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Chapter 9
A Century of Change
Lesson 1: Protecting Our Country
Ch. 9 Vocabulary
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neutral
stock
depression
unemployment
erosion
inflation
discrimination
desegregate
civil rights
boycott
nonviolence
Lesson 1A: World War I
 In August 1914, the “Great War” or World
War I began in Europe.
 Britain, France, and Russia fought on the
same side and were known as the Allied
Powers.
 They fought against the Central Powers
of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and
Turkey.
 Germany began sinking United States
ships, so the U.S. joined the war on the side
of the Allied Powers in 1917.
 The first American troops sent to Europe
during World War I came from Alabama.
They were known as the 42nd Division or
the Rainbow Division.
 Steel production increased in Birmingham,
and steel workers in Mobile built warships.
 World War I ended in 1918 with an Allied
victory.
Lesson 1A: The Roaring Twenties
 The 1920s, or the Roaring Twenties,
was a time of economic prosperity for
many Americans.
 People found jobs that paid well and
were spending their money.
 They bought new items to make
housework easier such as a washing
machine and a vacuum cleaner.
 In 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment was
passed by Congress which allowed women
to vote.
 Many Alabama families would gather at
night to listen to their radios.
 The stock market crashed in 1929.
 This brought on the Great Depression.
 Most Alabamians became unemployed,
lost their homes, and lost their life
savings.
Lesson 1B: The New Deal
 In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt
created programs under the New Deal
that helped put Alabamians to work and
helped Alabama’s economy to recover.
Lesson 1B: Another World War
 In 1939, Germany, Japan, and Italy
began attacking other countries which led
to World War II.
 The United States did not enter the war
until 1941 when Japan attacked the U.S.
naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
 The Tuskegee Airman formed the first unit
of African American pilots in the United
States military.
 These airmen were the only air escort
group in the war not to lose a bomber
plane to the enemy.
Lesson 1B: Effects of the War
 During World War II, people in Alabama
built ships for the war effort.
 They also planted victory gardens and
rationed and recycled items.
 Some items that were rationed were
meat, butter, sugar, and gasoline.
Lesson 2: Unfair Separation
 For many years African Americans had faced
discrimination, or unfair treatment, and segregation,
or the separation of people by race.
 African Americans in Alabama had to attend separate
public schools.
 Alabama’s governor, George C. Wallace, was one of
the people who disagreed with desegregation and tried
to stop it.
 In 1956, Autherine Lucy Foster became the first
African American to attend the University of Alabama,
but only for three days.
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Lesson 2: Struggling for Equal Rights
 In Montgomery, Rosa Parks stood up for her
rights when she refused to give up her seat on
a bus to a white person in 1955.
 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., a church minister
and civil rights worker, helped organize the
Montgomery Bus Boycott in protest.
 On September 15, 1963, a bomb exploded at
the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in
Birmingham killing four young girls.
 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made
segregation illegal in all public places.
 This march prompted lawmakers to pass
the Voting Rights Act.
 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. won the Nobel
Peace Prize in 1964 for his work in civil
rights.