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AMERICAN REFERENCE CENTER
US Embassy, Public Affairs Section
Article Alert
HVIEZDOSLAVOVO NÁM. 4
811 02 BRATISLAVA
SLOVAK REPUBLIC
TELEPHONE: (+421-7) 5922-3123
FAX:(+421-7) 5441-88-62
E-MAIL: [email protected]
2/2001
www.usembassy.sk
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Knowledge Management
1. Jurisica, Igor : Systematic knowledge management and knowledge discovery
American Society for Information Science, Oct/Nov 2000; Vol. 27, No. 1; pp. 9 –12
After the initial business success of data mining and knowledge discovery techniques, we can
focus on their integration into information systems. We need robust approaches to deal with
missing and noisy information. Algorithms should be flexible enough to be applicable in
diverse tasks. Although algorithmic efficiency is required to cope with large and complex
information repositories, the output of the analysis must also be understandable and
actionable by users. It is essential that the process be interactive.
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2. Liddy, Elizabeth D : Text mining
American Society for Information Science, Oct/Nov 2000; Vol. 27, No. 1; pp. 13-14
Text mining is the process of analyzing naturally occurring text for the purpose of discovering
and capturing semantic information for insertion and storage in a Knowledge Organization
Structure (KOS) with the ultimate goal of enabling knowledge discovery via either textual or
visual access for use in a wide range of significant applications. Text mining is appropriatelyconsidered a subspecialty of the broader domain of Knowledge Discovery from Data (KDD),
which in turn can be defined as the computational process of extracting useful information
from massive amounts of digital data by mapping low-level data into richer, more abstract
forms and by detecting meaningful patterns implicitly present in the data. KDD, which is
typically conducted on structured, relational databases, has data mining as one of its subtasks. While data mining has become the more popular term, it is in fact only one of the
steps within the KDD process. The full KDD process includes data storage and access, data
cleansing, pattern detection and extraction, and data interpretation, while data mining refers
more narrowly to the particular step of applying specific algorithms for detecting and
extracting patterns.
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3. Norton, Melanie J : Knowledge discovery with a little perspective
American Society for Information Science, Oct/Nov 2000; Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 21-23.
The application of knowledge discovery (KD) techniques has in recent years become
associated with the creation of computer algorithms designed to reduce data into
recognizable – if sometimes barren - patterns of information to be distilled and
explored for various applications. As an emerging technology, KD is being hailed as the
ultimate prospector for information value in the vast historical and growing data mines. KD
still has many obstacles to overcome, but its potential cannot be denied. As usual with
emerging technology, it is necessary to emphasize that great advances do have a price and
that there are always issues to be considered for its further development and
implementation. Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) references a series of processes
involved in extracting usable information from any data collection in any format or media.
These processes may require significant repetition and modification to appropriately
distinguish promising patterns of data from mere experimental or statistical phenomena.
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Characteristics of data collection, database design and data entry practices lead to the
creation of a heterogeneous corpus of potential "data mines." The multiple types of computer
and network operating systems, database programs and interfaces, as well as the assorted
collection points in any enterprise, contribute to a lack of structural consistency. These
inconsistencies may require extensive additional processing as part of the discovery attempt.
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4. Goff, Leslie : Computerworld's 7th Annual Skills Survey: The skills that thrill
Computerworld; Dec 4, 2000; Vol. 34; No. 49; pp. 54-59.
E-business initiatives such as supplier-facing extranets, customer-facing Web-based
applications and collaboration on industry exchanges and marketplaces top IT agendas for
next year. Hand in hand with those efforts are the related pieces of supply-chain
management and customer relationship management systems such as data warehouses and
knowledge management applications. To get the job done, companies are either building
applications from scratch or hustling to customize packaged solutions. That is pushing IT
managers to seek application developers, data architects, database developers and
administrators, as well as workers with expertise in data warehousing and data mining.
According to Computerworld's 7th Annual Technology Skills Survey, 70% of the 307 IT
managers responding report that next year they will hire or train staff in programming
languages, Web development tools and object-oriented tools.
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5. O Steele, Noreen : The technophile: Success factors for virtual libraries
Econtent; Oct/Nov 2000; Vol. 23, No. 5; pp. 68-71
The Internet and expanded desktop services present an opportunity for innovative
information professionals to provide services beyond those available digitally. From offices
located near clients, information professionals in virtual libraries are moving from being
caretakers of information resources to offering value-added information products and
services. These information managers provide high-quality research, responding to complex
questions in both the business and technical areas. As more and more printed collections and
technical services are outsourced, some information professionals are becoming knowledge
management consultants who work with departments to identify and solve problems with
inter- and intradepartment communication and information flow.
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6. Hanka, Rudolf – Fuka, Karel : Information overload and "just-in-time" knowledge
The Electronic Library; 2000; Vol. 18. No. 4, pp. 279-284
In the same way that the printing press has revolutionized the publishing industry, the
Internet is revolutionizing the amount of information available today. Methodologies need to
be developed that will enable users to access relevant information at the time when it is
required. The WaX system has been designed as a knowledge management tool for general
practitioners.
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7. Lim, David – Klobas, Jane : Knowledge management in small enterprises
The Electronic Library; 2000; Vol. 18; No. 6; pp. 420
This paper investigates the extent to which six factors drawn from the theory and practice of
knowledge management can be applied in small organisations. The factors are: balance
between need and cost of knowledge acquisition; the extent to which knowledge originates in
the external environment; internal knowledge processing; internal knowledge storage; use
and deployment of knowledge within the organisation; and attention to human resources.
Three cases demonstrate that the fundamental concepts and principles of knowledge
management are similar for small and large organisations. Differences include the value
placed on systematic knowledge management practices such as formalised environmental
scanning and computer-based knowledge sharing systems. Consultants, and library and
information professionals, are advised to understand the organisation's management and
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communication culture; emphasise simple and inexpensive systems integrated into everyday
practice; and establish and monitor adherence to tools such as records management
schedules. Information professionals can contribute much by managing systems which use
vocabularies to enhance information retrieval for knowledge sharing.
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8. Alan Radding: Internet portals get personal
Information Week; Dec 11, 2000; No. 816; pp. 101-108
The newest generation of Internet corporate portals sport the latest browser interfaces and
perform amazing technological feats of access, integration, aggregation, and analysis. But
they are attempting to solve the same problem that has dogged business information
systems for decades: how to deliver business information and applications quickly and easily.
This time around, however, the Internet promises success where previous efforts failed. With
the latest generation of Internet portals, companies may finally achieve the long-sought goal
of easy, universal, personalized access to internal and external information and applications.
But with solutions coming from so many different areas, such as business intelligence,
knowledge management, and online analytical processing, managers face a bewildering array
of options.
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9. The refractory: Knowledge management
The Lancet; London; Nov 11, 2000; Vol. 356; No. 9242; pp. 1692
There is some recognition of the need to acquire skills to manage information. Doug Hauger
of Microsoft applies big-business team network solutions to teach agile project development.
He promotes the understanding of the value, lifespan, and method of creation of knowledge
assets-both people and information-to facilitate connections that will thriftily and efficiently
advance well-pruned knowledge bases and their rapid use to the speedier benefit of patients.
Such intelligent learning systems marry the virtues of worldwide personal networking
relationships with electronic tools' potential to search and index; compile directories; and
pliantly link far-flung teams and knowledge assets. Ideally, this team-- work could reduce the
time between the acquisition, revision, and practical use of knowledge in locations remote or
nearby through imaginative and generous sharing of insights and lessons. full text
10. Susan S DiMattia: Knowledge Management for the Information Professional
Library Journal; May 15, 2000; Vol. 125; No. 9; pp. 131
DiMattia reviews "Knowledge Management for the Information Professional" edited by T.
Kanti Srikantaiah and Michael E. D. Koenig.
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11. Anthea Stratigos: Knowledge management meets future information users
Online; Jan/Feb 2001; Vol. 25, No. 1; pp. 65-67.
Information centers, market intelligence, and learning are converging to form knowledge
management (KM) functions. Many information professionals and market intelligence
professionals comment that, while they are beginning to work together, KM programs are still
for the most part poorly defined at best, while most characterize KM in their organizations as
a free-for-all, with little overall leadership. The following implications are highly significant for
information managers of every stripe: 1. Emphasize the importance of authoritative sources.
2. Branding is for libraries, too. 3. Napsterize file exchange behind the firewall. 4. Continue to
emphasize top-level links to econtent. 5. The Web rules, but multiple formats remain vital.
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