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SALT, Peace
Accords and Red
Détente in the Age of the Cold War
Hot Line
The United States and the Soviet Union
establish a radio and telegraph Hot
Line between them with Hot Line
Agreement . This agreement provides
the first official recognition of the
inherent danger of nuclear weapons
and the possibility of an inadvertent
war arising from technical or human
error. The Hot Line has been tested
every hour since 1963, and the
dissolution of the Soviet Union has
not altered this procedure.
Partial Test Ban Treaty
August 1963 – Enacted October
Proclaiming as their principal aim the speediest possible
achievement of an agreement on general and complete disarmament
under strict international control in accordance with the objectives of
the United Nations which would put an end to the armaments race
and eliminate the incentive to the production and testing of all kinds
of weapons, including nuclear weapons,
Prohibited testing
Outer Space
Under Water
Non-Proliferation Treaty
1968, July
 Signed in London, Moscow
and Washington
 Goes into effect 1970
Nuclear nations would not assist, encourage or transfer weapons/
secrets to non-nuclear nations
Non-nuclear nations agree not to acquire said weapons
Does not prevent the research or development of nuclear energy for
peaceful purposes
Parties agree to, at the earliest date, cessation of the nuclear arms
race and nuclear disarmament
A period of relaxed tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
and China.
February of 1972 Nixon travels to China and in May onto Moscow
Nixon exploited Brezhnev’s
fear of a U.S./China alliance
First Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I)
between the United States and the Soviet
Union begin in Helsinki, Finland. During
these talks, each side gains a better
understanding of the other's views and of
the range of questions to be considered for
how to achieve arms reductions. These
discussions set the stage for the main
round of talks which open in Vienna in April
1970. Several rounds of talks followed;
formally ended in 1972
ABM Treaty
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty – Richard Nixon and General Secretary
Leonid Brezhnev sign ABM in 1972 as a part of SALT II talks
-Each nation agrees to limit the deployment areas to 2 and
forbade elaborate defensive systems
The First Unelected President
Helsinki Accords – Series of agreements that protected basic human
rights. Critics charged it was a one way street; grain and goods
flowed into the Soviet Union but little, other than arms and
technicians to pro-Communist places, flowed out
President Carter
Panama Canal Treaty – Carter renegotiates the Panama Canal Treaty
of 1903 which gave the U.S. a perpetual lease on the canal zone.
The new treaty gradually turned power of the canal over to the
Panamanians, which total control coming in 2000.
Camp David Accords
1977 Peace settlement between Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and
Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. They met in Camp David,
Maryland. Egypt became the first Arab nation to recognize the state
of Israel and Israel withdrew its troops from the Sinai Peninsula.
Iran and the Hostage Crisis
In 1979 the Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew the Shah of Iran. Even
though he was a ruthless dictator, the Shah was pro-American and
kept us supplied with oil throughout the 70s.
Iranian students stormed the
American embassy and held over
50 hostages for 444 days
Carter’s ineffectual handling
of the situation, in part led
to his loss in 1980.
So Long Détente, We Hardly Knew Ya!
In 1979 Carter officially recognizes Red China and exchanged
ambassadors with the country.
SALT II Treaty – limited the number of nuclear weapons U.S. and
U.S.S.R. could hold. U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty
because of the Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan.
Middle-East Fears cause Carter to place an embargo on U.S.S.R.,
prohibiting sale of grains and technology, and he also boycotted the
1980 Moscow Olympic games.