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South Asia
Northern Mountains
 Himalaya Mountains are the highest mountain
range in the world. (Everest is 29,035 feet
currently)
 Other mountain ranges in the north are the
Karakoram and the Hindu Kush
 For centuries trading caravans have used the
Khyber Pass to reach India
 Scientist believe that the northern mountains were
formed by tectonic plate movement
Northern Plains
 The three rivers Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra
water the fertile plains of the north.
 Ganges and Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of
Bengal
 Indus flows into the Arabian Sea
 40% of India’s population lives on the Ganges
Plain
 Delta have formed where the river meets the bay or
sea
Southern Landforms
 The Ghats are both eroded coastal
mountains
 Western Ghats block rains from reaching
the Deccan Plateau
 Karnataka Plain receives the rain from
Arabian Sea before it reaches the Deccan
Plateau
 You can smell spices and see elephants on
the green Karnataka Plain.
Natural Resources
 Most South Asians grow crops or raise
livestock on small plots
 India has more natural resources than its
neighbors (iron, ore , manganese and
chromite and coal)
 Pakistan has limestone and natural gas
 The regions fast moving rivers are used to
create hydroelectricity
Environmental Concerns
 Water is often polluted in large cities and near
factories. Farming fertilizers also pollute the rivers
 Forests are cut down for firewood and building
purposes. Most heat and cook on wood in rural
areas
 A brown cloud has formed over the Indian Ocean
from factories and cooking and heating fires
 Villagers heat and cook with kerosene, wood,
charcoal and dung
Monsoons
 Three distinct season: hot wet and cool depend on




monsoon winds
The monsoon rains are heaviest in Eastern South Asia
Some areas suffer droughts while other areas
experience heavy flooding from monsoons and
cyclones.
Bangladesh has severe flooding in the delta area
A 1999 storm killed 10,000 people
Climate Areas
 Bangladesh can receive 100 inches of rain per year
 The city of Cherrapunji averages 450 inches per year
 Near the Indus River farmers must use irrigation
because the land is so dry
 Thar Desert extremely dry gravel plains near Pakistan
 Little grows in the Highland climate above 16,000 feet
 Nepal’s Kathmandu Valley has a mild climate July
averages 78 degrees and January 50 degrees