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Students will be able to…..
1) compare and contrast the disciplines of Oceanography
and Marine Biology.
2) recognize early marine biologist and understand the
importance of their contributions.
3) relate modern research techniques, with their
usefulness in studying marine environments.
Marine Biology
Ocean Productivity
HMS Beagle
Challenger Expedition
Alexander Agassiz
Marine Biological Laboratories
Importance of Oceans
and Marine Organisms
• Oceans cover 71% of the earths surface.
• Last great expanse to be charted and explored
on the planet
• Oceans act as enormous solar-powered
engines that drive many weather patterns
• Ocean Productivity: Oceans provide a
substantial amount of the worlds food supply.
Study of the Sea
and its Inhabitants
Oceanography: The study of the oceans and
their phenomena. Such as waves, currents,
Marine Biology: The study of the organisms that
inhabit the sea, and their interactions with
each other and their environment
Early Studies of Marine Organisms
• Aristotle: Ancient Greek. Wrote “latter of
Life” describing over 500 species, 1/3 of them
• Proposed that fish gills functioned in gas
• Made detailed observations on cuttlefish.
HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin
• HMS Beagle: (Her Majesty’s Ship). 5 year
expedition in which Charles Darwin collected a
variety of organisms, some marine and
formulate his theory on origin of species by
means of natural selection.
Transatlantic telegraph cable
• Telegraph cable linking England and the
United states (1858).
• It failed. When they pulled it up they
discovered a variety of organisms living over 3
miles deep, far below ever thought possible.
Challenger Expedition
• (1876) British expedition that crisscrossed the
major oceans of the world for 3 ½ years.
• When it returned ……
– they wrote 50 volumes of scientific reports.
– Discovered 4,700 new species, many from great
• Gave birth to modern marine biology and
• Discovered Plankton.
• Plankton: microscopic organisms that float in
the water column.
• From the base of the oceans complex food
Expeditions of Alexander Agassiz
• Conducted and led a series of expeditions
dredging for deep sea organisms.
• Noted that the most brightly colored
organisms were found in the surface waters,
as one proceeded deeper, brilliant colors gave
way to blues and greens and ultimately reds
and blacks.
Marine Biological Laboratories
• Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole:
Massachusetts. (1888). By Louis Agassiz.
• Scripps Institution of Oceanography:
• Friday Harbor Laboratories of University of
• Hatfield Marine Science Center: Newport ,
• ALVIN: named after Allyn Vine. (1964).
• It allows for two scientists and one pilot to
dive for up to nine hours at 4,500 meters
(14,800 ft).
• The submersible features two robotic arms
and can be fitted with mission-specific
sampling and experimental gear.