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Chapter Two:
Achieving Psychological Health
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Psychological Health
• Also known as emotional wellness
• A broadly based concept pertaining to
cognitive functioning in conjunction with
the way people
– Express emotions
– Cope with stress, adversity, and success
– Adapt to changes in themselves and their
environment
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Psychological Health
• Biopsychological model
– Biological factors (serotonin/dopamine)
– Psychological factors (attitude/self concept)
– Social factors (friends, parents)
• Positive self-concept internal picture of self
• Positive self-esteem pride, self worth
• Higher level of emotional intelligence
ability to read others and self
gardner
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Howard Gardner
multiple intelligences
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Characteristics of Psychologically
Healthy People
•
•
•
•
Accept themselves and others
Like themselves
Give and receive care, love, and support
Express full range of emotions (positive and
negative)
• Accepts life’s disappointments
• Accept their mistakes
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Characteristics of Psychologically
Healthy People (cont.)
•
•
•
•
•
Express empathy and concern for others
Take care of themselves
Trust others as well as themselves
Establish goals
Can function both independently and
interdependently
• Lead a health-enhancing lifestyle
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Self-Esteem
 Having pride in yourself
 Treating yourself with respect
 Considering yourself valuable, important,
worthy
 Feeling good about yourself
 Having self-confidence, being self-assured
 Accepting yourself
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Emotional Intelligence
•
•
Ability to understand others and act
wisely in human relations
Five primary domains:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Know your emotions
Manage your emotions
Motivate yourself
Recognize emotions in others
Handle relationships
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Personality
• Specific patterns of behavior and traits that
identify and characterize an individual
–
–
–
–
–
–
Thoughts
Feelings
Behaviors
Motivation
Instinct
Temperament
• Two factors that can influence personality:
1.
2.
nature (innate factors)
nurture (environmental factors)
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Self-actualization: The highest level of
psychological health at which one reaches her
or his highest potential and values truth, beauty,
goodness, faith, love, humor, and ingenuity
• Basic needs: Essential and fundamental needs
• Metaneeds: Secondary concerns that can be
addressed only after basic needs are met
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Other Characteristics that Influence
Psychological Health
• Normal range of emotions
• Creative expression
– Nonconformity
– Independence
– Motivation
– Curiosity
– Persistence
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Other Characteristics that Influence
Psychological Health
• Spiritual health
– Sense of purpose, direction, and awareness
– Morals, ethics, intrinsic values, and beliefs
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Keys to Psychological Health
• Cultivate a sense of humor to build a
positive outlook on life
Laugh - it is contagious !
It makes you live longer-positive feedback
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Keys to Psychological Health
• Develop communication skills to foster
improved social relationships
– Verbal communication—be a skilled sender and
listener
– Nonverbal communication—facial expression, eye
contact, personal space, body posture. Possibly
says more than the words
– Managing conflict
• Listen
• Focus on what to say and how to say it
• Use assertive communication with “I” statements IMHO
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Optimistic Approach to Life
• Learned helplessness (Pavlov) vs. learned
optimism (Seligman) break the cycle!
• Three key factors
– Permanence—“never,” “always,” “forever”
• Pessimists view causes of bad events as permanent and
tend to give up easily
swept away by river currents
– Pervasiveness
• Universal explanations vs. situation specific explanations
– Personalization - attribution style
• Internal vs. external explanatory style
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Optimistic Approach to Life
• Building optimism—reframe
thinking about events
– Change thoughts and beliefs
– Create strategies for solving
problems
– Be persistent, work to overcome
obstacles
Self delusion is the key to happiness
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Proactive Approach to Life
• Proactive approach promotes
better control of one’s overall life
– Construct mental pictures
– Accept mental pictures
– Undertake new experiences
– Reframe mental pictures
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Why does this work?
Our experiences are altered by our mental state. The lens in which
we look at things affects our perception of events.
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Psychological Disorders
• Mood disorders - depression, SAD,
bipolar
• Anxiety disorders- panic, OCD, GAD,
phobia, PTSD
• Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD)
• Schizophrenia- John Nash, paranoia,
voices
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Mood Disorders: Depression
• Affects about one in ten Americans
• Symptoms include
–
–
–
–
Depressed mood
Lack of motivation, lack of interest in usual activities
Social withdrawal
Disturbed sleep, eating habits
• Risk factors
– Family history
– Environmental factors
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Mood Disorders: Depression
Treatment age
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Rate of identification
Mood Disorders: Depression
• Treatments
– Counseling
– Medication SSRIs, MAOIsPhenelzine, Li, TADs
– Herbal supplements?
– Exercise
– Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Neurotransmitters involved in
Mood
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Nerves
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Basic nerve function
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Mood Disorders: Seasonal Affective
Disorder
• Develops in response to changes in the
seasons
• Treatments
– Counseling
– Antidepressant medications
– Light therapy
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Mood Disorders: Postpartum
Depression
• Affects women in the weeks and months
following childbirth
• Can last from a few days to more than a
year
• Different from postpartum psychosis,
which is marked by hallucinations and
delusions
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Suicide
• Third leading cause of death for young
adults
• Men have higher rates of suicide than
women
• Risk factors include
– Little or no social support
– Family history of mental illness and/or suicide
– Problems with drugs or alcohol
– Possession of a firearm
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Thoughts on
Suicide
The only time procrastination is perfectly acceptable
A permanent solution to a temporary problem
Will ruin someone’s day, and who wants that on their head?
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Mood Disorders: Bipolar Disorder
• Characterized by alternating episodes of
depression and mania
• Symptoms of mania
– Excessive energy
– Racing thoughts and rapid speech
– Impulsive and/or reckless behavior
• Treatment
– Psychotherapy
– Mood stabilizing medications
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Anxiety Disorders
• Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
– Intensity and frequency of worry that is
excessive and out of proportion to the situation
•
•
•
•
Panic disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Phobias (social phobia, specific phobia)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD)
• An estimated 15 million Americans suffer
from ADHD
• Symptoms often seen in adult cases:
– Difficulty getting organized
– Chronic procrastination
– Frequently searching for high stimulation
– Low tolerance for frustration
– Low self-esteem
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Schizophrenia
• Characterized by profound distortion of
thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior
• Symptoms may include
–
–
–
–
Delusions
Hallucinations
Disorganized thinking and speech
Catatonic behavior
• Treatment with antipsychotic medications and
psychotherapy
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Health Providers for Psychological
Disorders
• Psychiatrists (MDs)
– Treatment often focuses more on medical
management and less on talking through problems
• Psychologists
– Includes a variety of subspecialties
– Treatment generally focuses on behavior therapy and
problem solving
• Counselors
• Social workers
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Approaches in Treating
Psychological Disorders
• Dynamic therapy
– Focuses on forces underlying an individual’s
problems; may look at early childhood experiences
• Humanistic therapy
– Client-centered approach based on idea that people
can naturally grow in positive and constructive ways
• Behavior therapy
– Focuses on behavior modification
• Cognitive-behavioral therapy
– Focuses on changing cognitive patterns in order to
change behavior and emotional state
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Approaches in Treating
Psychological Disorders (cont.)
• Solution-focused therapy
– Goal-oriented approach that stresses looking
for solutions rather than dwelling on problems
• Couples and family therapy
• Group therapy
– Provides support; group members can also
learn from one another’s experiences
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
ADHD tips
Diet low in refined items
Study atmosphere without distractions
Schedule structure
adderall, concerta, ritalin
doodlers
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Today’s discussion questions
If there are certain pills that can increase our feelings of happiness, then
shouldn’t we all be taking them to achieve the maximum level?
A recent article states that beyond 75 K/year - money can’t buy happiness.
Why is this?
You can live a week without food, but you can’t live a day without a rationalization
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
References
Money can’t buy happiness
http://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/healthday/642850.html
Optimists live longer
http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE5247NO20090305
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.