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Many Rivers to One Ocean
•(due Weds, 2/11) Read 41-45; do 45 A
•(due Thurs, 2/12) Read 45-48; do 48 C
•(due Fri, 2/13) Read 48-53; Write 2 pghs:
“What are the differences between Indian and
Western ideas regarding occupation, activities
& goals proper to one’s social status, age and
place in life? What are the positive & negative
aspects of each?
• (due Thurs., 2/19) Read pp. 53-61a
• (“) Written reflection (1-2 pghs): “Of the 3
paths to liberation, with which do you most
connect? Why? Compare to your own faith?
• (Fri.,2/20) “Are You Ready for some
YOGA?!... Yeah, baby!!!
• (Weds., 2/25) Read rest of Chapter, p. 61
onward/ prep for test
• (Fri., 2/27) TEST on Ch. 3: Hinduism
Reality and Human Destiny
“There is only one God,
but endless are his aspects
and endless are his names.
Call him by any name and worship him
in any aspect that pleases you,
you are sure to see him.”
-Shri Ramakrishna
“Like drops of water in the ocean,
we are all one.
We may appear to be different & distinct,
but during moments of deeper awareness
we realize that all is one.
Our true glory lies in recognizing the truth
of our inseparable identity
with all that is.”
• “All is One”/ Reality as unity vs. duality
• Indefinable, unknowable & limitless
• “Neti, neti” (“Not this, not that”)
• It is the very essence of everything and IS
• = illusion, blindness
• Seeing
– Parts vs. whole
– Many vs. the One
– Separateness vs.
• The eternal Self… that is,
Who you really, really are
• And, since ALL is One
Reality (Brahman), so are
• Atman IS Brahman and
Brahman is Atman
• Liberation, release, salvation
• From what?
– Maya… blindness to reality, to the way things
really and simply are
• How?
– Ah… later! 
Reality & Human
“wheel” of rebirth
Reincarnation (“taking on flesh again”) of
individual soul
Sometimes called transmigration, or the
passing of a soul from one life-form to
Samsara ends when moksha is achieved
 Literally, “action” or “deeds”
 Moral law of cause & effect
 Every action produces its justified effect
 Permanently recorded energy
 Only humans can affect their own karma
 Ethical duty or “right action”, according to
divine order of reality
 A total way of life vs. “code” of actions
 Right action produces “good” karma
Hindu Castes
Brahmin – priests
Kshatriya – warriors &
Untouchables – outcastes
 Vaishya – producers (farmers,
merchants, artisans, etc.)
 Shudra – servants & laborers
(Gandhi: “Harijan”: “God’s
Four Stages of Life
 Student
 Householder
 Forest Dweller
 Wandering Ascetic (Sannyasin)
 Characterized
by study of the
Vedas and
other sacred
 Marked by
pursuing a
career and
raising a family
Forest Dweller
 Requiring retreat
from worldly bonds
to engage fully in the
spiritual quest
Wandering Ascetic (Sannyasin)
 Involving
returning to
society while
detached from
social life
Four Goals of Life
 Kama –
pleasure is
sought, but
within the limits
of dharma
Four Goals of Life
 Artha – material
success is sought,
along with social
power and prestige
Four Goals of Life
 Dharma –
harmony with
dharma is the
primary concern
Four Goals of Life
 Moksha – the goal is
to achieve the
infinite being,
awareness and bliss
of liberation
Three Paths of Liberation
Karma Marga
Jnana Marga
Bhakti Marga
Karma Marga
 The “path of works” or “action”
 For those who prefer active life
 Also called “karma yoga” (yoga=
“discipline” or “path”)
 Focused on dharma
Jnana Marga
 The “path of knowledge”
 For those who enjoy philosophy, learning &
 Also called jnana yoga
 3 philosophical schools:
Jnana Marga: Yoga
 Sometimes in a
separate category
(a 4th path)
 “Hatha yoga”
 Aimed at
experience of
samadhi (see pp.
Bhakti Marga
 The “Path of Devotion”
 Also called bhakti yoga
 For those who are more
naturally emotional
 Focus: Personal
devotion to
Bhakti Marga
 Major gods/goddesses:
Brahma: Creator
Vishnu: Preserver
Shiva: Destroyer
 Gods: not supreme
“beings”, but “aspects”
of Being Itself
Within You, Without You
By George Harrison
We were talking
About the space between us all
And the people
Who hide themselves behind a wall of illusion
Never glimpse the truth
Then it’s far too late
When they pass away…
We were talking
About the love we all could share
When we find it
To try our best to hold it there
With our love
We could save the world
If they only knew…
Try to realize
it’s all
within yourself no one else
can make you change
And to see you’re really only
very small and
Life flows on
within you and without you
we were talking
about the love that’s gone so cold
and the people
who gain the world and lose their soul
they don’t know, they can’t see
are you one of them?
When you’ve seen beyond yourself then
You may find
Peace of mind
Is waiting there
And the time will come
When you see
We’re all One,
And Life flows on
Within you and without you…