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After the Fall: New Players The Franks, Islam The early Franks • • • • Franks Gregory of Tours Clovis Merovingian • In what ways were the Franks under the Merovingians similar to Rome? In what ways were they different? • How did the Frankish government and people regard taxes? • How did Frankish marriage customs allow women access to power? Islam • • • • • • • • • • • • • Islam Mohammed Quran Five pillars of Islam Peoples of the book Dhimmis Caliph Sunni / Shia Ali Abbassids imam Avicenna Averroes • How is Islam like Judaism and Christianity? How is it different? • How did Mohammed convert the Arabs from pagan polytheism to Islam? • What sort of balance does Islam strike between orthodoxy and orthopraxy? • What was the influence of Greek philosophy and science on the Islamic world? The Carolingians • • • • • • • • Charles Martel Pepin Charlemagne papal states Carolingian renaissance Carolingian minuscule missi dominici Donation of Constantine • How did the Carolingian dynasty supplant the Merovingians? • How was the dominance of the Roman pontiffs over Christendom validated? • What was the significance of Charlemagne's coronation by the pope in 800? • What kind of learning did Charlemagne value and promote in his empire? • How would you characterize Charlemagne's relationship with his aristocratic subordinates? How was he able to control them? • What were the weak points of Charlemagne's authority? • What was the relationship between emperor and pope in the Carolingian empire? Questions on Einhard 1. 2. 3. 4. How Roman was Charlemagne's empire? How great was Charlemagne's identification with Rome? What about Einhard? To what extent was Charlemagne's empire held together by an abstract notion of the state, and to what extent by personal ties to the ruler? Contemporary sources referred to Charlemagne's realm as a "Christian empire." How might this description explain some of Einhard's discussion? Do Charlemagne and/or Einhard seem to distinguish between Christianity on the one hand and society on the other? Medieval society could be described as a fusion of Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements. What evidence do you find of this in Einhard's Life?