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Unit II- Becoming a World Power
10th American
Chapter 7 Section
Roosevelt and Latin America
Roosevelt and Latin America
The Main Idea
The United States began to exert its influence over Latin America in the wake
of the Spanish-American War.
The Main Idea
How did the United States govern Cuba and Puerto Rico?
Why and how was the Panama Canal built?
What was the Roosevelt Corollary?
How did Presidents Taft and Wilson reshape U.S. diplomacy?
The United States in Cuba
President William McKinley set up a military government in Cuba.
Advances were made to eliminate yellow fever.
U.S. Army doctors Walter Reed and William C. Gorgas proved Cuban
doctor Carlos Juan Finlay’s theory that mosquitoes spread yellow fever.
Standing water was eliminated in Cuba, and yellow fever was virtually
eliminated in Havana within six months.
U.S.-appointed Governor of Cuba Leonard Wood oversaw the
drafting of a new Cuban Constitution in 1901.
U.S. forced Cuba to include the Platt Amendment. This limited Cuba’s ability to
sign treaties with other nations and gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuban
affairs and set up military bases.
This led to the establishment of the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
Amendment also made Cuba a U.S. protectorate – a country under the
control and protection of another country.
The United States in Puerto Rico
President McKinley also set up a military government on this
The United States governed Puerto Rico as a territory.
Foraker Act of 1900 established that the U.S. would appoint a
governor and upper house of legislature. Puerto Rican voters
elected the lower house.
A 1917 law granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship and ability to
elect all legislative representatives.
In 1952, Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth, with
power over most of its domestic affairs. The U.S. still controls
interstate trade, immigration, and military affairs.
Cuba and Puerto Rico
How did the United States govern
Cuba and Puerto Rico?
What benefits did the United States
receive as a result of the Platt
How did Puerto Rico become a U.S.
territory, while Cuba became a
The Panama Canal [02:26]
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty [02:13]
Preparing for the Panama Canal
U.S. Interest
The United States bought the rights to build the canal
from the French in 1902.
Panama was a part of the Republic of Colombia.
Revolutionaries were plotting to break free of Colombian
rule. President Theodore Roosevelt supported the
revolution and quickly recognized the new government,
the Republic of Panama. A new treaty with the
government gave the United States complete control of
the 10-mile-wide Canal Zone.
Building the Panama Canal
• American work began in May 1904.
• Harsh working conditions, material shortages, malaria, and the
yellow fever hampered construction.
• President Roosevelt appointed John F. Stevens as chief engineer
and architect. Dr. William C. Gorgas focused on sanitation and
health concerns.
• By draining standing water and encouraging spiders, ants,
and lizards to breed, malaria was almost eliminated by 1913.
• After the resignation of Stevens in 1907, Lt. Col. George W.
Goethals took over the job of building the canal. Progress
continued, and in August 1914 the SS Ancon became the first ship
to pass through the canal.
Panama Canal
The American expenditures from 1904 to
1914 totaled $352,000,000, far more than
the cost of anything built by the United
States Government up to that time.
Together the French and American
expenditures totaled $639,000,000. It took
34 years from the initial effort in 1880 to
actually open the Canal in 1914. It is
estimated that over 80,000 persons took
part in the construction and that over
30,000 lives were lost in both French and
American efforts.
1878- French company tries building a canal across Panama- Paid Columbia for rights.
French Failed and gave up
1898- U.S. government buys up the French rights and equipmentto the canal for $40
The United States and the new state of Panama signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty, by
which the United States guaranteed the independence of Panama and secured a
perpetual lease on a 10-mile strip for the canal. Panama was to be compensated by an
initial payment of $10 million and an annuity of $250,000, beginning in 1913.
The U.S. helped Panama gain its independence from Columbia.
How The Canal Was Built With Locks And Dams [02:38]
Canal Construction
Length- 51 miles
11.5 to Gatun Locks
40 miles across Lake Gatun to the
Pedro Miguel locks
The Pedro Miguel locks lower ships
9.4 metres, then on to the
Miraflores Locks which lower ships
16 metres to sea level at the canals
Pacific terminus in the bay of
The Panama Canal was
constructed in two stages. The first
between 1881 and 1888, being the
work carried out by the French
company headed by de Lessop and
secondly the work by the
Americans which eventually
completed the canals construction
between 1904 and 1914.
Roosevelt and the Canal
Roosevelt ordered army engineers to start digging.
Thousands of workers sweated in the malarial heat.
They tore up jungles and cut down mountains. Insects
thrived in muddy, stagnant pools. "Mosquitoes get so
thick you get a mouthful with every breath," a worker
complained. The mosquitoes also carried yellow fever,
and many fell victim to the deadly disease before Dr.
William Gorgas found a way to stop it.
Some Americans did not approve of Roosevelt's
behavior. "There was much accusation about my
having acted in an 'unconstitutional' manner," Teddy
shrugged. "I took the isthmus, started the canal, and
then left Congress -- not to debate the canal, but to
debate me. . . . While the debate goes on, the canal does
too; and they are welcome to debate me as long as they
wish, provided that we can go on with the canal.”
Roosevelt liked to repeat an old African saying: "Speak softly,
and carry a big stick. You will go far." In Panama, Teddy
proved to the world that he was willing to use his big navy as a
stick to further American interests
The Panama Canal
Why and how was the Panama Canal
What was the first attempt to build a
How did the U.S. secure rights to
build the Panama Canal?
What obstacles did the U.S. face in
building the Panama Canal, and how
were they handled?
Roosevelt Corollary [02:41]
The Roosevelt Corollary
The Monroe Doctrine, proclaimed in
1823, declared the Western
Hemisphere off-limits to European
After the Spanish-American War,
presidents backed up the Monroe
Doctrine with military strength.
In 1904, the Dominican Republic
could not pay back European
lenders. To prevent Europeans from
using force to collect the debt,
Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt
The Roosevelt Corollary
The United States pledged to use
force to prevent European countries
from seizing Dominican territory.
The United States took control of
collecting Dominican customs
The Corollary was issued without
seeking approval from any Latin
American nation.
The Roosevelt Corollary succeeded
in bringing more stability to the
Roosevelt Corollary
“Big Stick” Policy of TR.
Addition to Monroe Doctrine
United States would intervene as a last resort to
keep other powers out and ensure financial
United States increasingly used military force to
restore internal stability to nations in the
United States might "exercise international police
It did serve as justification for U.S. intervention
in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican
The Roosevelt Corollary
What was the Roosevelt Corollary?
What proverb inspired President
Roosevelt’s corollary to the Monroe
What financial situation made Latin
American nations particularly
vulnerable to forceful takeover.
Why were European lenders so eager
to invest in Latin America?
Foreign Policy [05:24]
Reshaping U.S. Diplomacy
• President William H. Taft promoted advancing U.S. interests in
other countries through dollar diplomacy, a policy of promoting
American economic interests in other countries and using that
economic power to achieve American goals.
• By 1914, Americans had bought out European loans, resulting in
an American investment of more than $1.6 billion in Latin America.
• Some resentment was caused. In 1912, President Taft sent in U.S.
troops to stop an uprising against authorities.
• President Woodrow Wilson, who succeeded Taft in 1913, favored
moral diplomacy, which used persuasion and American ideals to
advance the nation’s interests in other countries.
• President Wilson also used military troops to stop civil unrest in
Haiti in 1915 and the Dominican Republic in 1916. The U.S. Marines
occupied the countries for years.
Taft and Foreign Policy: Dollar Diplomacy [01:17]
Dollar Diplomacy- Taft
Goal of diplomacy was to create stability and
order abroad that would best promote
American commercial interests
Extensive U.S. interventions in the Caribbean
and Central America, especially in measures
undertaken to safeguard American financial
interests in the region
U.S. to further its foreign policy aims in Latin
America and East Asia through use of its
economic power.
Wilson’s Moral Foreign Policy
A policy that made the US the conscience of the world. He hoped
to spread democracy, condemn colonialism, and promote peace.
Every international conflict would be solved by a third party and
the countries would remain peaceful while the conflict was
Japan? Wilson protested the Japanese demands on China
following the beginning of World War I.? Japan eased off, pretty
much making China a protectorate, but remained bitter towards
the US.
Latin America? Wilson hoped to promote democracy and ensure
the security of the Panama Canal in Latin America. Wilson
answered upheavals in Haiti and the Dominican Republic with
troops. Wilson plans to aid Latin American nations and prepare
them for democracy inspired hatred rather than friendship.
Reshaping U.S. Diplomacy
How did President’s Taft and Wilson
reshape U.S. diplomacy?
How did President Taft use dollar
Why did President Wilson send troops
into Haiti and the Dominican