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Chapter Objectives
Identify the first main threat to the British colonies-French quest for empire-and
the four wars that resulted
Recall major leaders and battles of the French and Indian War
Outline the causes, course, and consequences of the French and Indian War
Discuss the British victory over the French at the Battle of Quebec and the
battle’s role as a turning point in North American history
Explain why military victory can bring disastrous consequences as when
Britain won the French and Indian War but soon lost the American colonies
Compare arguments on the traditional rights of English people and the
legitimacy of asking the colonies to pay a fair share of the costs of empire
Trace the events that led to America’s break from Britain, starting in 1760
Explain the social, economic, and political tensions that led to conflict between
colonists and their governments.
Discuss the factors that created a national consciousness among American
“Skirmishes between France
and England”
Colonial Name
1. King William’s War
European Name
War of the League
of Augsburg
2. Queen Anne’s War War of the Spanish Succession
3. King George’s War War of the Austrian Succession
4. French and Indian War
Seven Years War
English policy towards colonies
• Benign Neglect: English policy towards the
colonies that left the American colonies to
effectively run themselves. It was not in
the best interest of the British to interfere
in the day to day operations of colonial
• Some efforts at political control prior to
1700 failed.
• Economic policy to regulate colonial
• Reintegrate colonial economy into the
British economic empire
France was the first country to
practice mercantilism
1. Simplify complicated French tax structure so to
know how much money is coming in
Tax land, not merchants
2. Impose tariffs on imports of enemies (England
and Holland) and subsidize French goods (make
them cheaper so England and Holland will buy
3. Coordinate colonies to serve interests of French
economy: Colonies were for the benefit of the
mother country
Mercantilist beliefs
• Finite amount of wealth in the world
• For a nation to become wealthy, it must
take from other countries
• Trade=war.
• Regulate trade so to make your country
invulnerable to the economic aggression
of others
• Erect trade barriers against others
England/Britain Navigation Acts
• System of trade regulations
1651: Parliament only allowed shipping of colonial goods to
England in English ships and majority of crews be
1662: Goods imported to England in English made ships
only, ¾ of crew English and certain goods shipped only
to England or English colonies (tobacco, cotton, indigo,
ginger, sugar)
1663: Staples Act: All things shipped from Europe to
colonies had to stop in England, be landed, and duty
paid on it before reshipment. Made England the staple
or trade center for all goods sent to colonies.
Mercantilism continued
1698: Wool Act: no export of cloth: raw wool
1732: Hat Act: no export of Hats from
1733: Molasses Act: import duty on rum
1750: Iron Act: ban iron finishing in colonies
New France: France in North
Early French Exploration
• Giovanni de Verrazzano (hired by French)
mapped much of North America in 1524
• Jacques Cartier: explored St. Lawrence
River towards headwaters of the
Mississippi River in 1535.
Jacques Cartier
Giovanni da
Verrazzano’s voyage of 1524
Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette explore the Mississippi River in 1673:
Looking for the Northwest Passage to China
Robert de La Salle (Claims Mississippi River Basin For France
(Louisiana) 1682
Company of the Indies: 1718
• Set up administrative capital for Louisiana
at New Orleans on the Mississippi River
Clash at Louisbourg in 1745
New France in 1750
Portion of Canada given to Britain as a result of Treaty of Utrecht in 1715. Louis XIV’s son was
allowed to become Spanish king, but could not unite Spain with France.
North America in 1750
Inevitability of a conflict with
• Several “skirmishes” or brush wars had taken
place between France and England before
• Something BIG was going to happen (Europe or
North America). A spark was needed
• 1748: British fur trappers and land developers
moved west of the Appalachian Mountains into
the Ohio River Valley
• French saw this as an intrusion: Their territory
was Canada and the Mississippi River Valley:
The Ohio River flows into the Mississippi.
New France: Strengths
• 1. Strong Indian Alliances, except with
• 2. American colonists were vulnerable to
attack because of their isolated towns and
villages on the frontier. (French could
blend into frontier)
• 3. No United Front for American Colonies
Weaknesses with New France
• 1. not a strong settler colony
1660: 3,000
1700: 15,000
1750: 52,000
• 2. Extraction rather than settlement (Fur: beaver, fox,
• 3. Focused on religious conversion of Indians, rather
than settling
• 4. Minimal Financial Return to the crown on promotion of
New France
• 5. Difficulty with Iroquois Confederacy in New York:
forced to move empire west instead of south
Britain and the American
• Strengths
1. Larger population than New
France: 20 times by 1750
2.Could recruit colonial militias
3. American colonists were
fighting for their homes
4. British navy: blockade
3.French governmental authority
was split: rivalry and division
(military governor, civil
governor, and Catholic bishop)
• Weaknesses
1. British army: 18th century
military style of fighting vs.
French/Indian guerilla style
2. Not as good relations with
Indians as French
3. Lack of unity
Albany Plan of Union (1754)
4. 6,000 French Catholics living in
Nova Scotia
Forcefully relocated and moved to
Louisiana: today’s Cajuns
Albany Plan of Union (1754)
Albany Plan of Union (colonies north of VA)
• Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin at
Albany, New York to unify the colonies
• Each colonial legislature would elect
delegates to an American continental
assembly according to amount of money
they gave to the central treasury
• Continental assembly would be presided
over by a royal governor
• Plan was rejected as too authoritarian
French Fort Construction
• France began to build string of forts that
was to stretch from Lake Erie to the
Alabama River
• Protected the French, but cut across what
the colony of Virginia considered its
territory (Colonial charters extended
beyond current state borders today)
• Colonial land speculators were harmed:
wouldn’t be able to sell land
1754  The First Clash
Ohio Valley
Fort Necessity
* George Washington
Fort Duquesne
* Delaware & Shawnee
George Washington
• Sent by Governor Robert Dinwiddie to the site of Fort Duquesne in
western Pennsylvania to stop the construction of the fort and kick
out the French. (seen below in Virginia Militia uniform)
• 1. Washington captures a small French
scouting force: First shots of the French
and Indian War.
• 2. Builds Fort Necessity and waits for
French attack
• 3. Completely overwhelmed by French
and forced to surrender:
Fort Necessity: a recreation
1755  Britain Decide to
Eliminate Fr. Presence
in North America
Gen. Edward Braddock  evict the
French from the OH Valley & Canada
(Newfoundland & Nova Scotia)
A Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley,
& Acadia.
A Killed 10 miles from Ft. Duquesne 
by 1500 French and Indian forces.
Washington was only colonial officer on
Braddock’s staff to survive
following year, Fort Duquesne
was abandoned and the British forces
built Fort Pitt on the site (modern day
1756  War Is Formally
War on multiple continents
(Europe, North America and
Considered first world war
Colonial Tensions
Methods of
• Indian-style guerilla • March in formation or
bayonet charge.
• Col. militias served
Organization: under own captains.
• Br. officers wanted to
take charge of colonials.
• No mil. deference or
protocols observed.
• Drills & tough
• Resistance to rising
• Colonists should pay
for their own defense.
• Casual,
• Prima Donna Br.
officers with servants
& tea settings.
1757  William Pitt Becomes Foreign
Minister: only man who could
salvage war: got rid of old generals
and admirals
He understood colonial concerns.
He offered them a compromise
Colonial loyalty & military
cooperation in exchange for British
reimbursement of colonial assemblies for
their costs
RESULTS?  Colonial morale
increased by 1758.
Marquis de Montcalm: French
commander in America
Montcalm’s success (1756-1758)
• Destroyed Fort Oswego and Fort William Henry
• Drove back British attempt to take Fort Ticonderoga (see below)
1758-1761  The Tide
Turns for England
* By 1761, Spain was an ally of France
General James Wolfe
• British turn to the invasion of Canada
• Louisbourg captured in 1758
• Turn attention to attack Quebec, the
French Canadian capital.
Battle of the Plains of Abraham
(Quebec 1759)
• Fought outside the walls of the city after 3
month siege by British forces
• Battle lasts one hour
• Wolfe’s troops resist column charge by the
• Moltcalm and Wolfe are mortally wounded
on the battlefield
• Outcome: Turning point in the war.
Quebec: a Formidable fortress
Death of Wolfe
1763  Treaty of Paris
France --> lost her Canadian possessions,
most of her empire in India, and claims
to lands east of the Mississippi River.
Spain --> got all French lands west of
the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but
lost Florida to England.
England --> got all French lands in
Canada, all territory east of the
Mississippi River, exclusive rights to
Caribbean slave trade, and commercial
dominance in India.
North America in 1763
Effects of the War
on Britain?
1. It increased her colonial empire in
the Americas.
2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt:
140 million pounds. Expected colonies
to pay for the cost of the war and
housing British soldiers for protection
vs. Indians.
3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials
created bitter feelings.
Therefore, England felt that a
major reorganization of her
American Empire was necessary!
Effects of the War on the
American Colonials
1. It united them against a
common enemy for the first
2. It created a socializing
(Became Americans)
experience for all the
colonials who participated.
3. It created bitter feelings
towards the British that
would only intensify.
The Aftermath: Tensions
Along the Frontier
Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763-1766): formed
confederacy of Indian tribes and fought
British troops and settlers. Eventually made
peace with the British because his
Confederacy fell apart.
Fort Detroit
British “gifts” of smallpox-infected
blankets from Fort Pitt to help
defeat the Indians
Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)
British  Proclamation
Line of 1763.
Proclamation Line of 1763
• Settlers were forbidden to cross a line
along the crest of the Appalachian
• Colonial governors were forbidden to
authorize surveys or issue land grants
• Why the line? Separate colonists from
Indians on the west: It was too late.
Colonists had already entered the Ohio
River Valley:
Growth of attitudes that were
distinctly American
• 1. Geography and distance from Europe:
used to non-intervention and solving own
• 2. Private ownership of land: land=liberty.
liberty=keeping tabs on expansion of
3. Diversity of colonies: loyalty to Britain not
the same throughout colonies
King George III: ill prepared to
handle the colonies
King George III
• Took more active role in political process
than George I or George II
• Went through several ministers during
period of colonial administration after
French and Indian War that led to
inconsistency, waffling, and then stubborn
• Colonies governed themselves through
colonial legislatures
• Levied colonial taxes: power of the purse.
• power to initiate own legislation
• None of colonial legislatures were legally
recognized by parliament or the king
• Parliament was the legislature of the
British Empire
Virtual representation: British answer to no
taxation without Representation
• Each member of parliament represented
the interests of the whole country and the
• Large cities might not have members in
• Small towns with little or no population
returned members to Parliament
• All represented the Empire
Whig Ideology
• 1. liberty is natural: men are born with a set of natural
rights and are born with those rights in a state of perfect
• 2. governments are established to protect liberty and
property: people agree to give up a little property and
liberty for this protection
• 3. liberty can be destroyed: usually by corrupt political
elite (governments can be remade/changed by the
• 4. liberty must be aligned with virtue to resist the allure of
power (religious, work, modesty, etc)
Pitt replaced by career politician, George Grenville: worked
hard, honest, detailed, and stubborn: saw American
customs as inefficient
Grenville’s Plans:
1. Sugar Act: lowered duty on mollasses from six to 3 pence: reduced
temptation to smuggle or bribe the customs officials. Additional duty on
textiles, wine, coffee, indigo and sugar.
First time duty not just to regulate trade, but to raise money
2. Currency Act of 1764: colonies could not print their own money: Caused
deflation in colonial economy and sent a shock through the colonies
3. Stamp Act: 1765. printed materials must carry a revenue stamp.
(newspapers, pamphlets, bonds, leases, insurance policies, college
diplomas, playing cards)
First internal tax: tax on goods produced and consumed entirely within the
4. Quartering Act: 1765. Forced the colonists to supply British troops with
provisions and to provide them with barracks or submit to their use of
vacant inns and vacant buildings.
Greeted with silence, then rage. Stamp Act became the chief target of colonial
Response to stamp act
Mass meetings
Bon fires
Gentlemen and planters became “sons of Liberty”
Liberty Trees
Liberty Poles
Hung effigies of Boston Stamp Collectors
Destroyed stamp offices
Sacked the home of Governor Hutchinson’s house in
Boston, Mass.
• When Stamp Act, went into effect, business continued
without the stamp
Sam Adams
• Sons of Liberty leader of Boston
Firebrand and a hothead
Politics was his passion
Grew obsessed that Parliament had no right
to legislate at all in the colonies
Organized protests in the Boston town
meeting and provincial assembly
Additional measures
• Colonists Boycotted British goods
• Non-importation agreements
• Homespun garments
Patrick Henry’s Response
• Virginia Resolves: Virginians were entitled
to the rights of Englishmen and
Englishmen could only be taxed by their
own representatives
• Virginians had always been governed by
laws passed with their own consent
Stamp Act Congress
• Meeting in New York in October 1765
• 27 delegates
Petitioned Parliament to repeal the Stamp
Not act of defiance: said Parliament had
right to regulate trade, but not to tax
Parliament repealed the Stamp Act
Grenville replaced by
• Declaratory Act (1766)
Asserted full power of Parliament to make
laws binding the colonies “in all cases
Tried to save face from the repeal of the
Stamp Act
Townshend Acts (1767)
• Direct taxes on glass, lead, paint, paper
and tea
• Strengthened writs of assistance: search
and seizure used by customs officials to
find smuggled goods and contraband.
• Taxes should go to paying royal officials
and governor (circumvented power of the
colonial legislatures) and their “power of
the purse.”
Opposition to Townshend Acts
• Boycotts: refusal to buy British goods
• John Dickinson: “Letters of a Pennsylvania
Farmer” argued that the Parliament ha no
right to levy taxes for revenue, but could
regulate commerce and collect duties.
• Dickinson used language of moderation
Boston “Massacre”
• March 5, 1770
Violence in Boston
Group taunted and threw snowballs at the
sentry before the customs house
Large crowd came to the scene
British troops fired on the crowd
5 people died, 8 wounded
Captain Preston charged, John Adams
defended him
Outcome of Boston Massacre
• Shockwaves throughout colonies
• Britain repealed all Townshend duties
except the one on Tea
• British troops had left Boston, but
remained stationed nearby, if needed.
• British navy patrolled the coast
• Sam Adams, “Where there is a spark of
patriotic fire, we will enkindle it.”