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The Rhetoric and the
Renaissance 1400• Italy--Machiavelli and Ramus
• Basically nothing new
• Reactions to Greeks and Romans either pro
or con
• Machiavelli--political and applied Aristotle
• Ramus--philosophical and anti-Aristotle
• To convey religiosity=be generous: “my
ranch as a park”
• To convey compassion=be sensitive: “I
know how you feel”
• To demonstrate faith=be pure in speech and
active: “family values”
• To demonstrate sincerity+remain strong:
“public officials at funerals”
More Machiavelli
• To demonstrate prudence=ponder and
reflect: “Let me think about that for
• “Everyone sees who you appear to be, few
sense who you really are.” (Smith, p. 205)
“Everything that Aristotle said is wrong”
Division of the Canon
Inventio and dispositio only
To this day a division in the academy
because of his influence.
• A voiceless, objective, depersonalized,
naked, natural way of speaking,
mathematical (Smith, p. 214)
In summary. . .
• Both religion and science the same mark on
rhetoric: “There is little need for an art
form that dealt with probabilities.”
• Yet, ironically science deals with
The Formula
• Rhetoric
• Enthymemes
• Conclusions
Science and Communication
• Today scientists are like witch doctors of
tribal myths
• Genetic determinism (physis) over culture
• Yet, always probablities
Science and Probabilities
• Dialectic=induction
• Rhetoric=example
Science, Probabilities (the
curve)and Communication
How many sexes are their?
What is intelligence?
What happens to the data 2 or 3 deviations
from the mean?