* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
SOL 13 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil Rights Movements of the 1950’s and 1960’s The NAACP win a Giant Decision • On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in a unanimous decision that the “separate but equal” clause was unconstitutional because it violated the children’s 14 amendment rights by separating them solely on the classification of the color of their skin. – Chief Justice Warren delivered the court’s opinion, stating that “segregated schools are not equal and cannot be made equal , and hence they are deprived of the equal protection of the laws.” The story behind Brown Vs. Board of Ed. • In the Midwest town of Topeka, Kansas, a little girl named Linda Brown had to ride the bus five miles to school each day although a public school was located only four blocks from her house. Linda Brown • The school wasn’t full and the Monroe Elementary School where Linda Brown attended in 1954. little girl met all the requirements to attend- all but one that is. • Linda Brown was black and blacks weren’t allowed to go to white children’s schools. • Topeka’s elementary schools had been segregated since 1896, when the Supreme Court’s decision in the Plessy v. Ferguson sanctioned “separate but equal” classrooms for black children Oliver Hill • Oliver White Hill (born 1907) is best known as a civil rights attorney from Richmond, Virginia. His work against racial discrimination helped end the doctrine of “separate but equal” Thurgood Marshall is the lead NAACP lawyer at the Supreme Court Arguments in Brown Vs. the Board • Made the argument that segregation was socially impractical – If a white parent wanted the best education for his child, should the black child be denied equal access to that education under the 14th Amendment Virginia’s Segregation Case that was part of Brown vs. the Board • In 1951, he took up the cause of the African American students at the segregated R.R. Morton High School in Farmville who had walked out of their dilapidated school. The subsequent lawsuit, Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County later became on of the five cases decided under Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 Virginia’s Response to Brown Vs. the Board • Massive Resistance was a policy declared by the U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. on February 24, 1956 to unite other white Virginian politicians and leaders in taking action to prevent school desegregation after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954. – Laws were passed that forbade any integrated schools from receiving state funds – Another law created tuition grants which could be given to students so they could attend a private schools of their choice White Flight • As wealthier white residents abandoned the inner city neighborhoods, they ultimately left behind increasingly poor non-white populations whose neighborhoods rapidly deteriorated in the 1950’s and especially in the 1960’s. – In many cases even trash collection was halted – Whites quickly took their tax and investment dollars and services , such as teachers, grocery stores and clothing retail, with them, abandoning the cities to the ill-equipped , poorest Americans – With no local jobs or businesses the neighborhoods disintegrated and ultimately turned into increasingly poverty-stricken and crime-ridden slums with failing and dilapidated public schools The End of Segregated Schools in Virginia • In January 1959, the Virginia Supreme Court declared most of the General Assembly massive resistance laws unconstitutional, ending massive resistance at the state level • When faced with an order to integrate, Prince Edward County closed its entire school system in September 1959 rather than integrate – The county kept its entire school system closed until 1964. White students were able to get educated at the Prince Edward Academy, which operated as the de facto school system, enrolling K-12 students at a number of facilities throughout the county. – Even after the re-opening of the public schools, the Academy remained segregated, losing its tax-exempt status in 1978. In 1986, it accepted black students. 1963 March on Washington • On August 28, 1963, the world was revolutionized by a major protest of over 250,000 participants. Located in Washington D.C., the protesters met to form the largest gathering of people to that date. For many years to follow, this event has affected the future. Virginia’s Apology • To mark the 50th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court’s landmark decision that outlawed segregation in public schools- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, with a consolidated case from Prince Edward County-Governor Mark Warner of Virginia publicly apologized to the forgotten generation of black students for the shameful chapter of state history and ledged $2 million in scholarships to allow the middle-aged men and women from the county to fulfill their long-deferred education dreams What Was Demanded In The March On Washington • Passage of “meaningful’ civil- rights legislation at this session of Congress • Immediate eliminations of all racial segregation in public schools throughout the nation • A federal law prohibiting racial discrimination in hiring workmen- either public or private • $2 an hour minimum wage, across the board, nationwide Dr. King gives a speech • Then Martin Luther King Jr. stood to speak. King, the most popular of all the Civil Rights leaders, delivered a speech that would be heard on television stations across the land from 1963 to the present. It was a speech of hope and determination, epitomizing the day’s message of racial harmony, love, and a belief that blacks and whites could live together in peace. Known as the “I have a dream” speech. This even proved the power of non-violent mass protest. It influenced public opinion to support civil rights legislation Results of the 1963 March on Washington • A year later, President Lyndon Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. – This was an extensive piece of legislation that incorporated many of the measures promoted at the March, such as • An important ban on federal • • funds for programs that discriminated against blacks Fair Housing No discrimination in hiring • Two years later the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-10) outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the U.S. take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters – instead of state or local voter registration which had often been denied to minorities and poor voters NAACP • The NAACP’s principal objective is to ensure the political, educational, social and economic equality of minority group citizens of the U.S. and eliminate racial segregation and prejudice – The NAACP seeks remove all barriers of racial discrimination through democratic processes within the courts of the U.S. – This mission is accomplished by seeking the enactment and enforcement of federal, state, and local laws securing civil rights – From school desegregation, fair housing, employment and voter registration, to health and equal economic opportunity, the NAACP, plays a significant role in establishing legal court precedents in order to improve the quality of life of in America for people of color NAACP Founders • Included: Ida B. • • • • • Wells W.E.B. DuBois Henry Moscowitz Mary White Ovington Oswald Garrison Villiard William English Walling 24th Amendment • Amendment XXIV (the Twenty-fourth • Amendment) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on August 29, 1962 and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964. Poll taxes had been enacted in eleven Southern states after Reconstruction as a measure to prevent poor black and white people from voting, and had been held to be unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court. At the time of this amendment's passage, only five states still retained a poll tax: Virginia, Alabama, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi. 24th Amendment Text • Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.