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Chapter 9 A Century of Change Lesson 1: Protecting Our Country Ch. 9 Vocabulary neutral stock depression unemployment erosion inflation discrimination desegregate civil rights boycott nonviolence Lesson 1A: World War I In August 1914, the “Great War” or World War I began in Europe. Britain, France, and Russia fought on the same side and were known as the Allied Powers. They fought against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. Germany began sinking United States ships, so the U.S. joined the war on the side of the Allied Powers in 1917. The first American troops sent to Europe during World War I came from Alabama. They were known as the 42nd Division or the Rainbow Division. Steel production increased in Birmingham, and steel workers in Mobile built warships. World War I ended in 1918 with an Allied victory. Lesson 1A: The Roaring Twenties The 1920s, or the Roaring Twenties, was a time of economic prosperity for many Americans. People found jobs that paid well and were spending their money. They bought new items to make housework easier such as a washing machine and a vacuum cleaner. In 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment was passed by Congress which allowed women to vote. Many Alabama families would gather at night to listen to their radios. The stock market crashed in 1929. This brought on the Great Depression. Most Alabamians became unemployed, lost their homes, and lost their life savings. Lesson 1B: The New Deal In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created programs under the New Deal that helped put Alabamians to work and helped Alabama’s economy to recover. Lesson 1B: Another World War In 1939, Germany, Japan, and Italy began attacking other countries which led to World War II. The United States did not enter the war until 1941 when Japan attacked the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Tuskegee Airman formed the first unit of African American pilots in the United States military. These airmen were the only air escort group in the war not to lose a bomber plane to the enemy. Lesson 1B: Effects of the War During World War II, people in Alabama built ships for the war effort. They also planted victory gardens and rationed and recycled items. Some items that were rationed were meat, butter, sugar, and gasoline. Lesson 2: Unfair Separation For many years African Americans had faced discrimination, or unfair treatment, and segregation, or the separation of people by race. African Americans in Alabama had to attend separate public schools. Alabama’s governor, George C. Wallace, was one of the people who disagreed with desegregation and tried to stop it. In 1956, Autherine Lucy Foster became the first African American to attend the University of Alabama, but only for three days. Lesson 2: Struggling for Equal Rights In Montgomery, Rosa Parks stood up for her rights when she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white person in 1955. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., a church minister and civil rights worker, helped organize the Montgomery Bus Boycott in protest. On September 15, 1963, a bomb exploded at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham killing four young girls. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made segregation illegal in all public places. This march prompted lawmakers to pass the Voting Rights Act. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his work in civil rights.