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Discovering Our World
Continents and Oceans
4 Oceans
1. Atlantic Ocean
2. Pacific Ocean
3. Arctic Ocean
4. Indian Ocean
7 Continents
1. North America
2. South America
3. Europe
4. Asia
5. Africa
6. Australia (Oceania)
7. Antarctica
World Map
What did you notice?
• 75% of the planet is Water
• Most of the habitable land is in the
Northern Hemisphere
• Most people live in the Northern
• As you move away from the equator to the
poles, the temperature gets colder
• Most large cities are close to water
North America
Made up of three countries
1. Canada
2. United States
3. Mexico
Made up of 10 Provinces
1. British Columbia
2. Alberta
3. Saskatchewan
4. Manitoba
5. Ontario
6. Québec
7. New Brunswick
8. Prince Edward Island
9. Nova Scotia
10. Labrador/Newfoundland
And 3 Territories
1. Yukon
2. Northwest Territories
3. Nunavut
Map of Canada
Did you know….
• Canada is the 2nd largest country in the world
• It is surrounded by three oceans
• It was established on July 1st, 1867 with 4
provinces: Québec, Ontario, New Brunswick and
Nova Scotia
• The capital city is Ottawa
• The population is 33,000,000 (approx.)
• The three largest cities in order are Toronto (5.2
Million), Montreal (3.6 Million), and Vancouver
• It has the largest undefended boarder with the
United States
Map Of Québec
Did you know…
Québec is the largest Province in Canada
Capital: Québec City
Population: 7,600,000 (approx.)
Largest City: Montreal (3,500,000 approx.)
Québec (Kebec) is an Algonkian word for
‘where the river narrows’
• The Saint-Lawrence River is one of the
most important waterways in North
Natural Resources
• Anything we take or use from nature: trees, minerals, oil,
soil, animals, water.
Some are renewable, some are non-renewable.
• Québec stands out notably in the mining sector by
ranking among the top 10 producers in the world.
• It also stands out with its notable development of forestry
resources. Currently, 60% of the newsprint consumed in
the north-eastern United States originates in Québec.
• Québec's territory is one of the largest reservoirs of
drinking water on the planet.
Natural Forces
• Events in nature that shaped and molded
the earth’s surface over thousands of
• Examples: earthquakes, volcanoes,
glaciers, meteorites,water, wind, and fire.
Vegetation Zones
• In Québec, the main forest ecosystems correspond to
the following 4 vegetation zones, running from south to
north :
• The mixed forest zone- containing deciduous and
coniferous trees in southern Québec where we live.
Deciduous - Ex. maple, birch, oak (trees that lose their
• The boreal forest zone, made up primarily of coniferous
trees- Ex. evergreens, Pine, fir (needle trees that stay
green all year)
• The taiga (short conifers spread around a large territory)
• The tundra (subarctic and arctic regions, mosses,
lichens, weeds, bushes, low growing plants)
Vegetation Zones
• The boreal forest of conifers, accounts for 73.7 % of Québec forests.
It is made up almost entirely of balsam fir, black and white spruce,
jack pine and larch. The only hardwoods that grow there are white
birch, trembling aspen and balsam poplar.
• South of the boreal forest lies the southern forest of hardwoods, of
which the most abundant species are sugar maple, yellow birch and
beech. Other species include black cherry, linden, three species of
oak, three species of ash, two species of hickory, three other
species of maple, and two species of poplar.
• The southern forests also include certain softwood species such as
white and red pine, hemlock and cedar. The species found in this
zone live longer than those found in the boreal forest and grow to a
bigger size.
Climate and Weather
• The Climate of a region is constant (doesn’t
change) from year to year and season to season
when looking at a place in the world.
It means that the temperature in August
each year will have similar warm summer
weather. The temperature in February each year
will also have similar cold winter weather. The
climate is predictable based on the trends in the
• The Weather of a region changes daily from
clear to precipitation (what falls from the clouds);
rain, snow, sleet, hail…
Climate Zones
One feature of a land area as vast as Québec's is striking variations
in temperature and precipitation in various regions. Québec has a
mild spring, an often hot summer, a colourful but sometimes chilly
fall, and a cold snowy winter which Quebecers have mastered.
Québec has three types of climates : (From South to North)
1. Continental Humid, Where we live. south of the 50th parallel (a hot
summer, especially in July, a cold winter and abundant precipitation)
2. Subarctic, between the 50th and 58th parallels (colder, longer
winters, shorter, cooler summers, less precipitation)
3. Arctic, in the far north (rigorous winter, brief annual thaw, continuous
• Using the soil for farming.
• dairy farmers, pig farmers, maple syrop,
fruit(berries), vegetables (corn).
• Organic
By harnessing water resources, Québec has
made hydroelectricity a key to economic growth.
Saint Lawrence River
• The Saint Lawrence River is one of the most important rivers in
North America. From its source in the Great Lakes, it flows to the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the Atlantic.
• It is one of the leading navigable waterways of the world and the
main river route in North America.
• It links the Atlantic Ocean and the huge Great Lakes basin, it makes
it possible to reach the Prairies in the west and leading industrial
centres in Canada and the United States.
• The Saint Lawrence is a lifeline for flora, fauna and human life.
• The river was the focal point of the lives of the continent's first
inhabitants. They established their villages on its shores, lived on
fish, hunted the birds and mammals that inhabited the river's shores,
and travelled on its waters.
Québec waters are
brimming with a
number of species of
highly sought-after
fish, crustaceans and
• Much of
Québec is
covered by
forests, which
are of prime
social and
• Québec has
deposits of
gold, copper,
zinc, nickel,
iron and
• (a mineral
Well integrated into
the environment,
wind turbines are a
key component of
development and
promise clean,
renewable energy.
Canadian Shield
• 95% of the land
•Oldest rock in the world
• Formed thousands of years ago by glaciers that eroded
the land and formed plateaus and valleys.
•Includes millions of lakes and waterways.. the largest
lakes (Mistassini) and rivers (La Grande) for
•Not much will grow on the soil, but under it you will find
rich mineral deposits of gold, copper, and iron ore.
•Area is rich in wood from all the forests.
•Includes the tourist areas of the Laurentian
mountains..Mt.Tremblant, Mt.Saint-Sauveur.
• Chain of rolling mountains covering the
eastern townships and the Gaspé.
• Area that covers parts of Newfoundland
and stretches all the way to Georgia in the
• Farming in the valleys, trees on the hills
and minerals under the ground.
St. Lawrence Lowlands
• Where we live
• Where most people live in the area along
the St. Lawrence River.
• Flat land in the valley between the two
mountainous regions.
• Rich and fertile land for agriculture…fruit,
vegetables, dairy, meat.