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What is GIS? Geographic Information Systems GIS is a tool that helps us manage and understand information about places – Geographic Information Data Information Knowledge With GIS, you can link information to places, such as people to addresses, buildings to parcels, or streets within a network. DATABASE DATABASE DATABASE You can layer that information to get a better understanding of how it all works together. You choose what layers to combine based on the questions you need to answer. GIS can create Pretty Maps PERCENT RENTER OCCUPIED HOUSING By Block Group Percent Renter Occupied Housing Units 75 to 100 50 to 75 34 to 50 10 to 33 1 to 10 No units Prepared by: Northern Ohio Data & Information Service (NODIS) - a member of Ohio GIS-Net The Urban Center Levin College of Urban Affairs Cleveland State University Source: 1990 Census of Population August 1998 mjs More than just Pretty Maps MAPS GIS Reveals Patterns that are Hidden in Databases Spatial data become more important to our society as information technology increases our ability to access, manage, distribute, analyze, and visualize data. The Power of GIS Visualization: • Complicated information can be viewed in new and different ways • Displaying data in a visual (picture) format reveals hidden relationships • Provides better communication well type owner soil type alluvial smith sandy loam well location hydrography parcels soil types Overlay Analysis What is the well type, soil type and...who is the owner of this well? HERE HERE Where are the three closest ATMs I live here to my house?? Proximity Analysis AND HERE I AM HERE, I WANT TO GO HERE. SHOW ME THE BEST WAY Route Analysis Which parcels are within 100 feet of the road ? Linear Buffering Point Buffering Polygon Buffering Buffering Analysis GIS Applications are Numerous Data Related to Geography: Integrated Analyzed Displayed GIS is a tool to aid in recommending fast and efficient solutions to everyday questions and problems. FEMA used GIS for Hurricane Katrina The San Diego Zoo uses GIS to map the location of exhibits USA Today Uses GIS to Show Election Results The Air Force Uses GIS Geographers use GIS to study Mt. Kilimanjaro Engineers use GIS Astronomers use GIS to study Mars Federal, State and Local Governments use GIS Consider a government office wishing to open a new clinic to serve Hispanic children. To find a suitable location, we would overlay a map showing the location of children with a map showing the location of the Hispanic population. In addition, we might consider access to public transportation and include a map showing bus routes in the analysis. By viewing these pieces of information simultaneously, we can quickly can pinpoint suitable locations for the new clinic. City Planners use GIS San Diego Environmentalists use GIS Also: Park Rangers Foresters Zoologists Geologists use GIS to track lava flows from volcanoes. Mauna Loa Social Workers use GIS Also: Sociologists ESPN Uses GIS Police Officers use GIS Also: Fire Departments Emergency Medical Service Google uses GIS