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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Chapter 9
VOCABULARY
Chapter 9 Section 1
1. Industrial Revolution
2. Enclosure
3. Crop rotation
4. Factors of production
5. Entrepreneur
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
BEGINS IN BRITAIN
• The Industrial Revolution begins in Britain
The Agricultural Revolution: enclosures, crop
rotation, and improved breeding programs
• Industrialization occurred in Britain due to four
factors:
large population of workers
extensive natural resources
expanding economy
political stability
INVENTIONS SPUR
INDUSTRIALIZATION
New inventions helped to spur growth of
various industries. The first to industrialize
was the textile industry. Cloth merchants
boosted their profits by speeding up the
process by which spinners and weavers
made cloth.
John Kay-The flying shuttle
Richard Arkwright- Water Frame
Eli Whitney- Cotton Gin
CRITICAL THINKING
• Why do you think one invention
led to another?
• How were England’s cotton
industry and America’s cotton
growers linked?
IMPROVEMENTS IN TRANSPORTATION
Improvements in transportation
James Watts- Steam engine
Robert Fulton- Steam boat
New and improved roads increased and eased
transportation.
Steam driven locomotives and railroads:
-spurred industrial growth by giving
manufacturers a cheap way to transport
material and finished goods.
-created jobs
-boosted various industries: fishing and
agriculture
-encourage people to move around to cities
or the countryside
VOCABULARY
1. Urbanization
2. Middle class
3. Industrialization
4. Factory
5. Textile
INDUSTRIALIZATION CHANGES LIFE
• Industrialization led to urbanization. People flocked to
cities to work in factories for higher wages. Most of
Europe’s urban areas at least doubled in population
some quadrupled.
• Living conditions were poor in the cities. Cities lacked
planning, and sanitation codes. Streets had no drains
and garbage collected in the streets. Disease spread
quickly. Some experienced a higher status and lived in
luxurious homes in suburbs.
• Working conditions in factories promoted high profits by
requiring long working hours (14 hrs. X 6 days a week).
Working conditions were dangerous and accidents were
common.
CLASS TENSIONS GROW
The Industrial Revolution created a gap between
Britain's working class and the middle class.
• The middle class was made up of skilled workers,
professionals, businesspeople and wealthy farmers.
They held the top position in British society, and had
political power.
• The working class consisted of laborers. They saw
little improvement to their living and working
conditions. They were overworked and underpaid.
Some skilled workers rose to the lower middle class.
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF THE
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
• Created jobs for workers, and contributed to the
wealth of the nation.
• Fostered technological progress and invention
• Increased production of goods and raised the
standard of living.
• Healthier diets, better housing, and cheaper mass
produced clothing.
• Expanded educational opportunities
• The middle and upper middle class prospered
immediately but for workers it took longer.
• Laborers eventually won higher wages, shorter
hours, and better working conditions after they
joined together to form labor unions.
CRITICAL THINKING
• How did the Industrial
Revolution provide hope of
improvement?
• How would joining together in
groups help workers win better
conditions and higher pay?
VOCABULARY
1. Laissez faire
2. capitalism
3. socialism
4. communism
5. Karl Marx
6. Adam Smith
7. union
8. utilitarianism
PHILOSOPHERS OF
INDUSTRIALIZATION
• Laissez- Faire refers to the economic policy of letting
owners of industry and business set working conditions
without interference, an unregulated free market.
• Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations, according to
Smith economic liberty guaranteed economic progress.
Government should not interfere. He believed in three
natural laws of economics:
 The law of self-interest- people work for their own good.
 The law of competition- competition forces people to make a
better product.
 The law of supply and demand- enough goods would be
produced at the lowest possible price to meet demand in a
market economy.
CAPITALISM
• Smith’s basic ideas were the foundation of laissezfaire capitalism.
• Capitalism is an economic system in which the
factors of productions are privately owned and
money is invested in business ventures to make a
profit.
• Laissez-Faire supporters opposed government
efforts to help poor workers. They thought that
creating a minimum wage laws and better working
conditions would upset the free market system,
lower profits, and undermine the production of
wealth in society.
UTILITARIANISM
• In contrast to laissez-faire, others believed that
governments should intervene. They believed that the
wealthy and government should intervene and take
action to improve people’s lives
• Utilitarianism stated that people should judge ideas,
institutions, and actions on the basis of their usefulness.
An individual should be free to pursue his or her own
advantage without interference from the state.
• John Stuart Mill led the utilitarian movement. Mill wished
policies lead to a more equal division of profits. He
favored a cooperative system of agriculture and
women’s rights (right to vote).
SOCIALISM
• In socialism, the factors of production are owned by
the public and operate for the good of all.
• Socialism grew out of an optimistic view of human
nature, a belief in progress and social justice.
• Socialism argues that the government should plan
the economy rather than rely on a free market as in
capitalism. If the government controlled factories,
mines, railroads, and other key industries there
would be an end to poverty. Equality would prevail.
COMMUNISM
According to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels the Industrial
Revolution had made the wealthy richer and
impoverished the poor.
• Marx and Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto, which
stated that wealthy controlled the means of producing
goods, and the poor performed backbreaking labor
under terrible conditions. The situation resulted in
conflict. Eventually the workers would overthrow the
owners.
• Communism is a form of complete socialism in which the
means of production- all land, mines, factories, railroads
and businesses would be owned by the people. All
goods and services would be shared equally.
LABOR UNIONS AND REFORMS
• Unions were created by workers to combat long working
hours, dirty and dangerous factories and the threat of
being laid off.
• Unions spoke for all workers. Strikes were used to bargain
for better working conditions and higher pay.
• Reform laws were passed to combat the abuses caused
by industrialization.
Factory Act of 1833- Made it illegal to hire children
under 9 years old. 9-12 years old could not work
more than 8 hours. 13-17 year olds could not work
more than 12 hours.
• Britain finally abolished slavery in its empire in 1833.
• The women’s rights movement addressed many social
issues and worked to improve many social injustices.
SKILLBUILDER
1. Consider the following people from
19th century Britain: factory worker, shop
owner, factory owner, unemployed
artisan. Which would be most likely to
prefer capitalism and which would
prefer socialism? Why?
2. Which system of economic ideas
seems most widespread today?
G.R.A.P.E.S
Geography
Religion
Achievements
Political
Economics
Social Structure