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Kathleen Stassen Berger
Part I
Chapter Two
Heredity and Environment
What Theories Do
Grand Theories
Emergent Theories
What Theories Contribute
Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield
Tattoon, M.A.
1
What Theories Do
• developmental theories
– a systematic statement of principles and
generalizations that provides a coherent
framework for understanding how and
why people change as they grow older
• lead to pivotal hypotheses
• generate discover
• offer practical guidance
2
What Theories Do
• developmental theories
– grand theories
• describe universal processes and development
throughout the entire life span
• offers a framework for interpreting and
understanding…change and development of all
individuals
• some are emergent theories – new systematic
and comprehensive theories of the future
3
Grand Theories
• psychoanalytic
• behaviorism (learning theory)
• cognitive
– grand in that they are…
• comprehensive
• enduring
• widely applied
4
Psychoanalytic Theory
• a grand theory of human
development that holds that irrational,
unconscious drives and motives,
often originating in childhood,
underlies human behavior
5
Psychoanalytic Theory
• Freud 1856-1936
– development in the first six years has
three stages, each characterized by sexual
pleasure…
•
•
•
•
infancy – the mouth – the oral stage
early childhood – the anus – the anal stage
preschool years – the penis – the phallic stage
beginning of adolescence through death –
latency – genital stages
6
Psychoanalytic Theory
•
Erikson – 1902-1994
–
a follower of Freud, interested in
•
•
•
–
culture diversity
social change
psychological crises
described eight developmental stages
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair
7
Psychoanalytic Theory
8
Behaviorism Theory
• Watson 1878 – 1958
– emphasis on unconscious
• hidden urges
• all behavior is learned
• specific laws of learning apply
to conditioning
9
Behaviorism Theory
10
Behaviorism Theory
• Law of Behavior - learning theories
– …all behavior is learned step by step
• conditioning
– the processes by which responses become linked to
particular stimuli
• classical conditioning - respondent conditioning
– a person or animal is conditioned to associate a neutral
stimulus with a meaningful stimulus
• operant conditioning - instrumental conditioning
– learning process by which a particular action is followed by
something desired – the person will repeat the action
• reinforcement
– A technique for conditioning behavior where behavior is
followed by something desired
11
Behaviorism Theory
• Social Learning Theory
– an extension of
behaviorism that
emphasizes the
influence that other
people have over a
person’s behavior
• modeling
– The central process of
social learning by which a
person observes the
actions of others and then
copies them
12
Cognitive Theory
• The third grand theory
– emphasized the structure and
development of thought
processes
13
Cognitive Theory
• Jean Piaget’s 4 Stages
– sensorimotor
– preoperational
– concrete operational
– formal operational
14
Cognitive Theory
15
Cognitive Theory
• Cognitive equilibrium—state of mental
balance.
• If threatened, how do we achieve
equilibrium again?
– Assimilation: incorporate new events into
existing schemas
– Accommodation: change schema
16
Emergent Theories
…multicultural and multidisciplinary ,
developed not only by men of European
ancestry but also by many nonWestern, non-White, and female
scientists…
17
Sociocultural Theory
an emergent theory that holds that
development results from the dynamic
interaction between each person and
the surrounding social and
cultural forces
Lev Vygotsky
18
Sociocultural Theory
• cultural variation
– adult responses are shaped by culture
– society provides not only customs but also the
tools and theories
• guided participation
– a technique in which skilled mentors help novices
lean not only by providing instruction, but also by
allowing direct, shared involvement in the activity
19
Sociocultural Theory
• Zone of proximal development
– skills, knowledge, and concepts that
the learner is close to acquiring but
cannot master without help
20
Zone of proximal development
21
Epigenetic Theory
• An emergent theory of development
that considers both the genetic
origins of behavior (within each
person and within each species) and
the direct, systematic influences that
environmental forces have over time
on genes
22
Genetic Adaptation
• Selective adaptation
– the process by which humans and other
organisms gradually adjust to their
environment
– genes for the traits that are most useful
will become more frequent, thus making
survival of species more likely.
23
What Theories Contribute
• Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of the
importance of early childhood experiences.
• Behaviorism has shown effect of the immediate
environment on learning.
• Cognitive theory shows how intellectual process and
thinking affect actions.
• Sociocultural theory has reminded us of the importance of
culture in learning.
• Epigenetic theory reminds us of the power of genes and
their interaction with the environment.
24
The Nature-Nurture Controversy
• Nature
– The genes that people inherit
• Nurture
– To all the environmental influences
25
The Nature-Nurture Controversy
• Nature and Nurture Always interact
– Heredity vs. Environment
How much of any characteristic,
behavior, or pattern of development is
the result of genes and how much is
the result of experience?
26
Theoretical Perspectives on…
• Hyperactivity
– Nature
• They are usually boys who have male relatives with the same
problem
• They are overactive in every context, home as well as school
• They are often calmed by stimulants, such as Ritalin, Adderall,
and even coffee
– Nurture
• The rapid increase in ADHA (from 1 to 5 percent of all U.S.
children within the past 50 years) cannot be genetic, since
selective adaptation takes centuries
• Many environmental factors correlate with ADHD, including
crowded homes, television, lead, food additives, and rigid
teaching
27
Theoretical Perspectives on…
• Homosexuality
– Nature vs. Nurture
• Children raised by homosexual couples
(either adopted or the biological offspring of
one of the parents) become heterosexual or
homosexual in about the same proportions
as children raised by heterosexual and do
not seem particularly rebellious or
emotionally disturbed.
28
No Answer Yet
29