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History of the Internet
 Began in 1969 as a network of computers at
UCLA, UC @ Santa Barbara, Stanford &
Univ. of Utah.
 It was funded by the U.S Dept. of Defense.
 The first network was called ARPANET.
Reason for Internet
 The 1st goal was to develop hardware &
software needed to create geographically
dispersed network that could function even
if a network was destroyed or disabled.
 2nd goal was to create a way for scientists at
different locations to share info &
collaborate on military projects
What is the Internet?
 It links computers to computers sharing the
TCP/IP protocols.
 The internet is the transport vehicle for the
information stored in files or documents on
another computer.
 The Internet itself does not contain
Definition of Internet
 The term Internet, is used to describe a
world wide group of connected networks
that allow public access to information and
 No single organization owns or controls the
"Too many young people believe if
they see it on the Internet, it must be
true." Alan November
Getting connected to the
 To access the Internet you need:
– A computer
– A modem
– Software to dial into an ISP
– An ISP (Internet service provider)
The World Wide Web
 1991 Tim Berners-Lee released a program
that allowed you to create a document
called a Web page that had built in links to
other related documents.
 The collection of hyperlinked documents on
the internet is known as : World Wide Web
or WWW or W3 or simply the Web.
What is the World Wide Web?
 Microsoft Explorer or Netscape are the
browsers that allow you to view documents
on the internet.
 The current foundation on which WWW
functions is Hypertext using HTML.
 HTML provides highlighted links to other
What makes “the Web” work?
 HTML: Hypertext Markup Language
 This is a standardized language of
computer code, imbedded in a”source”
documents behind all web documents.
 The browsers are programmed to
interpret HTML for display.
 HTML can be found in other
programming languages & applications
such as Javascript, SGML & XML.
What makes “the Web” work?
 URL: Uniform Resource Locator
 This is the unique address of any web
Anatomy of a URL
 http:// - this is the type of file
 - this is the domain name.
Identifies computer that stores the web.
 /welcome – this is the directory pathidentifies where the web page is stored.
What are you really searching?
 WWW is currently estimated at over 1
billion documents.
 It is not indexed in any standard vocabulary,
unlike a library’s catalogs.
 The web is the totality of the many web
pages which reside on computers called
servers all over the world.
Domain Owner
 Why would I want to know who owns a
web site? You may want to know who
publishes the information you are reading
or identify the group that pays for the site.
 Ownership of a web site can be found by
going to
“Searching the Web”
 It is not possible to search the web directly.
 Your computer will access one of the
several intermediate databases & or webpages which contains selections of other
web pages organized to allow you to find
other web pages.
 They provide you with URLs to other
Search Tools
 Search Engines: Alta vista, Hotbot, Lycos,
Excite, Dogpile, Metafind
 These search by keyword, trying to match
exact words.
 Use no browsing & no subject categories
 Can search from minimal to specialized up
to 90+% of the web.
Who made money on my search?
 Search pages like Google, Altavista and
Yahoo make money by selling key words to
 Companies pay per click to have their web
site listed first in the major search pages.
For more information: Alan November’s web site
Subject Directories
 These are hand-selected sites picked by
 Organized into hierarchical subject
categories. Can only search the subject
categories & descriptions.
 Examples are librarian’s indexes,
Britannica’s & Yahoo galaxy
Subject Guides
 These are web pages of collections of links
on a subject
 Complied by “expert” subject specialist,
agencies & associations
 Examples are: www virtual library & Argus
Web search strategy
Four Steps to search strategy
Step 1
Analyze your topic
Step 2
Pick the right
starting place
Step 4
Don't bog down
in any strategy
Step 3
Learn as you go
Vary your approach
What not to do!
 Browsing searchable directories
 “Simple” searching in large search engine
 Following links to sites recommended by
popular vote or commercial interest.
Hoax Web Sites
California's Velcro Crop under Challenge:
Mankato, Minnesota:
The Onion
Recognizing Domain Types
a U.S. college or university
 .com
a commercial, for-profit entity
 .orga non-commercial, non-profit entity
 .gov
U.S. government
 .milU.S. military
 .net a computer network
 .int an international organization
 .jp, .ru, .ca, .au, etc. country identifiers