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INFANCY Cognitive and Language Development Cognitive Development Learning: A Definition Change in behavior Change must be relatively stable. Change must result from experience. How Soon Do Infants Start Learning? Learning in the Womb De Casper Cat in the Hat Newborn Learning Sameroff’s experiments Piaget: The Sensorimotor Period Refers to the coordination of motor activities with sensory inputs. Capacity to look at what they’re listening to Object permanence: Capacity to view the external world as permanent Inability to represent world internally Neo-and Post-Piagetian Research Playing is Learning Playing gives babies clues as to what they should do and when they should do it. Consequences of Maternal Depression Youngster lags behind in emotional, language and social development Bruner on Modes of Cognitive Representation We “know” something in three ways: Enactive: doing it Ikonic: picture or image of it Symbolic: language Continuity in Cognitive Development from Infancy Decrement and Recovery in Attentiveness Two components of attention indicative of intelligence in youngsters: Decrement of attention Recovery of attention Language and Thought Language Language: a structured system of sound patterns that have socially standardized meanings. The Functional Importance of Language Two contributions: Communication: The process by which people transmit information, ideas, attitudes and emotions Facilitation of thought and other processes. Language as Container of Thought Thought takes place independently of language Words are only necessary to convey thought to others. Language as a Determinant of Thought Language develops parallel with, or prior to, thought. Conceptualization: Grouping perceptions into classes or categories based on similarities. Theories of Language Acquisition Nativist Theories Noam Chomsky et.al. Human beings begin life with the underpinnings of later speech perception and comprehension. “Pre-wired” by their brain circuitry for language use Chomsky’s Theory of Language Development Language Acquisition Device All languages possess: Surface Structure Deep Structure Transformational built in. grammar biologically Other Nativist Studies The Twins’ Early Development Study (TEDS) The Cambridge Language and Speech Project Genetics of Developmental Dyslexia International Molecular Genetics Study of Autism Arguments for Nativist Theories Children Acquire Language with Little Difficulty Adult Speech is Inconsistent, Garbled and Sloppy Children’s Speech is not a Mechanical Playback of Adult Speech. Learning and Interactionist Theories Caretaker Speech Interactional Nature of Caretaker Speech Motherese Language Development Communication Processes Nonverbal Communication or Body Language Physical movements Gaze Pointing Paralanguage The Sequence of Language Development From Vocalization to Babbling Babbling Receptive Vocabulary Holophrases Overextension Two-Word Sentences Telegraphic Speech Bilingualism Critical period of language acquisition: prior to onset of puberty Best time to learn a new language is early in life.