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Unit 4 Part 1 Articles of Confederation SSCG1 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of United States constitutional government Remember… Declaration signed in 1776 Revolutionary War fought (France helped Americans) British are defeated Now we must set up our government… Articles of Confederation In 1777 a committee appointed by congress presented a plan called the Articles of Confederation. Basically continued the structure and operation of gov’t as established under the Second Continental Congress The Articles of Confederation called for a unicameral or single chamber, which they called Congress. The Articles gave each state one vote in congress. The states wanted a confederation, or “league of friendship” among the 13 independent states rather than a strong national government. By March 1781 all 13 colonies had ratified the Articles of Confederation Government under the Articles Congress had only these powers: 1) Make war and peace 2) Send and receive ambassadors 3) Enter into treaties 4) Raise and equip a navy 5) Maintain an army by requesting troops from the states 6) Appoint senior military officers 7) Fix standing of weights and measures 8) Regulate Indian affairs 9) Establish post offices 10) Decided certain disputes among states Basically, job of the congress was to make laws and settle disputes FYI… 3.1 vocab due tomorrow! Unit 4 Part 2 Strengths and Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation What the A of C accomplished: The greatest achievement was the establishment of a fair policy for the development of the lands west of the Appalachians. The North – west ordinance of 1787 established the principal that the territories were to be developed for statehood on an equal basis with the older states. The Articles established a peace treaty with Great Britain signed in 1783. New land was acquired to Miss. River, up to Great Lakes, and down to FL border Weaknesses of the Articles: Congress could not levy taxes or regulate trade Congress could not compel a state to obey its decisions Laws needed approval of 9/13 states Amending, or changing the Articles, required the consent of every state, and unanimous agreement on any issue did not exist. No executive branch No court system Need a Stronger Gov’t After the war the states began to quarrel over boundary lines and tariffs. The new nation had money problems: The government owed $40 million to foreign governments and to American soldiers sill unpaid after the Revolutionary War. By 1786 America was in an economic depression This would lead to Shays’s Rebellion Shays’s Rebellion - 1787 Massachusetts government tried to foreclose on farms and jailed many for debt Former solider Daniel Shays led farmers against Massachusetts Militia and took over court house and freed the prisoners. Massachusetts called for national government to help. Government requested troops from other states…no one would help Shays’s Rebellion Massachusetts Militia finally put down rebellion Shays’s rebellion showed the states the need to address the weaknesses of the AoC Please turn to pg. 49 On a vocab card, please write down the 13 states On a separate card, please write down the powers of the sovereign states (inside the states in red) and label the card “States’ powers under the Articles of Confederation” Please make vocab cards for section 2.3 and 2.4 Origins of American Government Unit 4 Part 3: The Constitutional Convention The Constitutional Convention Delegates from 12 states attended the Constitutional Convention. Delegates originally wanted to revise the Article of confederation. All favored limited and representative government, separation of powers between legislative, executive, and judicial branches, and a stronger national government. The Virginia Plan the delegates soon abandoned the revision; planned to write a new constitution. They first considered the Virginia Plan, which had three components: A bicameral congress (legislature) based on population - with the power to declare state laws unconstitutional A strong executive chosen by the legislature A national judiciary chosen by the legislature The New Jersey Plan The small states fearing domination by the large states, introduced the New Jersey Plan. The New Jersey Plan: Has unicameral legislature based on equality~ One vote per state Congress has power to tax and regulate trade. Created a weak executive and national courts with limited powers The Convention The Convention deadlocked over representation. Small states wanted equal representation regardless of population. The Connecticut Compromise broke the stalemate on representation. It called for a Senate based on equality with two members from each state; and a House of Representatives based on the population of the state. (higher pop. = more reps) All revenue laws (those concerning spending and taxing) would originate in the House of Representatives. The Three-Fifths Compromise Debates over slavery and commerce led to more compromise. Southern states wanted enslaved persons to count for representation, but not for taxation. Northern states called for representation with taxation. Under the Three-Fifths Compromise 3/5 of enslaved people would be counted for both for taxation and representation. Now… Please work on the vocab assigned Friday, and the cards with the 13 states and the states’ powers. Also, make cards for all of the plans and Three-Fifths Compromise. Unit 4 Part 4 notes Constitutional Convention The Convention To satisfy the divided interests of the North and the South, the delegates agreed that Congress would ban the slave trade in 1808. They gave Congress the power to regulate foreign and interstate commerce (or trade among the states.) The Convention In September 1787 the delegates sent the Constitution to the states for ratification. For the new constitution to take effect nine of the thirteen states had to approve it. The debate divided the public. Supporters of the Constitution ~ the Federalists: argued that only a strong national government could protect the nation from enemies and solve its internal problems. The Opponents of the Constitution ~ Anti Federalists: feared a strong central government. They warned that without the protections of a Bill of Rights, the government could take away liberties won in the Revolution. The Federalist Papers The Federalist Papers were written and published during the years 1787 and 1788 To persuade New York voters to ratify the proposed constitution. 85 essays outlining how this new government would operate and why this type of government was the best choice for the United States of America The Federalist Papers Alexander Hamilton wrote 52, James Madison wrote 28, and John Jay contributed the remaining five. The Convention The Federalists promised that the new government would immediately add a Bill of Rights to the Constitution. This promise turned the tide in their favor. On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify, and the Constitution went into effect. By 1790 the new Constitution had the unanimous approval of the thirteen United States of America. It would continue to be the law of the land as the United States spread across the North American continent.