* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download Marine Biology
Document related concepts
Objectives: Students will be able to….. 1) compare and contrast the disciplines of Oceanography and Marine Biology. 2) recognize early marine biologist and understand the importance of their contributions. 3) relate modern research techniques, with their usefulness in studying marine environments. Oceanography Marine Biology Ocean Productivity Plankton HMS Beagle Challenger Expedition Alexander Agassiz Marine Biological Laboratories Alvin Importance of Oceans and Marine Organisms • Oceans cover 71% of the earths surface. • Last great expanse to be charted and explored on the planet • Oceans act as enormous solar-powered engines that drive many weather patterns • Ocean Productivity: Oceans provide a substantial amount of the worlds food supply. Study of the Sea and its Inhabitants Oceanography: The study of the oceans and their phenomena. Such as waves, currents, tides. Marine Biology: The study of the organisms that inhabit the sea, and their interactions with each other and their environment Early Studies of Marine Organisms • Aristotle: Ancient Greek. Wrote “latter of Life” describing over 500 species, 1/3 of them marine. • Proposed that fish gills functioned in gas exchange. • Made detailed observations on cuttlefish. HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin • HMS Beagle: (Her Majesty’s Ship). 5 year expedition in which Charles Darwin collected a variety of organisms, some marine and formulate his theory on origin of species by means of natural selection. Transatlantic telegraph cable • Telegraph cable linking England and the United states (1858). • It failed. When they pulled it up they discovered a variety of organisms living over 3 miles deep, far below ever thought possible. Challenger Expedition • (1876) British expedition that crisscrossed the major oceans of the world for 3 ½ years. • When it returned …… – they wrote 50 volumes of scientific reports. – Discovered 4,700 new species, many from great depths. • Gave birth to modern marine biology and oceanography. • Discovered Plankton. Plankton • Plankton: microscopic organisms that float in the water column. • From the base of the oceans complex food web. Expeditions of Alexander Agassiz • Conducted and led a series of expeditions dredging for deep sea organisms. • Noted that the most brightly colored organisms were found in the surface waters, as one proceeded deeper, brilliant colors gave way to blues and greens and ultimately reds and blacks. Marine Biological Laboratories • Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole: Massachusetts. (1888). By Louis Agassiz. • Scripps Institution of Oceanography: California • Friday Harbor Laboratories of University of Washington. • Hatfield Marine Science Center: Newport , Oregon ALVIN • ALVIN: named after Allyn Vine. (1964). • It allows for two scientists and one pilot to dive for up to nine hours at 4,500 meters (14,800 ft). • The submersible features two robotic arms and can be fitted with mission-specific sampling and experimental gear.