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The Articles of
(96) Analyze the degree to which the
Articles of Confederation provided an
effective form of government with
respect to any TWO of the following:
Foreign relations Economic conditions
Western lands
Article II. Each state retains its sovereignty,
freedom, and independence, and every power,
jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this
Confederation expressly delegated to the United
States, in Congress assembled.
Article III. The said States hereby severally enter
into a firm league of friendship with each other,
for their common defense, the security of their
liberties, and their mutual and general welfare,
binding themselves to assist each other, against
all force offered to, or attacks made upon them,
or any of them, on account of religion,
sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense
Unicameral, no separate executive or
Congress forced to be both bureaucracy
(later Depts. War, Finance (Treasury), Foreign
Affairs (State), Post Office
Single vote per state, equal representation
9/13 for regular bills
13/13 for ratification and amendments
“Landless” States ad hoc gov’t until 1781
Ext. limited: no army (Shays’), no tax (massive
debt), no regulate commerce (tariff wars btwn
Debtor relief laws
GW: “"little more than the shadow without the
However: did successfully fight AR; reduced
domestic debt (but increased international); kept
Union together; Jay-Gardoqui Treaty gave
Miss.R to Spain but opened Spanish colonies for
trade (good for NE, bad S and W)
Compromises with Death:
The US Constitution
What evidence is there for the assertion that the
basic principles of the Constitution were firmly
grounded in the political and religious
experience of America’s colonial and
revolutionary periods?
Between 1783 and 1800, the new government
of the United States faced the same political,
economic , and constitutional issues that
troubled the British government’s relations with
the colonies prior to the Revolution. Assess the
validity of this generalization.
VA Plan
NJ Plan
“A Bundle of Compromises”
A. Plans
Representation New Powers
Pop. or $ paid
to gov.
Equal rep.
Limited tax and
H: Population
S: Equal
Extensive: esp.
tax, regulate
raise army
B. 6 Basic Principles
1. Popular sovereignty: power from the people
2. Limited government: Constitution highest law
of the land
3. Separation of powers: divide power w/in
Federal government (not absolute)
Legislative: Congress
Executive: President
Judicial: Supreme Court
4. Checks and balances: contain tyranny
5. Judicial review: enforcement of Constitution
6. Federalism: divide power State and Federal
C. Preamble of the Constitution
We the People of the United States, in Order
to form a more perfect Union, establish
Justice, insure domestic Tranquility,
provide for the common defense, promote
the general Welfare, and secure the
Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our
Posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of
D. Structure
Art 1: Legislature
Art 2: Executive
Supreme Court and jurisdiction
Art 4: Relations with the States
Art 3: Judiciary
Section 8: powers granted (1-8-18: Necessary and
Proper); Section 9: powers denied; Section 10:
powers denied to the States
Guarantee “republican government”; full faith and
credit and privileges and immunities national
Art 5: Amendment process
Art 6: Debts, Supremacy Clause, no religious test
Art 7: Ratification (9/13)
II. Compromises with Death
William Lloyd Garrison
+ radical abolitionists
Necessity: no slavery,
no Constitution
A. 3/5 Compromise
South: count slaves for representation
North: they can’t vote, so they shouldn’t count
Compromise: count slaves as 3/5 for population,
but also for taxes (they have to pay for it)
Effect: South dominates House of years, impact on
Electoral College southerners dominate
Jefferson: “Negro President” only wins 1800
election because of disproportionate numbers as
a result of 3/5
Other hand: why not 5/5? Women, Indians, noncitizen immigrants in N (growing #) couldn’t vote
either; South lost voting power
1-2-3: “Representatives and direct Taxes
shall be apportioned among the several
States which may be included within this
Union, according to their respective
Numbers, which shall be determined by
adding to the whole Number of free
Persons, including those bound to Service
for Term of Years and excluding Indians
not taxed, three fifths of all other
B. Commerce Clause
North: central government must regulate
interstate trade (major problem AofC)
South: cannot regulate importation of slaves until
1-9-1: “The Migration or Importation of such
Persons as any of the States now existing shall
think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by
the Congress prior to the Year one thousand
eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may
be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding
ten dollars for each Person.”
C. Runaway Slaves
South: must be able to reclaim runaways
North: don’t want to be morally implicated in
returning slaves
Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin
4-2-3: “No Person held to Service in Labor in one
State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into
another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or
Regulation therein, be discharged from Service
or Labor, but shall be delivered up on Claim of
the Party to whom such Service or Labor may be