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Bellwork Review
American Imperialism II
US.22 Assess the causes of American imperialism in the late
19th and early 20th centuries, including the desire for raw
materials and new markets, yellow journalism, and the desire
to spread American democratic and moral ideals. (E, G, P)
US.25 Draw evidence from informational texts to compare
and contrast Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick diplomacy,
William Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson’s
Moral Diplomacy. (G, H, P)
Understand how the United States had the desire and the
ability to spread its beliefs and needs around the world
through American Imperialism
America Imperialism II
Assess the causes of American imperialism in the late 19th
and early 20th centuries, including the desire for raw
materials and new markets, yellow journalism, and the
desire to spread American democratic and moral ideals.
John Green:
We Grew....
When the Spanish-American War was over,
the U.S. garnered four of Spain's former
Pro-Imperialists saw this as a chance to take
them for our use before another European
power had their chance.
The rush for Naval Superiority against the
rest of the World was a driving force.
We were getting full...
End of the frontier: 1890 report from the Superintendent of
the Census
Many Americans believed the United States had to expand
to other areas or the country was doomed to become
Increase in population from immigration and better health,
increased wealth, and industrial production demanded
more and resources.
There was a growing fear that the United States could
exhaust its supply of resources.
A Country Under Pressure
The Panic of 1893 convinced some businessmen industry
had overexpanded resulting in overproduction &
underconsumption. Supply and Demand. A lot of
businessmen wanted to own a factory, but where were
their customers going to come from?
Strikes and Labor unrest/violence and Farmers unrest
(Populism) became rampant due to industrialism.
Overseas markets were viewed as the solution to over
production from factories and farmes.
Our experience of supplanting the Plains Indian tribes
after the Civil War had established a precedent for
exerting colonial control over dependent people.
Those Pesky Germans...
Germany became our biggest imperialist competitor and
largely spurred U.S. into imperialism; Germany sought
colonies in Africa, Asia, Latin America & Caribbean.
The Battleship
The Plan Came Together
Space – wait, not Space...
The Final Frontier :-)
Foreign trade becoming increasingly important to American
economy in late 19th century. (Not Space....)
Americans considered acquiring new colonies to expand
markets further. People were potential customers.
Desire to compete with Europe for overseas empires.
Some Americans were watching European's success in
Africa and Asia with envy and jealousy. Why can't we do
Between 1870 and 1900, Europeans had taken over 1/5
of land and 1/10 of population of the world.
“Our Country” (1885)
Josiah Strong: Our Country(1885)
His book advocated superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization
over all others.
He urged Americans to spread religion & democratic values
to the “backward” peoples of the world.
The yellow journalism of Joseph Pulitzer and William
Randolph Hearst stimulated Americans interest abroad.
We Almost Went to War
Samoan crisis at Pago Pago
United States and German navies nearly engaged each
other in 1889 over the Samoan Islands. Germany did not
wish to provoke U.S. and agreed to settlement, resolved
in a 1900 treaty with Germany and Britain
U.S. gained 76 square miles -- American Samoa including
Pago Pago, Germany received the two largest islands and
Britain was compensated with other territories in the
We almost go to War (Again)
Venezuela Boundary Dispute, 1895-1896
The Boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela had
been in dispute for over half a century. Gold was
discovered in the border region.
President Cleveland warned Britain to not to take
Venezuelan territory because it violated the Monroe
Doctrine. The United States declared it now called the
shots in the Western Hemisphere.
Britain denied the legality of Monroe doctrine.
President Cleveland had a Plan
President Cleveland asked for an appropriation from Congress to
create a commission of experts who could create an equitable
border between Venezuela and British Guiana. He stated that if
Britain refused to accept it, the United States would go to war.
Britain had no real urge to fight despite a naval superiority of 32-5
in battleship class warships.
Britain was entangled in the Boer War in South Africa.
Britain feared that we could attack a vulnerable Canada.
British merchant marine would be vulnerable to American
commerce raiders.
Britain was preoccupied with German naval threat and Russian &
French unfriendliness so London consented to arbitration.
We Won Without Firing a Shot
The prestige of our Monroe Doctrine was enhanced.
Latin American republics were pleased by our determination
to protect them.
Britain courted us for friendship and a potential ally in the
face of the continental threat.
This left us able to pursue a more aggressive foreign policy.
Since early 19th century, America gradually came to regard
Hawaiian Islands as an extension of our Pacific Coast.
The 1890 McKinley Tariff raised barriers against Hawaiian sugar.
American sugar planters sought annexation as it would
eliminate tariffs. Queen Liliuokalani, a nationalist, insisted
Hawaiians should control Hawaii and white planters, mostly
Americans, became alarmed at the Queen's policies and the
American tariff.
White planters, led by Sanford B. Dole, organized a successful
revolt in 1893 even though there were a tiny minority. They
were assisted by American troops who landed under the
unauthorized orders of U.S. minister in Honolulu, John C.
Stevens. Stevens said “The Hawaiian pear is now fully ripe
and this is the golden hour for the U.S. to pluck it.”
Cleveland says NO!
A treaty for annexation was rushed to Washington for
Before treaty could be passed through Senate, Cleveland
assumed the office of President and refused to sign
any annexation bill and sent special investigator to Hawaii.
The findings indicated the vast majority of Hawaiians had no
desire to be annexed, that the Provisional government
had been established by force and Cleveland ordered
American troops to be removed from Hawaii.
Some will not take NO for an answer
President Cleveland was unsuccessful in reinstating the queen
to her throne. America public opinion would not have
tolerated force to unseat white planters. Cleveland could not
send troops to attack the white planters.
Revolutionaries proclaimed a Hawaiian Republic on July 4,
1894 with Dole as president. Hawaii was annexed in 1898,
and Dole served as the territorial governor from 1900-03.
Hawaii was our first fully-fledged imperialistic debate in our
nation's history. Cleveland was savagely criticized by some
for trying to stem the new Manifest Destiny. Others viewed
Cleveland's motives as honorable in the face of international
Atrocities in Cuba were sensationalized and even made up by
the “yellow press”
Spanish's misrule of Cuba as well as the devastating WilsonGorman Tariff of 1894 damaged Cuba's sugar-based
economy. Many of the plantations were owned by
A new Cuban rebellion in the 1890s resulted in American
property losses.
Spain reacted. 'Reconcentration' - The Spanish military
concentrated masses of Cuban civilians in areas under their
control. About 100,000 died between 1896 and 1898 in
concentration camps. Spain's leader in Cuba, Valeriano
Weyler, was portrayed in U.S. as “Butcher Weyler”
Americans Were Upset
President Cleveland refused to intervene in Cuba and issued
a neutrality proclamation. We did offer mediation in the
conflict but Spain refused.
Pulitzer and Hearst attempted to out do each other and
lesser competitors also became involved.
Hearst sent artist Frederic Remington to Cuba to draw
sketches. When Remington reported conditions not bad
enough to warrant hostilities, Randolph allegedly replied,
“You furnish the pictures & I'll furnish the war.”
Remington depicted Spanish customs officials as brutally
disrobing and searching an American woman. In reality,
female attendants did that duty.
“I'll furnish the war”
We Almost Go to War (Again)
McKinley's presidency began stronger rhetoric toward
Spain. In autumn of 1897, McKinley came close to
delivering an ultimatum to Spain that would have resulted
in war.
Spain ended the 'Reconcentration' in 1897, removed
Weyler from Cuba and gave some autonomy to Cubans.
It appeared that war had been avoided.
Cubans Revolt
Spanish people in Cuba rioted to protest Spain's talk of
granting Cuba some type of self-government.
The United States sent our first-ever new all-steel battleship,
the USS Maine, to Cuba in 1898
It was sent to protect and evacuate Americans if danger
occurred while also giving voice to popular distaste for
Spain's reconcentration policies. (Sent ostensibly as a
“friendly visit”)
The De Lome Letter
On February 9, 1898, Hearst sensationally headlined a stolen
private letter written by the Spanish minister in Washington,
Dupuy de Lome, that portrayed McKinley as corrupt and
indicated Spain lacked good faith in instituting reforms in Cuba.
The uproar in America forced Dupuy de Lome to resign before
U.S. called for his recall.
Remember the Maine!
The explosion of the Maine on February 15, 1898 was the
immediate cause of Spanish American War. 266 died.
A Spanish investigation announced explosion as internal,
presumably accidental. American's investigation reported
that the blast was caused by a submarine mine.
A 1976 U.S. Navy report showed blast inside the ship was if
fact accidental.
Americans accepted the submarine mine view and leapt to
conclusion that the Spanish government was responsible.
The yellow press helped to fuel the public fire. Americans
now cried for war: “Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!”
Spanish-American War -- 1898
Spain agreed to US demands of the revocation of
reconcentration & armistice with Cuban rebels.
President McKinley and Wall Street were not eager for war
but our yellow press forced the issue.
McKinley did not want war but was savagely criticized by the
press. McKinley did not believe Cuban independence was
in our best long-term interests.
U.S. Senator Mark Hanna and Wall Street did not want war
because it might interfere with trade in Cuba.
The public, prodded by the yellow press, demanded war to
free the abused Cubans.
America Declares War
Demands of preserving the Republican party's power was
the biggest factor in decision for war. McKinley sent war
message to Congress on April 11, 1898. He urged armed
intervention to free oppressed Cubans and Congress
agreed. The Teller Amendment proclaimed to the world
that when the U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it
would give the Cubans their freedom but Europeans were
Battle of Manila Bay
The United States Army was small and weak compared to
Spain's. Our Navy slightly less powerful than Spain's.
While the Secretary of War was away, the Undersecretary of
War, Theodore Roosevelt, cabled Commodore George
Dewey to attack Spain's Philippines in the event of war.
McKinley subsequently confirmed these instructions.
In May of 1898, Dewey's 6 warships sailed into Manila
Harbor and destroyed all 10 of Spain's warships. 400
Spaniards were killed and wounded while 1 American died
of heat stroke. It was a resounding victory for our new
modern navy!
We almost go to war with Germany (Again)
Germans arrived in Manila with 5 warships that were far
more powerful than Dewey's ships. Dewey threatened
the German commander with war “as soon as you like”.
A false story emerged that British prevented Germans from
destroying U.S. fleet.
Three months later, American troops finally arrived and
captured Manila in August, aided by Filipino insurgents
commanded by their well-educated, part-Chinese leader,
Emilio Aguinaldo (brought in from exile by the U.S.). After
the U.S. annexation of Philippines, Aguinaldo led an
insurrection against the United States.
Back to Hawaii....
The annexation of Hawaii took place in July of 1898.
We used the pretense of needing Hawaii as a coaling and
provisioning way station, in order to send supplies and
reinforcements to Dewey in Manila Harbor.
The white-dominated government in Hawaii was eager to be
annexed (like Texas had been earlier).
A joint resolution of annexation was rushed through
Congress and was approved by McKinley.
Hawaiians were granted U.S. citizenship and received full
territorial status in 1900.
U.S. invasion of Cuba and Puerto Rico
The Spanish fleet eventually landed at bottle-shaped
Santiago Harbor where they were promptly blockaded by
the more powerful American fleet. The invading American
army took the high ground near Santiago without serious
Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders were part of the
invading army. Heavy fighting at El Caney and on San
Juan Hill was where the 'Rough Riders' charged up after
the hill had been largely been already won.
Two all-black regiments provided support (about 1/4 of
invasion force). In actuality, the 'Rough Riders' first took
Kettle Hill, suffering heavy casualties.
We Beat Spain!
On July 1, 1898, the Spanish fleet was completely destroyed
The USS Oregon had and used more firepower than Spain's
4 armored cruisers combined. About 500 Spaniards were
killed while only one American died during the battle.
Santiago was surrendered by Spain shortly after the battle.
The war was over. U.S. casualties were about 379 killed in
battle while over 5,000 died due to disease.
1895: Cuban nationalists revolt against Spanish rule
1896: Spanish General Weyler (the "Butcher") comes to Cuba.
1897: Spain recalls Weyler
Early 1898: USS Maine sent to Cuba
February 9, 1898: Hearst publishes Dupuy du Lome's letter insulting McKinley.
February 15, 1898: Sinking of the USS Maine
February 25, 1898: Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt cables
Commodore Dewey with plan: attack the Philippines if war with Spain breaks
April 11, 1898: McKinley approves war with Spain
April 24, 1898: Spain declares war on the US
April 25, 1898: US declares war on Spain
May 1, 1898: Battle of Manila Bay (Philippines)
May, 1898: Passage of the Teller Amendment. July 1, 1898: San Juan Hill taken
by "Rough Riders"
July 3, 1898: Battle of Santiago Spain's Caribbean fleet destroyed. July 7, 1898:
Hawaii annexed
July 17, 1898: City of Santiago surrenders to General William Shafter
August 12, 1898: Spain signs armistice
August 13, 1898: US troops capture Manila
December 10, 1898: Treaty of Paris signed US annexes Puerto Rico, Guam,
Puerto Rico
The U.S. Army invaded Puerto Rico. We sought to take the
island before the war with Spain ended. Most of the
population regarded U.S. soldiers as liberating heroes.
With the Treaty of Paris, 1898, Cuba was freed from Spain.
U.S. received Pacific island of Guam which they had
captured early in the war. U.S. gained Puerto Rico, the
last vestige of Spain's American empire.
The Philippine issue was a major dilemma in the negotiations of
the Treaty of Paris. U.S. took Manila the day after Spain sued
for peace. Philippines were thus not one of the spoils of war.
The U.S. agreed to pay Spain $20 million for the Philippines
McKinley's dilemma was that the valuable Philippines were larger
than British Isles with population of 7 million people.
We did not feel that the U.S. should give islands back to Spain
after just fighting the Spanish in a war to free Cuba.
If left alone, Philippines might fall into anarchy or perhaps
Germany might then seize it creating a world war. The Least of
All evils was to take Philippines and leave its independence for
Filipinos Wanted Freedom NOW
An Imperialism debate was touched off by the spoils of the
Spanish American War. Philippines issue created a huge
imperialism debate. Expansionist pressure from various groups
also forced McKinley's hand. The Philippines (and Hawaii) were
seen as necessary stepping-stones to Asia, especially China.
Protestant missionaries eager to convert Catholic Filipinos.
Businessmen clamored for the new Philippine market, including
Republican Senator and businessman Mark Hanna.
Philippines offer desirable raw materials.
McKinley later reported as saying an inner voice told him to take
all the Philippines and Christianize and civilize them after he
had knelt seeking divine guidance.
Some Had Doubts
Because we had once been a colony
ourselves, and we remember our history of
desiring to be free, many Americans felt
uneasy being a ruler of others.
Anti-Imperialists felt it violated the basic
tenants of democracy and self-government
that our nation was founded on.
Push, Pull and Impact
What Strategic factors led to American
What Political factors were involved?
How was Economics a Push and Pull factor?
What was the major consequences of
American Imperialism?
We Need Things and Customers
The Need for Raw Materials for our
expanding industrial complex was growing
Markets to sell the finished products from
those factories was also a pressing need.
Military Might
With more bases, the larger the footprint we
can have on the globe, and coal-burning
ships need places to get more coal, along
with food and other supplies. Those ports
also make useful trading locations for
receiving raw materials and delivering
finished products.
Growing Nationalism
Americans are becoming prouder of their
nation's growing power and prestige.
Pledge of Allegiance written in 1892:
Expansionists and Imperialists
Expansionists appealed to our patriotism and to the glory of
annexation. They played up possible trade profits, Manila
might become another Hong Kong. The Philippines had
abundance of natural resources. The U.S. should help
uplift (and exploit) the world's poor.
The Senate passed a treaty on February 6, 1899 with the
unexpected support of Bryan. He claimed the sooner U.S.
passed the treaty, the sooner Filipinos would get their
independence. The responsibility for the Philippines thus
rested with the Republicans.
“White Man's Burden”
Social Darwinism
Remember Social Darwinism? The belief of
many in our country is we are superior to
others because we were fortunate to be
born that way.
Do they have Rights?
Insular Cases
Cases appeared before the Supreme Court concerning
extent to which constitutional rights applied to peoples of
newly acquired territories.
1901 Supreme Court rulings stated that some rights are
fundamental and applied to all American territory. Other
rights are procedural and should not be imposed upon
those unfamiliar with American law. Congress must
determine which procedural rights applied in
unincorporated territories. More importantly, The
Constitution did not follow the flag.
American Imperialism II
US.22 Assess the causes of American imperialism in the late
19th and early 20th centuries, including the desire for raw
materials and new markets, yellow journalism, and the desire
to spread American democratic and moral ideals. (E, G, P)
US.23 Evaluate the arguments of interventionists and noninterventionists of the period, including Alfred T. Mahan,
Senator Albert Beveridge, Mark Twain, and Theodore
Roosevelt. (C, E, P).
US.25 Draw evidence from informational texts to compare
and contrast Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick diplomacy,
William Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson’s
Moral Diplomacy. (G, H, P)
Understand how the United States had the desire and the
ability to spread its beliefs and needs around the world
through American Imperialism
Cuban Independence?
The question then was what about Cuban independence?
A U.S. military government was set up under General
Leonard Wood of the Rough Riders. Major advances
were achieved in goverment, finance, education,
agriculture, and public health. Gains were made on yellow
fever epidemic by Dr. Walter Reed.
The U.S. withdrew from Cuba in 1902 in honor of the Teller
Platt Amendment
The Platt Amendment was a mechanism to ensure that Cuba
would not be vulnerable to foreign powers and to maintain
U.S. influence in Cuban affairs.
Cubans were forced to write the Platt Amendment into their
own Constitution of 1901
The Provisions: Cuba bound itself not to impair their
independence by treaty or by contracting a debt beyond their
resources. The U.S. government had right to approve all
Cuban treaties. The U.S. reserved the right to intervene with
troops to restore order and to provide mutual protection.
Cubans promised to sell or lease needed coaling or naval
stations. Guantanamo Bay Naval Base is still controlled by
the U.S. today.
Post-war nationalism after the
Spanish American War
“Splendid little War” - John Hay
The war established America's first overseas empire, albeit
modest compared to contemporary European standards.
European powers accorded U.S. more respect and the
Monroe Doctrine was given a significant boost but Latin
America was deeply suspicious of U.S. motives.
Britain became an ally while Germany grew more frustrated.
Philippines drew U.S. into Asian affairs but later proved a
liability to defend (WWII vs. Japan)
Mahan's view of necessity for larger navy prevailed and the
U.S. undertook a large naval buildup.
America felt Better about America
Elihu Root improved the War Department and this became
important when U.S. became involved in World War I.
The War served to further heal the rift between North and
South because soldiers fought side by side.
Nationalism was the result of an urban, mass-culture,
industrial society.
Filipinos did not feel good about
being a non-Filipino
Insurrection in the Philippines - Filipinos assumed they would
be granted freedom after the war, like the Cubans.
The Senate narrowly refused to pass such a resolution and the
Philippines became a protectorate. Filipinos were thus
tragically deceived and felt decieved.
Open rebellion began in February of 1899. Emilio Aguinaldo
declared Philippines independent.
Savage fighting resulted in more casualties than Spanish
American War. Filipino armies fled to the jungle where they
waged vicious guerrilla warfare. Infuriated American troops
responded with atrocities. 4,300 Americans and 57,000
Filipinos died.
Some Americans did not approve
Anti-Imperialists redoubled their protests. Instead of the U.S.
fighting to free Cuba, it was now waging a war 10,000 miles
away and depriving the population there of their liberty.
Atrocity stories boosted their protests (like 'Butcher' Weyler
in Cuba)
The Insurrection was finally broken in 1901 when Aguinaldo
was captured. McKinley appointed a Philippine Commission
to make appropriate recommendations in 1901. The
Commission was Led by William H. Taft who called Filipinos
his 'little brown brothers'.
The U.S instituted education, sanitation, public health, and
infrustructure reforms though Filipinos remained resentful.
Philippines finally received independence on July 4, 1946.
Open Door Policy in China
Foreign powers were lured to China by the huge Chinese
market and missionary zeal.
By the late 19th century, Japan and western European
powers had carved much of China into separate spheres
of influence.
Within each sphere, one nation held economic dominance.
Americans manufacturers feared Chinese markets would be
monopolized by Europeans while American missionaries
had a number of groups in China.
It was the summer of 1899…
The “Open Door Note” (summer of 1899) was Issued by Secretary
of State John Hay (ex-Lincoln secretary)
The U.S. was at a disadvantage geographically compared to
Russian and Japan and Americans and feared they might get
frozen out if they didn’t act quickly.
The Note urged all the Great Powers to announce where their
leaseholds or spheres of influence were located and asked
that they respect certain Chinese rights and the ideal of fair
competition. In effect, when any Great Power dealt with a
foreign trader, it would observe an ‘Open Door’.
Open Door gained wide acceptance in the U.S. but the policy did
not gain international acceptance as it was weak and became
relatively short-lived.
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
Millions of Chinese enraged were over the Open Door Policy. A
Super-patriotic group of Chinese Boxers killed over 200
missionaries & other whites. A number of foreign diplomats
were besieged in Beijing.
A Multinational force of about 18,000 arrived to put down the
rebellion, including Japan, Russia, Britain, France, Germany
and U.S. troops (2,500 men)
The victorious allies assessed an indemnity of $333 million (U.S.
share $24.5 mil) but when Washington found their sum
excessive, they remitted $18 million.
Appreciative of U.S., the Chinese government set aside money to
educate a select group of Chinese students in the U.S. as a
gesture of goodwill. These students played significant role in
westernizing the Orient.
Open Door
Hay announced in 1900 that henceforth the Open Door
would embrace territorial integrity of China in addition to
its commercial treaty.
We sought to eliminate the carving up of China with Boxer
outrages as a pretext. Hay did not ask for formal
acceptances. China was thus spared partition during
these years.
This was probably due more to distrust among the great
powers than Hay’s policy.
The Election of 1900
The Election of 1900 witnessed the Republicans nominate
McKinley. The United States had won the war, acquired
territory, established the gold standard, and brought about
economic prosperity.
The GOP Platform endorsed prosperity, gold standard, and
overseas expansion, yet, between 60-88% of Americans were
poor or very poor.
Theodore Roosevelt nominated as vice president.
Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan, who had the
ill-conceived platform once again pushing for a silver standard.
1900 - McKinley Wins!
The campaign was similar to 1896.
McKinley waged a “front porch” campaign. People went to see
Bryan campaigned throughout the nation criticizing Republican
imperialism and support of trusts but the imperialism issue was
now passe.
Teddy Roosevelt out-campaigned Bryan and cut into his Midwest
following, claiming that Bryan would rock the boat of prosperity.
McKinley defeated Bryan 292-155 in electoral votes and by nearly
900,000 popular votes.
Teddy Becomes President
McKinley was assassinated in September of 1901 by deranged
anarchist and Polish immigrant, Leon Czolgosz
Theodore Roosevelt became the youngest president thus far in
U.S. history at age 42. Roosevelt pledged he would carry out
policies of his predecessor.
Theodore Roosevelt became the first President to play a
significant role in world affairs
His view on Imperialism in the Western Hemisphere was “Speak
softly but carry a big stick [and] you will go far”
Roosevelt was a major proponent of military and naval
Panama Canal
The Spanish-American War emphasized need for a canal to
connect Atlantic & Pacific Oceans. The U.S. now had to protect
Puerto Rico, Hawaii, the Philippines, & the U.S. merchant
The Canal plan had to overcome legal challenges.
The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 prohibited any country from
securing exclusive control over an isthmian canal.
Between 1878 & 1889 the builder of Suez Canal, Ferdinand de
Lesseps, could not make a canal in Panama work. The U.S.
was now eager to take over project.
U.S. Needs Panama to Revolt
With the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901), Britain agreed to give
the U.S. the right to build canal and the right to fortify it as well.
Britain was occupied with an unfriendly Europe and the South
African Boer War.
The Colombian Senate rejected a treaty negotiated with the U.S.
for a canal in Panama (which was part of Colombia) and
declared U.S. was inadequate for such a valuable region.
We helped with the Creation of Panama throught 'gunboat
diplomacy'. French representative, Phillipe Bunau-Varilla,
worked with Panama revolutionists to raise a tiny 'patriot' army
and win independence from Colombia.
Panama Becomes Panama
On November 3rd, 1903, the Panama revolution began.
U.S. naval forces did not allow Colombian troops across the
isthmus. On November 6, Roosevelt extended recognition of
With the Hay--Bunau-Varilla Treaty (November, 1903), BunauVarilla, now Panamanian minister despite his French
citizenship, signed a treaty in Washington with Secretary of
State John Hay. Its provisions were that the U.S. would pay
Bunau-Varillas's New Panama Canal Co. $40 million for the
rights to build the canal and the Zone of the canal was widened
from 6 miles to 10 miles.
Roosevelt comes under fire
Roosevelt's role in Panama issue became controversial. Although
the American public initially saw Roosevelt's role in Panama as
politically legitimate, TR in 1911 claimed 'I took the canal', and
this sparked a wave of controversy.
U.S. suffered diplomatically as Europeans sneered at the
apparent U.S hypocrisy and Latin American countries grew
weary of the 'Colossus of the North', in the face of Puerto Rico,
Cuba, and now Panama.. Canal completed in 1914 at initial
cost of $400 million. Colonel William C. Gorgas made the canal
zone safe by using the sanitation methods he had used in
Havana to fight yellow fever and malaria.
Roosevelt Corollary
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was motivated by
TR's concern that German & British bill collection violated
Monroe Doctrine. Specifically, both Venezuela and Dominican
Republic owed money to Germany and England.
In 1902, the Venezuela Crisis took place, Germany sank two
Venezuelan gunboats trying to seek forced payment for heavy
Venezuelan debt to Germany and Britain was also owed money
by Venezuela
TR devised a policy of 'preventive intervention' and this became
know as the Roosevelt Corollary. In future financial crises
concerning Latin American debt, the U.S. would intervene,
take over customs houses, pay off the debts, and keep
European powers out of the Western Hemisphere.
We do because we 'care'
U.S. had a moral obligation because it would not allow European
nations themselves to intervene in bankrupt 'banana republics',
and U.S. became "Policeman of the Caribbean."
Contrasted with Monroe Doctrine that had merely told Europeans
to stay out, TR's policy was a radical departure but its
association with Monroe Doctrine helped it to gain public
acceptance. More than any other factor, policy promoted the
'Bad Neighbor' policy toward Latin America during these years.
The policy was eventually used to justify wholesale interventions
and repeated landings of U.S. marines in Latin America.
We keep going to visit
In 1905, a Dominican treaty gave U.S. supervisory powers over
Dominican tariff collections. In effect, the Dominican Republic
became a protectorate of the U.S.
The U.S. kept high tariffs against Cuban sugar at behest of U.S.
sugar growers. The resulting recession in Cuba combined with
discontent over Platt Amendment led to a Cuban revolution in
1906. TR sent in Marines in 1906 who remained until 1909.
U.S. troops would reoccupy Cuba in 1917 during WWI and remain
there until 1922.
Russia and Japan go to War
Russo-Japanese War begins in 1904 and Japanese-American
relations are impacted. Russia and Japan went to war over
issue of ports in Manchuria & Korea. Japan destroyed much of
Russian fleet. This is the first defeat of a non-European power
since the Turkish invasion of 1500s.
As the war dragged on, Japanese ran short of men and money.
Roosevelt was eager to prevent either side from gaining a
monopoly in Asia but did not seek war for the United States.
He is concerned about safety of the newly acquired Philippines.
Japan secretly asked Roosevelt to help sponsor peace
Manchuria and Korea
Roosevelt finds Peace
The Treaty of Portsmouth is signed in 1905. Both sides met at
Portsmouth, NH, in 1905. Japan demanded huge indemnity
and all of strategic Sakhalin island. Russia refused to concede
And agreement was reached, Japan gained southern half of
Sakhalin but no indemnity. Secretly, Roosevelt agreed to
accept future Japanese dominance of Korea.
For his mediation, Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize in
1906. He was also recognized for his helping arrange an
international conference at Algeciras, Spain, in 1906 to mediate
North African disputes.
Sakhalin Island
We are mean to the Japanese
The Portsmouth Treaty had negative results. United States and
Russian relations soured because they felt that Roosevelt
robbed them of a military victory. Savage massacres of Russian
Jews drew U.S. protest. Japan felt robbed of its indemnity and
blamed the U.S. Naval arms race between U.S. & Japan in
Asia resulted as mutual distrust grew.
Then we had the San Francisco Schoolboard Incident. In 1906,
70,000 Japanese immigrants poured into California as a result
of dislocations and tax burdens caused by the Russo-Japanese
War. Californians feared being confronted with another “yellow
peril” and feared mongrelization of the races and formed the
influential Asian Exclusion League. Local San Francisco school
officials ruled Asian children should attend a special school.
The school system was hard pressed in the face of the
devastating 1906 earthquake.
Japan gets mad
The people of Japan became furious over discrimination, and
became highly sensitive to race issues. Irresponsible talk of
war sizzled in the “yellow press”. Roosevelt became concerned
of California starting a war other states would have to fight.
Roosevelt invited the entire San Francisco Board of Education to
the White House. He coerced Californians to repeal the order
and accept what came to be known as the “Gentleman's
Agreement” Its provisions were that Japan agreed to stop flow
of laborers to U.S. and Californians agreed not to ban
Japanese from public schools.
America and Japan to 1920
Fearing Japanese perception of United States weakness,
Roosevelt sent the “Great White Fleet” on a highly visible tour
around the world in 1907 starting in Virginia.
In 1908 the Root-Takahira Agreement was signed. The U.S. and
Japan pledged to respect each other's territorial possessions in
the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door Policy in China.
Roosevelt regarded the voyage of his fleet as his most important
contribution to peace.
The Lansing-Ishii Agreement was signed in 1917. The U.S.
acknowledged Japan's “special interests” in China through
reiteration of its Open Door policy. Its is actually aimed to
reduce German influence in & around China in WWI.
The Great White Fleet
The Great White Fleet circled the Globe
“Dollar Diplomacy”
“Dollar Diplomacy" became America's policy under President Taft
(1909-1913). It contained two aspects, using a foreign policy to
protect Wall Street dollars invested abroad (especially in the
Far East) by using Wall Street dollars to uphold foreign policy.
It sought to reduce rival powers, especially Germany, from taking
advantage of the financial chaos in the Caribbean. U.S.
bankers would strengthen U.S. defenses and foreign policies
while bringing prosperity to the U.S. “Dollar Diplomacy”
supplanted the “Big Stick” as the United States method of
'controlling' South America and its markets and resources.
Money instead of Bullets
Problems just keep popping up
The China-Manchurian Railroad Scheme takes place. Taft saw the
Manchurian railway monopoly by Russia and Japan as a threat
to the Open Door Policy. In 1909, Taft proposed that a group of
U.S. and foreign bankers buy the railroads and turn them over
to China under a self-liquidating arrangement.
The Plan was ill-conceived as Japan and Russia refused to give
up the important railroad and Taft was showered in ridicule.
Meanwhile, in the Caribbean Washington urged Wall Street
bankers to pump money into Honduras and Haiti to keep out
foreign funds. Wall Street didn't see any benefit to helping them
and ultimately the U.S. sent forces to Cuba, Honduras, the
Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua to restore order after they
protested against food shortages and poor economies.
American Imperialism II
US.22 Assess the causes of American imperialism in the late
19th and early 20th centuries, including the desire for raw
materials and new markets, yellow journalism, and the desire
to spread American democratic and moral ideals. (E, G, P)
US.25 Draw evidence from informational texts to compare
and contrast Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick diplomacy,
William Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson’s
Moral Diplomacy. (G, H, P)
Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy
Woodrow Wilson, the candidate from the
Democratic Party, won the Presidential Election
in 1912. As part of his campaign, he promised to
handle foreign affairs with a moral approach,
known as Moral Diplomacy, to right the wrongs
of the Taft’s ‘Dollar Diplomacy’ and Theodore
Roosevelts 'Big Stick' policy.
Wilson begins practicing what he preaches
Moral Diplomacy was first used in The Philippines. Wilson
passed the Jones Act of 1916 which guaranteed territorial
status, gave them a bill of rights, gave Filipino male
citizens suffrage, and promised independence once a
government was established.
In Puerto Rico all inhabitants were granted U.S. citizenship
and provided a limited self-government.
For the Panama Canal Congress repealed the act that
exempted American ships from paying the canal toll. This
act greatly pleased the British who were in objection to
that policy.
Do as we say…
The whole idea behind Moral Diplomacy was
that the United States would influence the
economies of the Latin American countries.
They would support the countries that were
democratic, however if the country was not
democratic, their economies would suffer
greatly and would have no choice but to
cave to what the United States wanted
them to do.
Wilson and the end of American Imperialism
American Imperialism under Wilson was aimed to reinforce
Western Hemisphere in the face of WWI. Although Wilson
hated imperialism he eventually invaded more countries in Latin
America than any other president in U.S. history (to protect
U.S. lives and U.S. property in those countries). He kept
Marines in Nicaragua making that country, in effect, a U.S.
U.S. forces were sent to Haiti in 1914-15 when Haitian president
was literally torn to pieces during a revolt. In 1916, the Marines
sent to Dominican Republic when riots & civil war broke out and
the Debt-cursed country became a protectorate of the U.S.
In 1917, the U.S. purchased Virgin Islands from Denmark and the
Caribbean sea increasingly became dominated by U.S. (along
with Panama route). The U.S. invaded Mexico in attempt to
capture Pancho Villa.
American Imperialism II
US.22 Assess the causes of American imperialism in the late
19th and early 20th centuries, including the desire for raw
materials and new markets, yellow journalism, and the desire
to spread American democratic and moral ideals. (E, G, P)
US.25 Draw evidence from informational texts to compare
and contrast Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick diplomacy,
William Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson’s
Moral Diplomacy. (G, H, P)
Understand how the United States had the desire and the
ability to spread its beliefs and needs around the world
through American Imperialism
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