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Transcript
Chapter 2
Social Aspects of Aging
Objectives:
• Discuss trends in ethnic aging, & define
ageism & state examples of myths.
• Discuss or describe the media’s portrayal of
the elderly; political involvement of the
elderly;&attitudes about retirement.
• Discuss diverse lifestyles & “late life” crisis
experienced by elderly couples.
Objectives-continued:
• Contrast types of relationships between
aging parent & adult child & between
siblings in later life.
• Discuss the importance of friendships to an
aged individual.
• Identify the 5 major categories of
grandparents & state the major source of
income for those > 65 yrs.
Objectives- continued
• Describe the role of good nutrition & the
importance of fitness & exercise to the
aging body.
• Identify reasons why health promotion &
disease prevention programs are so
beneficial to aging individuals, & what the
impact of health care financing issues have
on these programs.
• Culturally,aging,as well as
treatment of the elderly,is
often determined by the
value systems of an ethnic
group.
• This may determine the
way the older person
views aging.
• Some ethnic groups view
the elder as an authority
figure who resides in a
position of power within
the family & community.
• Some see the elder as
added responsibility &
burden.
Ethnic Aging:
Ageism:systematic stereotyping &
discrimination
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
African-American
Hispanic
Native-American
Asian-American
Japanese-American
Chinese-Vietnamese
Other Southeast
Asians
Myths about ageism:
• Majority of old people
(>65) are senile,
disoriented, or
demented.
• No interest in sexual
relations.
• Feel miserable most of
the time.
• Majority of old people are
unable to adapt to change.
• Difficult to learn
something new.
• Old people tend to be
pretty much alike
• They enter a “Fantasy
Land”-rosy & carefree.
Health Care Professionals:
• Research has shown that
health care professionals
are significantly more
negative in their attitudes
to older patients than
toward younger ones.
• Older workers are thought
to be ridged, inflexible, &
incapable of learning new
skills.
• Economic discrimination
includes employment or
working conditions.
Many negative terms to describe
the elderly:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“geezer”
“old hag”
“fogey”
“old duffer”
“dirty old man”
“fossil”
“old goat”
• “battle ax”
• “out to pasture”
• “over the hill”
Media’s Attitude Toward the
Elderly:
• Play a major role in
stereotyping:
• Portray elderly as “more
comical, stubborn,
eccentric, & foolish than
other characters”
• “narrow-minded, poor
health,
• Floundering financially,
sexually dissatisfied, &
unable to make decisions.
Commercials are the worst:
• Older actors in
commercials for
laxatives;skin
moisturizers;gas
elimination meds;
analgesics,hair
coloring products.
• Advertisers=realize
elders have $$ to
spend.
Political Involvement:
• AARP: Amer.Assoc.
of Retired Persons
• 35 million members
• 1000 employees in
Washington D.C.
• Major mission:
disseminate info &
support research on
aging.
Gray Panthers
•
•
•
•
Smaller but more militant.
75,000 members.
Founded by Maggie Kuhn
Believe that “gray power”
should be the cutting edge
of social change by
establishing
intergenerational bonds
necessary for real social
change-the continuity of
life.
Gray Panthers:
• Continue to work for
affordable & adequate
housing for all,the
elimination of
homelessness, & the
promotion of innovative
work concepts that include
flexible work/retirement
schedules for all.
National Council of Senior
Citizens:
• Examples of “gray” power:
• 1965-Medicare & Medicaid
enacted
• 1967-Age discrimination in
employment made illegal
• 1972-Social Security
indexed to inflation
• 1978-Age of mandatory
retirement pushed back to 70
• 1986-Mandatory retirement
eliminated for almost all
workers.
Retirement (Eliminate term)
• Replace with Third
Age (G.P.Mulley)
• 1st age-childhood &
preparation for work
• 2nd age-employment
& family raising
• 3rd age-old
term:retirement
• 4th age-dependence
1991 Survey by Harris:
• Individuals must prepare
for longer & more
productive lives. 40% of
older respondents
expressed interest in
furthering their education.
• Employers need to
encourage older workers
to participate in life-long
learning & training. Can
be done by creation of
flexible workplaces &
work hours.
• Educational institutions
must become more aware
of the needs of older
learners. Elders are
encouraged to see the
relevance of educational
endeavors.
• Self-paced instruction &
physical environment are
important. (Internet)
• Retirement: 3 phases-disenchantment phase,
reorientation, &
termination phase
More…
Three phases:
• Disenchantment: one
realizes that retirement is
not what was expected.
• Reorientation: involves
acceptance & adjustment
to the retirement role.
• Termination: sometimes
occurs, in which
depression, illness, and/or
disability convert one’s
status to care receiver or
patient.
Studies in men:
• Depression, illness, &
death increase fairly
dramatically within 35 years after
retirement.
• This is because work
satisfaction is the best
predictor of longevity.
Family & Social Roles:
• The Aging Couple: a late
life crisis is to be
expected.
• Aging Parent & Adult
Child
• Siblings
• Friends
• Grand parenting: 5 types-Distance figures; fun
seekers; surrogate parents;
• formal; reservoirs of
family wisdom.
Financial Status of the Elderly
• Social Security:
Minimum $597 per
month.
Health Perspectives:
• Nutrition: 25% of
persons >65 suffer
from malnutrition.
• Fitness & Exercise:
• Exercise increases the
number of synapses
between brain
neurons.
Health Care Finances:
• Elderly spend more
money on long-term
care than any other
type of health care.
• Medicare coverage is
limited.
• Long term insurance is
expensive.