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Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision handed down in 1896. The court ruled that “separate but equal” did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka – Supreme Court decision that struck down segregation in schooling as an unconstitutional violation of the 14th Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause. However, the court never gave a timeline for when the schools needed to be desegregated. To speed things up the court handed down a second ruling, known as Brown II, that ordered desegregation implemented “with all deliberate speed.” Thurgood Marshall Lawyer who represented Linda Brown in the Brown v. Board of Education case. Marshall went on to become the first African-American Supreme Court justice. “Little Rock Nine” Nine high school students who volunteered to integrate Little Rock’s Central High School. The Governor of Arkansas tried to prevent the integration of the school by sending the National Guard to block the nine students from entering the school. Civil Rights Act of 1957 This was the first civil rights law since reconstruction. The law gave the attorney general power over desegregation. It also gave the federal government jurisdiction over violations of African American voting rights. Rosa Parks – A seamstress and an NAACP officer who refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus to a white man. The bus driver called the police and Mrs. Parks was arrested and put in jail. This event led to African-Americans boycotting the busses of Montgomery for 381 days. Martin Luther King Became the leader of the Civil Rights Movement and promoted nonviolent resistance. He based his beliefs and teachings on Jesus, Henry David Thoreau, A. Phillip Randolph , and Gandhi. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) King became president of this organization whose purpose was “to carry on nonviolent crusades against evils of second-class citizenships.” Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC - Students at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina organized this group. African-American students felt that the pace of changes was moving to slow. Sit-ins – In February 1960, African-American students from North Carolina’s Agricultural and Technical College staged a sit-in at a whites-only lunch counter at a Woolworth’s store in Greensboro. Congress of Racial Equality CORE – An interracial group founded in 1942 by James Farmer to work against segregation in Northern cities. Freedom Riders – A two-bus trip across the South that would test the Supreme Court decisions banning segregated seating on interstate bus routes and segregated facilities in bus terminals. The busses were met by an angry white mob as they entered Alabama and federal marshals had to be called in for protection. James Meredith – Won a federal court case that allowed him to enroll in the all-white University of Mississippi. However, the Governor of Mississippi would not allow Meredith to register as a student. Federal marshals were called in by President Kennedy to escort Meredith to the registrar’s office. Riots erupted on campus. Fred Shuttlesworth – Head of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights and secretary of the SCLC. March on Washington – 250,000 people including 75,000 whites came to the nation’s capital on August 28, 1963. King delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender. It gave all citizens the right to enter libraries, parks, washrooms, restaurants, theaters, and other public accommodations. 24th Amendment Barred poll taxes in all states. Only Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia still had these laws on the books. Freedom Summer – In 1964, CORE and SNCC workers in the South began registering as many African Americans as they could to vote. They focused on the state of Mississippi. Three young men, Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner, and Cheney were killed while trying to register African Americans in Mississippi. Selma, Alabama – The SNCC was registering voters in Alabama and many were being arrested. After a demonstrator named Jimmy Lee Jackson was killed, Dr. King planned a 50-mile march from Selma to Montgomery. The police fired tear gas and beat protesters with their clubs. Voting Rights Act of 1965 – This act was passed ten weeks after the march in Alabama. The act eliminated the so-called literacy tests that had disqualified many voters. The percentage of registered African American voters in the South tripled. de facto segregation segregation that exists by practice and custom. de jure segregation segregation by law. Malcolm X – He studied the teaching of Elijah Muhammad, the head of the Nation of Islam. Believed that blacks should separate from the white society. His views changed after his pilgrimage to Mecca (Ballots or Bullets). He was assassinated on February 21, 1965. Black Power – Became the battle cry of militant civil rights activists. Black Panthers – Political party formed to fight police brutality in the ghetto. Dressed in black leather jackets, black berets, and sunglasses. Dr. King objected to the Black Power movement. 1968 – Dr. King was assassinated by James Earl Ray at the Lorraine Motel on April 3, 1968. Robert F. Kennedy was campaigning in Indianapolis the day Dr. King was assassinated. At an appearance later that night he called for calm within the country, however, riots broke out all over the country. Civil Rights Act of 1968 ended the discrimination in housing. Affirmative Action programs that involve making specific efforts to hire or enroll groups that have suffered discrimination.