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The Ancient Israelites
Chapter 2 Lesson 4
Introduction
Ancient Israelites
• Small kingdom in Southwest Asia
• Ancestors of the Jewish people
• Old Testament of the Bible
Abraham
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Originally Abram
Born in Ur
Worshipped one God – monotheism
God “spoke” to him
Covenant – Special Agreement with God
Canaan
Changed his name as a promise to God
Isaac –Jewish
Ishmael - Arab
Moses and the Ten Commandments
• Abraham Isaac Jacob (Israel) 12 sons
• Jacob’s 12 sons and their ancestors became
known as Israelites
• Famine – Israelites went to Egypt for food and
work
• Later enslaved by Egyptian Rulers
• Moses led a revolt against Egyptians
• Exodus – journey back to Canaan
The Ten Commandments
• Given to Moses from God
• A set of laws for responsible
behavior
• Important part of Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam
• All of these stories – First five
books of the Hebrew Bible
(Torah)
Israel and Judah
• Returned to Canaan – Named it the Land of
Israel
• Saul – First King 1020 BC
• King David – built up Jerusalem (died in 961
BC)
• King Solomon (David’s son) – Split into
northern (Israel) and southern kingdom (Judah)
– King Solomon was known for his great wisdom
Israel and Judah
• Israel–Conquered by Assyrians 721 BC
• Judah–Conquered by Babylonians 586 BC
• Judeans were enslaved by Babylonians, and
exiled them to Babylonia.
• Babylonians conquered by Persians
• They set the Judeans free, returned to Jerusalem
• They rebuilt Jerusalem
• Israelites were no where to be found
Judah
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Romans came and conquered Judah
Judah became Judaea
AD 70 – Romans destroyed the Temple
AD 130 – Judaeans kicked out of Jerusalem
Jerusalem became Roman Province of Palestine
Movement Through the World
• After Babylonian exile, Jews settled throughout
the world – Diaspora
• Diaspora - spreading of seeds
• Realized they did not need the Temple in
Jerusalem to worship God
• Synagogues all over the world