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SOL 13
The student will demonstrate
knowledge of the Civil Rights
Movements of the 1950’s and 1960’s
The NAACP win a Giant Decision
• On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in a
unanimous decision that the “separate but
equal” clause was unconstitutional because it
violated the children’s 14 amendment rights by
separating them solely on the classification of
the color of their skin.
– Chief Justice Warren delivered the court’s opinion,
stating that “segregated schools are not equal and
cannot be made equal , and hence they are deprived
of the equal protection of the laws.”
The story behind Brown Vs. Board
of Ed.
• In the Midwest town
of Topeka, Kansas, a
little girl named Linda
Brown had to ride the
bus five miles to
school each day
although a public
school was located
only four blocks from
her house.
Linda Brown
• The school wasn’t full and the
Monroe Elementary School where
Linda Brown attended in 1954.
little girl met all the
requirements to attend- all but
one that is.
• Linda Brown was black and
blacks weren’t allowed to go to
white children’s schools.
• Topeka’s elementary schools
had been segregated since
1896, when the Supreme
Court’s decision in the Plessy v.
Ferguson sanctioned “separate
but equal” classrooms for black
Oliver Hill
• Oliver White Hill (born
1907) is best known
as a civil rights
attorney from
Richmond, Virginia.
His work against
racial discrimination
helped end the
doctrine of “separate
but equal”
Thurgood Marshall is the lead NAACP lawyer at the
Supreme Court Arguments in Brown Vs. the Board
• Made the argument
that segregation was
socially impractical
– If a white parent
wanted the best
education for his child,
should the black child
be denied equal
access to that
education under the
14th Amendment
Virginia’s Segregation Case that
was part of Brown vs. the Board
• In 1951, he took up the cause of the African
American students at the segregated R.R.
Morton High School in Farmville who had walked
out of their dilapidated school. The subsequent
lawsuit, Davis v. County School Board of Prince
Edward County later became on of the five cases
decided under Brown v. Board of Education
before the Supreme Court of the United States
in 1954
Virginia’s Response to Brown Vs.
the Board
• Massive Resistance was a policy declared by the
U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. on February 24,
1956 to unite other white Virginian politicians
and leaders in taking action to prevent school
desegregation after the Brown v. Board of
Education Supreme Court decision in 1954.
– Laws were passed that forbade any integrated
schools from receiving state funds
– Another law created tuition grants which could be
given to students so they could attend a private
schools of their choice
White Flight
• As wealthier white residents abandoned the inner city
neighborhoods, they ultimately left behind increasingly
poor non-white populations whose neighborhoods
rapidly deteriorated in the 1950’s and especially in the
– In many cases even trash collection was halted
– Whites quickly took their tax and investment dollars and services
, such as teachers, grocery stores and clothing retail, with them,
abandoning the cities to the ill-equipped , poorest Americans
– With no local jobs or businesses the neighborhoods disintegrated
and ultimately turned into increasingly poverty-stricken and
crime-ridden slums with failing and dilapidated public schools
The End of Segregated Schools in
• In January 1959, the Virginia Supreme Court declared most of the
General Assembly massive resistance laws unconstitutional, ending
massive resistance at the state level
• When faced with an order to integrate, Prince Edward County closed
its entire school system in September 1959 rather than integrate
– The county kept its entire school system closed until 1964. White
students were able to get educated at the Prince Edward Academy,
which operated as the de facto school system, enrolling K-12 students
at a number of facilities throughout the county.
– Even after the re-opening of the public schools, the Academy remained
segregated, losing its tax-exempt status in 1978. In 1986, it accepted
black students.
1963 March on Washington
• On August 28, 1963, the world was
revolutionized by a major protest of over
250,000 participants. Located in
Washington D.C., the protesters met to
form the largest gathering of people to
that date. For many years to follow, this
event has affected the future.
Virginia’s Apology
• To mark the 50th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court’s
landmark decision that outlawed segregation in public
schools- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, with a
consolidated case from Prince Edward County-Governor
Mark Warner of Virginia publicly apologized to the
forgotten generation of black students for the shameful
chapter of state history and ledged $2 million in
scholarships to allow the middle-aged men and women
from the county to fulfill their long-deferred education
What Was Demanded In The March
On Washington
• Passage of “meaningful’ civil-
rights legislation at this session
of Congress
• Immediate eliminations of all
racial segregation in public
schools throughout the nation
• A federal law prohibiting racial
discrimination in hiring
workmen- either public or
• $2 an hour minimum wage,
across the board, nationwide
Dr. King gives a speech
• Then Martin Luther King Jr. stood to speak. King,
the most popular of all the Civil Rights leaders,
delivered a speech that would be heard on
television stations across the land from 1963 to
the present. It was a speech of hope and
determination, epitomizing the day’s message of
racial harmony, love, and a belief that blacks and
whites could live together in peace. Known as
the “I have a dream” speech.
This even proved the power of non-violent mass protest. It influenced
public opinion to support civil rights legislation
Results of the 1963 March on
• A year later, President Lyndon
Johnson passed the Civil
Rights Act of 1964.
– This was an extensive piece of
legislation that incorporated
many of the measures
promoted at the March, such
• An important ban on federal
funds for programs that
discriminated against blacks
Fair Housing
No discrimination in hiring
• Two years later the Voting
Rights Act of 1965 (Public Law
89-10) outlawed the
requirement that would-be
voters in the U.S. take literacy
tests to qualify to register to
vote, and it provided for
federal registration of voters –
instead of state or local voter
registration which had often
been denied to minorities and
poor voters
• The NAACP’s principal objective is to ensure the political,
educational, social and economic equality of minority
group citizens of the U.S. and eliminate racial
segregation and prejudice
– The NAACP seeks remove all barriers of racial discrimination
through democratic processes within the courts of the U.S.
– This mission is accomplished by seeking the enactment and
enforcement of federal, state, and local laws securing civil rights
– From school desegregation, fair housing, employment and voter
registration, to health and equal economic opportunity, the
NAACP, plays a significant role in establishing legal court
precedents in order to improve the quality of life of in America
for people of color
NAACP Founders
• Included: Ida B.
W.E.B. DuBois
Henry Moscowitz
Mary White Ovington
Oswald Garrison
William English
24th Amendment
• Amendment XXIV (the Twenty-fourth
Amendment) of the United States Constitution
prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning
the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll
tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed
by Congress to the states on August 29, 1962 and was
ratified by the states on January 23, 1964.
Poll taxes had been enacted in eleven Southern states
after Reconstruction as a measure to prevent poor black
and white people from voting, and had been held to be
unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court. At
the time of this amendment's passage, only five states
still retained a poll tax: Virginia, Alabama, Texas,
Arkansas, and Mississippi.
24th Amendment Text
• Section 1. The right of
citizens of the United States
to vote in any primary or
other election for President
or Vice President, for
electors for President or
Vice President, or for
Senator or Representative in
Congress, shall not be
denied or abridged by the
United States or any State
by reason of failure to pay
poll tax or other tax.
Section 2. The Congress
shall have power to enforce
this article by appropriate