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Transcript
Chapter 16
Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas
Mrs. M. Brown
Mayas
• Settlements from central
Mexico to the northern
part of Central America
(Mesoamerica)
•Formed city-states with their
own king and government
•Raised and ate maize (corn)
•Trade helped hold the citystates together
•Traded forest goods,
cacao beans (chocolate),
jade, obsidian
Mayas
• Built stone pyramids with
temples on the top to honor
local kings
•Believed that the gods could
be harmful or helpful
•Offered blood and
occasionally human
sacrifices to please their
gods.
Mayas
• Made a 365-day calendar and built
observatories
•Could measure time accurately
•Used a form of hieroglyphics for writing
THE END
Not enough food?
People rebelled against their rulers and
fled the cities for safety?
Drought?
Weakened soil or increased population?
By the 1500’s Mayan power was gone
Aztecs
• Settled in central and
southern Mexico
•War, tribute, and trade
built the empire
•Built canals and causeways
to connect their island
capital, Tenochtitlan, to the
rest of the empire
•Chinampas – floating
gardens to raise food
Page 476
Aztecs
• A highly structured
society with only one
ruler—the emperor
•Worshipped many gods
and regularly made human
sacrifices
•Used captives as their
sacrifices
•Loved riddles
Aztecs
• In the late 1400’s Spanish conquistadors arrived
seeking gold.
•At first, Moctezuma, the king, welcomed Hernando
Cortes because it was believed that Cortes was an
Aztec god who had promised to return in 1519.
•Gave the Spanish gold but the Spanish wanted
more and killed the Aztecs
•By 1521 the Spanish had conquered the Aztec Empire
Incas
• Located in South Americabegan in Peru and stretched
from Ecuador to central Chile
•12 million people lived in the
empire
•Most people worked for the
strong central government. They
had no merchants or markets
instead they had the:
-Mita system = a
labor tax system; the
government distributed
all food and goods
Incas
• Incas thought that their ruler
was related to the sun god.
•They rarely sacrificed humans,
instead they sacrificed llamas,
cloth, or food
•Incas made mummies to preserve
the dead rulers’ bodies.
•Excelled in masonry work(stonework) - NO cement was used
•Built a major road network to
connect the empire
Incas
• Had no written language but used
knotted ropes (quipus) to keep records
•Known for their beautiful textile designs
•Francisco Pizarro killed their leader (even after the
leader had given him a room full of gold!)
•By 1537 the Spanish controlled the entire Inca
Empire
Constructed Response Question
Yes, you MUST answer this on the
test!
Do you think the takeover of these
civilizations helped or hurt world history?
Give at least 3 important reasons to support
your point of view.