in other branches of physics. Nonetheless, approaches employing reweighting and Taylor
expansion techniques have become more advanced and are now able to explore the equation
4.4 Towards Quantitative Understanding: Opportunities and Challenges in Theory
of state and freeze-out conditions at baryon chemical potentials µB /T ≤ 2. This covers
a large part of the energy range currently explored in the RHIC Beam Energy Scan and
suggests that a possible critical endpoint may only be found at beam energies less than
20 GeV. Other promising approaches include the complex Langevin approach [425, 426]
and the integration over a Lefschetz thimble [427, 428]. There has been considerable
work outlining the phenomenological consequences of a critical point in the phase diagram.
However, quantitative modeling of how critical fluctuations affect the measured values of
the relevant observables will require the concerted theoretical effort sketched in Section 4.2.
Continued support of these theory initiatives is needed to optimally exploit the opportunities
arising from the continued experimental analysis of heavy ion collisions and to interface the
insights so obtained with the widest possible cross-section of the worldwide physics community.
Achieving the impressive intellectual achievements we have outlined, and meeting the challenges
ahead, depend strongly on the development of the theory of strongly interacting matter which
involves advances in heavy ion phenomenology, perturbative QCD, lattice QCD, holographic
calculations of equilibration in strongly coupled systems, and effective field theories for QCD as
well as the strong synergy with overlapping and related areas in high energy physics, condensed
matter physics, cold atom physics, string theory and studies of complex dynamical systems.
Continued advances will also require significantly increased computational resources. While lattice
QCD continues to play a crucial role by delivering first-principles answers to important questions
that require a non-perturbative approach, it does not yet have the ability to address dynamic
systems. Questions such as how the matter formed in heavy ion collisions reaches local thermal
equilibrium, and how it subsequently evolves to the final state observed in experiments require
sophisticated frameworks that incorporate realistic initial conditions, the interactions of hard
processes with the medium, and 3+1 viscous hydrodynamics coupled to hadronic transport codes.
Over the last few years, the community has developed an arsenal of highly sophisticated dynamical
evolution codes that simulate the underlying physical mechanisms with unprecedented accuracy to
provide quantitative predictions for all experimentally accessible observables, but at the expense
of a huge numerical effort. In most cases the limiting factor in comparing the output of such
calculations to the data is the accuracy obtainable with the currrently available computational
resources rather than the statistical precision of the experimental data. Addressing this requires
new investments, especially in capacity computing that supplement the necessary expansion and
upgrades of leadership-class computing facilities. Specific information on the needed resources
for both lattice QCD and dynamical modeling may be found in the report of the Computational
Nuclear Physics Meeting Writing Committee [429], whose recommendations we fully endorse.
The previous sections of this white paper have outlined the enormous scientific opportunities in
the study of thermal QCD that await exploration in the next decade. Realizing these opportunities
on a timely basis will require a dedicated program, key elements of which would include
1. Detector upgrades to enable
• The second phase of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC, utilizing the planned
increase in low-energy luminosity from electron cooling at RHIC (see Section 4.1.1), to
explore the phase diagram of nuclear matter, measure the temperature and chemical
potential dependence of transport properties, and continue the search for the QCD
critical point.
• State of the art jet measurements at RHIC to understand the underlying degrees of
freedom that create the near-perfect liquidity of the QGP.
• Extension of the heavy ion capabilities of the LHC detectors in order to study the
QGP at the highest temperatures and densities.
2. Commitments to the RHIC campaigns and the LHC heavy ion runs outlined in Section 4.1
to ensure timely availability of new data as the enhanced and upgraded detectors become
3. A strong theory effort containing the following items:
• Strong continued support of the core nuclear theory program supporting university
PI’s, national lab groups and the national Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT), which
in concert generate key ideas that drive the field and train the next generation of
students and post-doctoral fellows.
• Strong continued support of the DOE Early Career Award (ECA) program in Nuclear
Theory, as well as the NSF Early Career Development (CAREER) and Presidential
Early Career (PECASE) award programs to recognize and promote the careers of the
most outstanding young nuclear theorists.
• Strong support of expanded computational efforts in nuclear physics, as outlined in
the Computational Nuclear Physics white paper.
• Continuation and expansion of the Topical Research Collaboration program, since
thermal QCD features several outstanding challenges that require the synthesis of a
broad range of expertise, and which could strongly benefit from an expansion of the
Topical Collaboration program.
Pursuing this program over the next decade will consolidate our knowledge of the thermal
properties of QCD, the only gauge theory of nature amenable to experimental study in both
the strongly and weakly coupled regimes. In addition, it is likely that the new insights that will
emerge from this process will surprise us, just as the initial studies of truly relativistic heavy ion
collisions led to paradigm shifts in our understanding of fundamental aspects of QCD.
The members of the Hot QCD Writing Group wish to acknowledge the thoughtful comments,
remarks, input and materials provided by many members of our community. Special thanks go to
Abhay Deshpande, Carl Gagliardi, Frank Geurts, Frithof Karsch, Anthony Kesich, Krishna Kumar,
Marco van Leeuwen, Zein-Eddine Meziani, Richard Milner, Berndt Müller, Michael Murray, Jamie
Nagle, Jianwei Qiu, Lijuan Ruan, Daniel Tapia Takaki, Julia Velkovska, Raju Venugopalan and
Zhangbu Xu. We would also like to take this opportunity to thank Jim Napolitano (Co-Chair),
Bernd Surrow (Co-Chair), Jeff Martoff, Andreas Metz, Zein-Eddine Meziani and Nikos Spaveris
for their very effective organization and hosting of the QCD Town Meeting at Temple University
in September 2014.
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