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Transcript
Communication Disorders
Chapter 14
Chapter 14
Communication Disorders
Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today’s Schools (4th ed.)
Chapter 14
Defining Communication
Disorders
How Do You Recognize Students
with Communication Disorders?
How Do You Recognize Students with Communication Disorders?
•
•
•
•
?
Communication entails receiving, understanding, and expressing
information, feelings, and ideas.
Communication and language include both the content and the medium
used.
Speech and language disorders (often associated with other disorders)
– Speech disorder refers to difficulty in producing sounds (cleft palate).
– Language disorder refers to difficulty in receiving, understanding, and
formulating ideas and information.
Cultural diversity
– Difference does not always mean disorder.
– Dialects are various forms of language.
Describing the Characteristics
•
•
How Do You Recognize Students
with Communication Disorders?
Typical speech development
– Follows a typical and predictable pattern and time table
– By the age of 8, children can produce nearly all the consonants and vowels that make up the
native language.
– There is variation among children in the time of acquisition.
Speech disorders
– Articulation: production of individual or sequenced sounds
• Substitutions, omissions, additions, and distortions
• If these problems interfere with peer interactions or educational performance: REFER
– Apraxia of speech: motor speech disorder affecting the planning of speech
• Difficulty with the voluntary, purposeful movement of speech (stroke, tumor, head injury, developmental)
• Can produce individual sounds but cannot produce them in longer words or sentences
– Voice disorders: pitch, duration, intensity, resonance, and vocal quality
– Fluency disorders: interruptions in the flow of speaking
• Stuttering: frequent repetition and/or prolongation of words or sounds
?
Describing the Characteristics
•
•
How Do You Recognize Students
with Communication Disorders?
Typical language development
– Language development is complex
– Depends on biological preparation, successful nurturance, sensorimotor
experiences, and linguistic experiences
Five components of language
– Phonology: the use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words
• Phonemes: individual speech sounds
– Morphology: the structure of words
• Morphemes: the smallest meaningful unit of speech (e.g., s)
– Syntax: the rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences
– Semantics: word and sentence meanings for what is spoken
– Pragmatics: social use of language
?
Describing the Characteristics
•
How Do You Recognize Students
with Communication Disorders?
Characteristics of language impairments
– Language disorders may be receptive, expressive, or both.
– Language disorders may be related to another disability or may be a
specific language impairment.
• Phonological disorders – difficulty in discriminating differences in speech
sounds or sound segments
• Morphological difficulties – problem using the structure of words to get or give
information (e.g., proper tenses)
• Syntactical errors – problem with the correct word order in sentences that
meaning is lost for listeners
• Semantic disorders – problems using words singly or together in sentences
• Pragmatic disorders – problems in the social use of language (e.g., eye
contact, body language, organization)
?
Identifying the Causes and
Prevalence
?
How Do You Recognize Students
with Communication Disorders?
•
Two types of speech and language disorders
– Organic: caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular
mechanism of the person (hereditary malformations, prenatal injuries,
toxic disturbances, tumors, traumas, seizures, infectious diseases,
muscular diseases)
– Functional: those with no identifiable origin
•
Speech and language disorders can also be classified according to when
the disorder began.
– Congenital: present at birth
– Acquired: occurs well after birth
Determining the Presence
How Do You Evaluate Students with
Communication Disorders?
How Do You Evaluate Students with Communication Disorders?
•
•
•
•
•
•
?
Speech assessment: speech pathologist uses a standardized articulation test to
measure articulation, voice, and fluency problems.
Voice evaluations: includes both quantitative and qualitative measures (interviews and
case history)
Fluency assessments: evaluated through a conversation with the student and
interview with parents
Three areas to be assessed relative to language interactions in the classroom:
– The student’s ability to use language effectively by speaking and listening tasks
– The teacher’s language
– The language requirements of the lessons and textbooks
Assessments for students who are bilingual or multilingual
Evaluation teams need to take a holistic view of the student’s communication skills
using ecological assessments.
Determining the Presence
Figure 14-4
?
How Do You Evaluate Students with
Communication Disorders?
How Do You Assure Progress in the
General Curriculum?
Including Students
Figure 14-5
Describe how students with communication disorders are supported in the general education curriculum.
Planning Universally
Designed Learning
•
•
How Do You Assure Progress in the
General Curriculum?
Adapting Instruction
– Ask varied types of questions to encourage students’ self-expression
– Expand student utterances by using modeling more elaborate language
– Augment or alter classroom language by providing statements that explain a
student’s nonverbal behaviors
– Allow students opportunity to practice public verbalizations
– Keep in mind the need of some students for AAC systems
– Figure 14-6 (page 417)
Augmenting Instruction
– Repetition of the curriculum
– Visual supports: graphic organizers, photographs, gestures, sign language
– Direct instruction in social skills
Reflect on how communication disorders can be accommodated in the general curriculum.
Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)
•
ACC systems are an integrated group of components that supplement the communication abilities
of individuals who cannot meet their communication needs through gestures, speaking, and/or
writing.
•
An AAC device is a physical object that transmits or receives messages.
•
Types of AAC: communication books, communication boards, communication charts,
mechanical/electrical voice output, computers, etc.
•
Using the AAC devices:
– Using eyes to look at the symbol
– Touching the symbols with fingers
– Using a laser beam attached to the head
– Scanning
– Encoding