World Religions Judaism • Jews believe in one god. • Their holy book is called the Torah which consists of Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, and Deuteronomy. • The Tanakh is made up of the Torah, the Prophets (Nev’im) and the Writings (Ki’tuvim) • The Ten Commandments were given to Moses from G-d on Mt. Sinai. Judaism • How did Abraham go from polytheistic to monotheistic? – Midrash story • G-d made a sacred covenant with Abraham that his descendants would be plentiful and would settle in the Promised land. • Social Justice • Religion and a Culture • 14 million followers • No Original sin. People sin and atone for their sins Types of Judaism • There are 4 types of Judaism: – Orthodox – Conservative – Reform – Reconstructionist • There are 2 cultural types of Jews – Ashkenazi – Sephardic Jewish Holy Cities • Jerusalem Jewish holidays • All Jewish holidays start at sundown and end at sundown • Shabbat (Sabbath) – Friday night to Saturday night • Big holidays – Passover – Yom Kippur – Sukkot Other holidays • Other not as important holidays – Rosh Hasannah – Hannukkah – Purim Bellringer • Turn to page 114 in your textbook and fill in your civilization charts. • When you finish that on a piece of paper in your three-pronged folder answer the following questions: – What do you remember from yesterday about the different religions? – What similarities do you see between the religions? Differences? • Choose two religions to compare and contrast History of Islam • Developed in the Middle East during the 7th century • Founded by the Prophet Muhammad • Muhammad was a descendent of Ishmael, Abraham’s son. • Muhammad lived in Mecca. He went to a cave to find solitude. In this cave he was visited by the angel Gabriel. Gabriel told Muhammad the word of G-d, which Muhammad wrote down and is the basis of the Quran. • Muhammad preached the belief of One G-d to the people of Mecca. They ran him out of town and he fled to Medina. Islam facts • • • • • • Means “Submission” Followers are called Muslims “one who submits” Holy book is the Quran One G-d called Allah 1.5 Billion followers Believe that Jesus was a prophet of G-d, but not divine • Respect “Followers of the Book” ( Jews and Christians) Beliefs of Islam • 5 pillars of Islam – Shahadah – Salat – Zakat – Sawm – Hajj • Don’t believe in original sin • Salvation through good works Holy Cities of Islam • Medina • Mecca – Ka’aba (house of G-d built by Abraham and Ishmael) – Non-Muslims are not allowed to enter the city • Jerusalem – Dome of the Rock – Muhammad ascended to heaven to meet prophets Types of Islam • After the death of Muhammad leadership was in question • Sunni – Believe that the new leader should be elected • Shia – Believe that leadership should have gone to Muhammad’s cousin/son in law. That it should remain in the family Islamic Holidays • Begin at sundown • Eid Al-Fitr – Celebrates the end of Ramadan • Eid Al-Adha – Celebrated on the 10th day of the last month of the Islamic calendar Christianity • Jesus was a Rabbi from Galilee who preached about love. The Romans were in charge of the area. • Jesus was crucified on orders of Pontius Pilate. Christian beliefs • 2.2 Billion followers • One G-d who exists in three parts (the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit) • The holy book of Christians is the Bible • Jesus is the son of G-d and died for people’s sins. • Three days after Jesus was crucified, he was resurrected. • People are born with sin • Salvation by accepting Jesus (Protestant) – Catholics through Jesus and tithing and Church doctrine • Distinct heaven and hell History of Christianity • After Jesus’ death, his disciples began to spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire • Christians were persecuted until 313 when Constantine converted with the Edict of Milan • Council of Nicaea solidified the beliefs of Christianity denouncing some as heretics Types of Christianity • Roman Catholic • Greek Orthodox • Protestant Christian Holidays • Two big holidays – Christmas – Easter Documents • We will break up into small groups. Each group will read a passage from one of the holy books. • Which religion is the passage from? • As you read, take notes on how the passage highlights important aspects of the religion. • The groups will then switch to a different holy book passage. Compare and Contrast • In small groups, you will brainstorm the similarities and differences between the different religions. • We will then share answers in the large group. • We will then discuss how to write a good history essay.