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The Rhetoric and the Renaissance 1400• Italy--Machiavelli and Ramus • Basically nothing new • Reactions to Greeks and Romans either pro or con • Machiavelli--political and applied Aristotle • Ramus--philosophical and anti-Aristotle Machiavelli • To convey religiosity=be generous: “my ranch as a park” • To convey compassion=be sensitive: “I know how you feel” • To demonstrate faith=be pure in speech and active: “family values” • To demonstrate sincerity+remain strong: “public officials at funerals” More Machiavelli • To demonstrate prudence=ponder and reflect: “Let me think about that for moment” • “Everyone sees who you appear to be, few sense who you really are.” (Smith, p. 205) Ramus • • • • “Everything that Aristotle said is wrong” Division of the Canon Inventio and dispositio only To this day a division in the academy because of his influence. • A voiceless, objective, depersonalized, naked, natural way of speaking, mathematical (Smith, p. 214) In summary. . . • Both religion and science the same mark on rhetoric: “There is little need for an art form that dealt with probabilities.” • Yet, ironically science deals with probabilities The Formula • Rhetoric • Enthymemes • Conclusions Dialectic Induction Evidence Generalization Science and Communication • Today scientists are like witch doctors of tribal myths • Genetic determinism (physis) over culture (nomos) • Yet, always probablities Science and Probabilities • Dialectic=induction • Rhetoric=example • Probabilities Science, Probabilities (the curve)and Communication • • • • How many sexes are their? What is intelligence? Others? What happens to the data 2 or 3 deviations from the mean?