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Geography of
South Asia
Mr. Kevin Nolen
Penncrest High School
Media, PA
Plate Tectonics
Theory
Gondwanaland
• Southern
supercontinent.
• Started to break
up 175 million
years ago.
The Indian
Subcontinent
The Indian Subcontinent
• A part of
Gondwanaland
broke off and
collided with
Eurasia.
• The Himalayas
and Hindu Kush
were formed.
The Indian Subcontinent
A subcontinent is
a large landmass
that is smaller
than a continent.
Isolating Factors
• Northern
Mountains
– Hindu Kush
– Himalayas
• Water
– Arabian Sea
– Indian Ocean
– Bay of Bengal
Regions of Asia
Note: Definitions of regions tend to vary a bit.
Regions of Asia
• North Asia is
Russia’s Siberia.
• East Asia includes
China and Japan.
• Southeast Asia
includes Vietnam
and Indonesia.
• South Asia includes
India and Pakistan.
• Central Asia
includes Kazakhstan
and Uzbekistan.
• Southwest Asia,
better known as the
Middle East,
includes Saudi
Arabia and Iraq.
South
Northern Asia
Central
Asia
East
Asia
Southwest Asia
South
Asia
Southeast
Asia
South Asia
http://www.powtoon.com/show/eBdJCNKSB4I/geography-of-south-asia/
Countries of South Asia
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Afghanistan
Pakistan
India
Nepal
Bhutan
Bangladesh
Sri Lanka
Maldives
Major Geographic
Regions
Major Geographic Regions
• Northern
Mountains
• Northern Plains
• Deccan Plateau
Northern Mountains
Northern Plains
Deccan
Plateau
Northern Mountains
• Himalayas
• Hindu Kush
Himalayas
https://tellagami.com/gami/SIE56D/
• 1,500 mile long
chain of mountains.
• Include tallest
mountains in the
world.
• Create a massive
wall separating
South Asia from East
Asia.
Mount Everest
• Tallest mountain
in the world at
29,000 feet.
• First climbed by
New Zealander
Edmund Hillary
and Sherpa
Tenzing Norgay
from Nepal.
Hindu Kush
• Smaller in area than
the Himalayas, but
almost as high and
just as rugged.
• Located mostly in
Afghanistan.
• The word “kush”
means “death.”
https://tellagami.com/gami/HVY6BA/
Khyber Pass
• Best known pass
through the Hindu
Kush.
• For centuries,
traders and
invaders traveled
through this pass.
Kashmir
• Isolated valley in
northern India.
• Famous for the
production of a
fine wool.
• Split between
India, Pakistan
and China.
http://www.powtoon.com/show/bOKPdHWkIU5/kashmir/#/
Indo-Gangetic Plain
• Large plain formed
by the Indus,
Ganges and
Brahmaputra
Rivers.
• Most fertile and
densely populated
part of South Asia.
Indus River
• Largest river of
Pakistan.
• The word “indus”
means “river.”
• India’s name
comes from this
river.
https://www.educreations.com/lesson/view/rivers-of-southasia/24674572/?s=x2R2G4&ref=appemail
Ganges River
• Largest river in
India.
• Most holy river of
Hinduism.
• Joins with
Brahmaputra to
create an
enormous delta in
Bangladesh.
Brahmaputra River
• Large river that starts in Tibet (China).
• Runs through India and Bangladesh.
• Name means “Son of Brahma.”
Thar Desert
Large desert in India and Pakistan.
Deccan Plateau
• Large plateau (an
elevated flat or
hilly landmass)
• Bordered by
mountains:
– Vindhyas
– Western Ghats
– Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Windward
Side
The Western Ghats
create a “rain shadow.”
Leeward
Side
Monsoons
• Monsoons are seasonal
winds.
• The word monsoon
comes from the Arabic
word for season.
• There are wet and dry
monsoons.
The Wet Monsoon
• The wet monsoon
arrives in late May or
early June.
• South Asia relies on the
wet monsoon for most of
its annual rainfall.
• Flooding often occurs in
September at the end of
the monsoon season.
The Dry Monsoon
• The dry monsoon
arrives in October and
lasts though November.
Review
Q: What large landmass
split up millions of years
ago, resulting in India’s
collision with the rest of
Asia?
A: Gondwanaland
Q: What two terms
are used to describe
this region of the
world?
A: South Asia & the
Indian Subcontinent
Q: What five physical features
isolate South Asia? Hint: two
landforms and three bodies of
water.
A: Hindu Kush, Himalayas,
Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean &
Bay of Bengal.
Q: What is the name
of the territory in
northern India that is
claimed by both India
and Pakistan?
A: Kashmir
Q: What is the name of
the famous mountain
pass through the
Hindu Kush
mountains?
A: Khyber Pass
Q: What geographic
term is used to
describe a landform
that is low in elevation
and relatively flat?
A: Plain
Q: What is the large
plain in the northern
part of South Asia?
A: Indo-Gangetic Plain
Q: What three rivers
form the Indo-Gangetic
Plain?
A: Indus, Ganges &
Brahmaputra
Q: What geographical
term is used to describe
the landform formed at
the mouth of a river?
A: delta
Q: Which country is largely
composed of the huge delta
formed by the Ganges and
Brahmaputra?
A: Bangladesh
Q: Which two rivers combine to
form the largest delta in South
Asia?
A: Ganges & Brahmaputra
Q: What two names are used to
describe the large desert located
in South Asia?
A: Thar & Great Indian Desert
Q: In which two countries is the
Thar Desert located?
A: India & Pakistan
Q: What geographic term is used
to describe an elevated area that
is relatively flat?
A: plateau
Q: What is the name of the large
plateau in central India?
A: Deccan Plateau
Q: What mountain chain has the
biggest influence on the amount
of precipitation the Deccan
Plateau receives?
A: Western Ghats
Q: What geographic term is used
to describe when one side of a
mountain receives a lot of
moisture and the other side
almost none?
A: rain shadow
Q: What are monsoons?
A: seasonal winds
Q: What is the origin of
the term monsoon?
A: It comes from the Arabic
word for season.
Q: When does the
wet monsoon arrive?
A: late May/ early June
Q: When do the dry
monsoons arrive?
A: October
Review: Countries
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Afghanistan
Bangladesh
Bhutan
India
Maldives
Nepal
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Afghanistan
?
Pakistan
?
Nepal
?
India
?
Sri Lanka
?
Maldives
?
Bhutan
?
Bangladesh
?
Review: Bodies of Water
• Arabian
Sea
• Bay of
Bengal
• Indian
Ocean
Bay of
Bengal
?
Arabian
? Sea
Indian?Ocean
Review: Rivers
• Brahmaputra
• Indus
• Ganges
?Indus
Ganges
?
Brahmaputra
?
Review: Physical Features
• Deccan
Plateau
• Himalayas
• Hindu Kush
• Indo-Gangetic
Plain
• Thar Desert
• Western
Ghats
Hindu?Kush
Thar
Desert
?
Himalayas
?
Indo-Gangetic
?
Deccan
?
Western Plateau
?
Ghats