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The War for
Chapter 4
Coach Bowling
Section 1
The Stirrings of Rebellion
4.1 Objectives
► Summarize
Colonial resistance to British
► Trace
the mounting tension in
► Summarize
the battles of Lexington and
4.1 Main Idea
► Conflict
Between Great Britain and the
American colonies grew over issues of
taxation, representation, and liberty.
Where we left off…
► Treaty
of Paris – ended the French & Indian War,
gave all land East of the Miss. River to Britain
► Proclamation
of 1763 – “No settlers can move
west of the Appalachian Mountains”
► Britain
► War
could not enforce this
debts had to be paid
► George
Grenville instituted the Sugar Act
► Sugar
Act – “Smugglers were prosecuted by
British government rather than colonial
government” (more harsh)
► Colonies
and Britain began to disagree over
how the colonies should be taxed and
The Stamp Act
► George
Grenville persuaded Parliament to
use this as a means to pay off war debt
► 1765
- Colonists must purchase stamped
paper for all legal documents
► Failure
to do so would result in prosecution
of British court, not Colonial
Colonial Reaction
► Colonists
► Sons
protested the Stamp Act
of Liberty were formed
secret resistance group composed of
shopkeepers, artisans, and laborers
► Samuel
Adams was one of the founders (failed
business ventures had left him broke)
► Sons
of Liberty harassed “Stamp Agents”
across colonies
► Prevented
► Led
stamps from being sold
colonial legislatures to pass laws stating
colonies could only be taxed by them
► An
example of this was the Virginia House
► Patrick
Henry (Sons of Liberty) proposed
this and would now become a famous face
of independence
The Stamp Act Congress
► Delegates
► Issued
from 9 colonies met in NYC
a statement known as Declaration of Rights
and Grievances
► Stated,
“Parliament cannot impose taxes on the
colonies b/c they were not represented in
► Famous
line - Taxation without Representation
► Merchants
in large cities decided to not
import British goods until Act was repealed
► Boycott
was successful and act was
The Declaratory Act
► Parliament
passed this on the same day
Stamp Act was repealed
► The
law stated, “Colonies and people of
America would be bound by laws of
The Townshend Acts
year after the Declaratory Act, Charles
Townshend devised a new way to get
money from colonies
► Townshend
was a minister within British
levied a series of indirect taxes on
imported materials from Britain
► He
► Materials
► The
included glass, lead, paint, &
acts also imposed a 3-cent tax on tea
(most popular drink in colonies)
Colonial Response
► Colonists
► Women
► Women
called for numerous boycotts
began to make their own clothing
also boycotted British tea and made
their own
The Liberty Incident
► June
1768 – British forces seized a
merchant ship called Liberty
► Ship
was owned by John Hancock
► British
customs accused Hancock of
smuggling wine and not paying taxes
► Liberty
► Riots
was confiscated
occurred against customs agents
► Britain
sent 2,000+ troops to Boston
► Known
as “Redcoats”
The Boston Massacre
► Soldiers
were poorly paid, often attempted
to get extra work
► Colonists
► March
vied for the same jobs
5, 1770 – Dissent leads to Violence
► Fistfight
occurred between off-duty soldiers
and colonists
► Colonists
gathered outside a Customs office
to protest the violence
► Sons
of Liberty urged colonists to do so
group of Dockhands, including Crispus
Attucks, appeared at the protest
► Violence
► Crispus
erupted, 5 people wound up dead
Attucks was considered first death
in fight for Independence
► Sons
of Liberty quickly spread propaganda
calling the event “The Boston Massacre”
► According
to Samuel Adams, “Innocent
colonists were fired upon by the British”
► In
truth, the Colonists agitated and
instigated the British soldiers
► Tension
reached a boiling point
► However,
it would gradually die down over
the course of the next two years
The Rhode Island Incident
► British
Customs patrol ship wrecked near
► Supposedly,
colonists attacked, robbed, and
burned the ship
► King
George III set out a special
commission to find the “criminals”
► Colonists
became upset that King was going
to transport criminals to Britain for trial
► Event
led to the establishment of the
“Committees of Correspondence”
communication network between colonies
The Boston Tea Party
► 1773
– Due to colonial boycotts, tea
industry was struggling
► The
British East India Company (Britain’s
largest tea manufacturer) was nearing
Frederick North introduced the Tea Act
to bail the company out
► Lord
► The
Act allowed the company to sell tea to
the colonies directly (wholesale)
► Merchants
► Dec.
were cut out and lost money
18, 1773 – Boston rebels disguised as
natives took action against 3 British ships in
the Boston Harbor
► Result
– the rebels dumped over 18,000 lbs.
of British tea into the Boston Harbor
The Intolerable Acts
► The
Boston Tea Party infuriated King George
► Saw
actions as an attack on British property
► Urged
Parliament to pass what colonists
would call the Intolerable Acts in 1774
► 1.)
Boston Harbor was shut down b/c
colonists refused to pay for tea
► 2.)
The Quartering Act – British soldiers
were placed in private homes
► 3.)
Thomas Gage, governor of MA, declared
martial law (rule imposed by the military)
Colonial Reaction
► Committees
of Correspondence assembled
the First Continental Congress in
Philadelphia in 1774
► 56
delegates met and drew up a declaration
of rights
► If
British used force, colonies should fight
► Sent
demands to the King and wanted a
response by may 1775
► In
preparation for the worst, the FCC
stockpiled gun powder and set up a militia
known as the Minutemen
Lexington & Concord
► Thomas
Gage learned of colonial activities
► Due
to a cold spring in 1775, British army
was placed on strict rations
► He
became worried of events transpiring in
the colonies
► Gage
sent troops to Concord (MA) to scout
the stockpiles
► Scouts
reported what Gage had feared, the
Minutemen were armed
► Told
Gage where the weapons were
► Agents
also told Gage that Hancock and
Adams were staying in Lexington (MA)
► Gage
ordered his troops to march toward
Concord when the snow melted
► Minutemen
witnessed the British movement
“The Redcoats are Coming”
► Hancock
& Adams were in hiding; a warrant
for their arrest had been issued
► Joseph
Warren was placed in charge
► Warren
was informed of Gage’s plans and
sent Paul Revere to warn Adams &
Hancock about the British and their plan
► He
► Revere
(Sons of Liberty) organized a
network of informants to pass along the
► April
18, 1775 – Revere and 2 others rode
about telling of the 700 British soldiers
approaching Concord
► Church
bells were rang as a warning sign
► Revere
told Adams & Hancock then
continued his ride
► He
was eventually detained, questioned,
and then released
► British
expected resistance due to warning
A Glorious Day for America
► April
19, 1775 – British reached Lexington
► They
found roughly 70 minutemen upon
their arrival
► British
commanders ordered them to
Battle of Lexington
► Minutemen
► Gun
followed orders
was fired by someone
► British
fired into the crowd & killed 8
► Lasted
roughly 15 minutes
Battle of Concord
► British
► They
marched on to Concord
found an empty arsenal there
► Began
to march back and were attacked by
4,000 minutemen
► British
fled to Boston
Adams & Hancock
► Fled
the scene due to their status
► Adams
explained, “This is a glorious day for
► The
Revolutionary War had Begun
Section II
Ideas Help Start a Revolution
4.2 Objectives
► Examine
efforts made to avoid bloodshed as
the colonies hovered between war and
► Summarize
the philosophical and political
ideas of the Declaration of Independence
► Contrast
the attitudes of Loyalists & Patriots
4.2 Main Idea
► Tensions
increased throughout the colonies
until the Continental Congress declared
independence on July 4, 1776
The Second Continental Congress
► May,
1775 – Delegates met in Philadelphia
to debate issues including what path to take
against Britain
► John
Adams (MA) suggested each colony
develop its own government
► He
also suggested that the Minutemen
develop into a “Continental Army”
► Congress
finally agreed to acknowledge
Adams request and eventually appointed
George Washington as commander
► Congress
authorized printing of money to
pay the troops
► Organized
a foreign diplomacy committee
The Battle of Bunker Hill
► Thomas
Gage decided to strike against
Minutemen at Breed’s Hill (next to Bunker
► June,
1775 – Gage sent 2,400 troops up the
hill to attack the colonists
► The
heat and humidity were harsh
► British
were dresses in red, wool uniforms
and carried heavy supply packs
► Made
easy targets for Militia
► The
British made 3 total advances on the
► The
first 2 were unsuccessful, third
succeeded due to Minutemen’s low supply
of ammunition
► British
lost roughly 1,000 men compared to
450 for colonists in misnamed battle
The Olive Branch Petition
► The
colonies still sought peace from Britain
► Colonists
felt loyalty towards King George
III, but despised his ministers
► 2nd
Continental Congress sent Olive Branch
Petition to the King in July. It appealed for a
return to peace in the colonies
► King
► He
George III rejected the petition
also ordered a naval blockade of the
American Colonies
Common Sense
► Written
by Thomas Paine
► Explained
the colonists should declare
independence b/c it was the destiny of
► America
would be able to trade w/ other
nations and make their own profit
► More
importantly, America could create a
better society which was free from tyranny
and would have social and economic
opportunities for all
► Pamphlet
sold over 500,000 copies in the
Declaring Independence
► Summer,
1776 – No. Carolina declared
independence, VA wanted to do the same
► Richard
Henry, a VA delegate to the 2nd
Continental Congress, stated, “these United
Colonies are, and of a right ought to be,
free and independent states.”
► The
Congress put a committee together to
prepare a formal declaration to send to the
► Thomas
Jefferson, a VA lawyer, was chosen
to express the committee’s point of view
The Declaration of Independence
► Written
by Thomas Jefferson
► Drew
off the concepts of John Locke, a
British Philosopher
► State
that people deserve the rights to “life,
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”
► Also
suggested that government should
draw its power from those it serves (people)
► People
should be able to abolish a
government it does not see “fit”
► “All
men are created equal”
► Jefferson
addressed the cruelty of the slave
trade in his first draft
► GA
and SC objected to it so he removed it
► Unanimously
decided the colonies were free
on July 2, 1776
► Did
not adopt the Declaration of
Independence until July 4, 1776
► Document
was read publicly in front of the
Philadelphia State House (Independence
► Patriots
(supporters of independence) rallied
behind the document
► “We
mutually pledge to each other our lives,
our fortunes, and our sacred honor.”
Loyalists & Patriots
► Loyalists
– opposed Independence and
chose to remain loyal to the crown
► Mostly
► Rural
those appointed by the King
areas remained loyal as well due to
them being located away from the cities
► Some
remained loyal because they did not
feel that colonists could win the war and
new consequences would be harsh
► Some
thought crown would protect their
rights better than a new government
► Those
who joined the Patriots side saw
more personal benefit in a nation not under
direct rule of a King
► Patriots
made up almost half of the
► Several
others remained neutral
► Quakers
supported Patriots, but did not
fight due to their religious beliefs
► African-Americans
► Natives
split sides
supported the British
2 wars in 1
► Colonists
were in a war for independence as
well as a civil war due to opposing sides
within the colonies
► The
result = Patriots had all odds against
them; they were declaring war in the
“mightiest empire” in the western world
Section DOI
Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
► Divided
into 4 parts:
► Preamble
► Political
► List
– reason for document
Principles – Rights of the People
of Unfair Acts – by the King
► Actual
Declaration of Independence
► John
Hancock – President of Continental
► 56
signatures from 13 colonies
Section 3
Struggling Toward Saratoga
4.3 Objectives
► Trace
the progress of war through the
turning point at Saratoga and winter at
Valley Forge
► Examine
the Colonial Economy and civilian
life during the Revolution
4.3 Main Idea
► After
a series of setbacks, American forces
won at Saratoga and survived.
The British Plan
► Left
Boston in Spring of 1776 (Before DOI)
► Isolate
► Seize
New England
New York City
New York City – Summer 1776
► William
Howe (General) and Richard Howe
► Joined
forces in Staten Island & sailed into
NY harbor
► 32,000
soldiers – largest group ever
assembled at once by Britain
► Some
troops were German mercenaries
(fought for money)
► Known
as Hessians due to the region they
were from in Germany
Colonial Response
► Washington
rallied 23,000 troops, but was
► Troops
were inexperienced
► Americans
in August
eventually lost and had to retreat
Colonial Retreat
► Colonists
were forced across the Delaware River
into Pennsylvania
► By
this time, only 8,000 men remained w/ the
Continental Army
► Their
terms for enlistment were up Dec. 31, 1776
► Bottom
Line = A colonial victory was necessary
Battle of Trenton
► Christmas
Night, 1776
► Washington
led 2,400 troops across a frozen
Delaware River
► By
the morning of the 26th, Washington’s
men had marched roughly 9 miles through
sleet & snow
► Result
= Continental Army killed 30 and
took 918 hostage
► Most
of the enemy were recovering from a
late night drinking party and were caught
unaware by the surprise attack (Hessians)
The Battle of Princeton
► Occurred
8 days after Trenton
► Continental
Army took over a British camp
w/ 1,200 men
► Back-to-Back
victories for Washington
The Fight for Philadelphia
► British
attempted to seize the Capital
(Philadelphia) in spring of 1777
► Continental
Congress fled the capital
► Washington
was unable to keep British out of
► Several
loyalists in Philly
The Battle of Saratoga
► General
John Burgoyne’s Plan – 1. come
from Canada to Albany, 2. Meet up w/
Howe, 3. Take NYC, 4. Cut off New England
► He
set out w/ numerous troops, cannons,
and personal items (champagne, clothing,
► Swamps
around Lake Champlain bogged
Burgoyne down
► Slowed
► Enter
the entire process down for British
Horatio Gates – Continental General
Gates gathered troops and militia from all over New
Green Mountain Boys were included in this
Burgoyne thought Howe was coming to assist
Result = Surrounded at Saratoga and surrendered Fall
1776; Britain’s war strategy changed
Stay by the Coast w/ supplies
French Assistance
► France
was still upset about French and
Indian War
► Had
► Due
sent weapons to colonists the entire
to victory at Saratoga, France decided
to enter the conflict
► They
recognized American independence
► Signed
► France
alliance in Feb. 1778
would not make peace unless Britain
recognized independence
Valley Forge, PA
► Waiting
on French Supplies, Washington held the
army at Valley Forge
► Winter
conditions were harsh
► Over
2,000 men died due to sickness, hunger, and
► Maintained
their position
Financing the War
► Congress
ran out of gold and silver to back
their currency
► They
began to sell bonds to American
► Printed
more money which caused inflation
(Rising Prices)
► Congress
struggled to equip the army
► Some
government officials engaged in
profiteering (selling scarce goods for profit)
► Robert
Morris & Haym Salomon – borrowed
on personal credit to help pay for supplies
► Raised
money from Quakers and Jews
► Troops
were finally paid
► Boosted
their confidence and more
importantly, attracted more soldiers
Civilians at War
► Women
sewed uniforms, managed farms,
and made ammunition from household
items like silverware
► Some
women even volunteered on the
Section 4
Winning the War
4.4 Objectives
► Describe
► Trace
the war contributions of European allies
the Revolution in the Southern Colonies
► Summarize
► Recognize
the British surrender at Yorktown
the symbolic value of the American
4.4 Main Idea
► Strategic
victories in the South and at
Yorktown enabled the Americans to defeat
the British
Valley Forge, PA
► February
► 1/5
1778 – Harsh winter conditions
of troops died (2,000)
► Friedrich
von Steuben – Prussian (German)
military officer who taught continental army
how to be “soldiers”
► Marquis
de Lafayette – 20 yr. old French
► Asked
the French to help the cause
► Assisted
Washington at Valley Forge,
commanded a division in Virginia
The British Move South
► After
Saratoga, the British changed their
► They
shifted their focus to the Southern
► They
want to gain loyalist support, reclaim
southern colonies, and re-advance on the
► Britain
took Savannah, GA in 1779
► This
led to Charles Cornwallis & Henry
Clinton to sail South
► They
captured Charlestown, SC and took
close to 6,000 troops prisoner
► Greatest
victory in the war for the British
► Clinton
left for New York, Cornwallis stayed
behind to re-conquer NC and SC
► Cornwallis
was successful in part due to
slaves joining the British cause
The Battle of Camden
► Camden,
SC – August 1780
► Cornwallis
defeated Gates
► Occurred
in part due to Gates
► “The
► British
immediately marched into NC, but
Patriot militia cut their supply lines
► Cornwallis
retreated back to SC
► Washington
ordered Nathaniel Greene to
have his army harass the British and keep
them occupied
► Greene
split his troops into 2 armies
► Cornwallis
did the same; sent Lt. Banastre Tarleton
to chase down Daniel Morgan (Continental)
► Led
to a chase through SC and Battle of Cowpens
in 1781
Continental Victory
► Cornwallis
was angered by the defeat and
attacked Nathaniel Greene 2 months later in
► Cornwallis
was victorious; HOWEVER, his
army suffered heavy losses
► This
led to Cornwallis deciding to flee to VA
and fight
► Cornwallis
gained reinforcements in VA
► Unsuccessful
attempt in capturing armies
led by Lafayette and von Steuben
► After
debacle, he led 7,500 troops onto a
peninsula between the James & York Rivers
► Cornwallis
wanted to establish a fort in Yorktown
► Afterwards,
he planned on capturing Virginia
► He
then hoped to move to NY and meet up w/
Clinton’s forces
► The
victory would belong to the British if this
The British Surrender at Yorktown
► 6,000
French troops had landed in RI when
the British left for the South
► The
were operating a fleet of ships from
► Lafayette
suggested to Washington that
they combine their armies, meet up with the
French Navy, and attack Yorktown
The Battle of Yorktown
► French
Navy fleet defeated British Navy
fleet and blocked entrance to the
Chesapeake Bay
► British
could not rescue their troops by sea
► Meanwhile,
17,000 Colonial & French Troops
attacked British fort at Yorktown day and
► Siege
lasted almost 3 weeks
► Cornwallis
► Cornwallis
surrendered on Oct. 17, 1781
surrendered his sword to
► In
1782, Peace talks between Britain, France, U.S.,
and Spain occurred in Paris
► Britain
did not want America to gain full
► France
► Spain
supported American Independence
wanted land between Appalachian
Mountains and MS River
► Negotiators
for the U.S. – Benjamin
Franklin, John Jay, and John Adams
► They
demanded American Independence
before any talks began
► September
1783 – Treaty of Paris was
Treaty of Paris
► Recognized
American Independence from
► Boundaries
– Atlantic Ocean to MS River;
Canadian Border to Florida
► Treaty
did have some problems
Problems w/ Treaty
► Native
American interests were not considered
► British
did not specify when they would leave their
► Loyalists
► British
were allowed to sue in state courts for
debt collectors were supposedly allowed to
collect debts from war
A Symbol of Liberty
rise in Egalitarianism – belief that all
people are equal
► Sadly,
It only applied to white males
► Several
Southerners did free slaves (ex.
George Washington)
► Maryland
and Virginia’s free AfricanAmerican population increased to near 20k
from 4k
► Native
► Native
Americans were displaced due to war
Population east of the Miss. River
declined by 50%
The New Challenge
► Americans
wanted a fresh start
government of the people, by the people,
and for the people was desired
► Motto:
“A new order for the ages”
Questions to be Answered!!!
► Who
should participate in government
► How
should government answer to the
► Who
should have a voice?
Essay Question
► What
events brought the Colonies from
supporting the British during the French &
Indian War to Declaring their Independence
from Britain in 1776.
► Describe
the Revolutionary War from the
Beginning to the End. (Cite Specific Battles,
People, & Strategies)