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Exploring American History Unit VII- The Beginning of Modern America Chapter 23 Section 1 The Road to War The Road to War The Big Idea In 1914 tensions in Europe exploded into the deadliest war the world had ever seen. Main Ideas • Many factors contributed to the outbreak of World War I. • European nations suffered massive casualties in the war’s early battles. Main Idea 1: Many factors contributed to the outbreak of World War I. Nationalism Imperialism • Nationalism, a strong sense of pride and loyalty to one’s nation or culture, created tension between nations. • Nations competed for control of territories both in Europe and overseas. • Austria-Hungary included people from many cultural groups. • Germany took the Alsace-Lorraine region from France in 1871, and France wanted it back. • Slavic nationalists wanted to break away from AustriaHungary and join the independent Slavic country of Serbia. Militarism • Nations focused resources on militarism, the aggressive strengthening of armed forces. • Raced to build armies and navies • Made alliances to protect themselves The Spark • Feelings of fear and distrust grew among European powers in the early 1900s. • In 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. – Slavic nationalists resisted violently; wanted to be a part of Serbia • June 28, 1914: Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated in Sarajevo. – Killed by a Serb nationalist, Gavrilo Princip • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia • Nations began to mobilize, or prepare their militaries, for war. The Spark • • • • Serbians feared that the Archduke would continue and even heighten the persecution of Serbs living within the Austro-Hungarian empire. Serbia had gained independence in 1878, and claimed several regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. which Austria-Hungary officially annexed. The Serbian terrorist organization, the Black Hand, would carry out the assassination of the Archduke. First the Black Hand operatives tossed a bomb at the Archduke's automobile. This missed. The Archduke's chauffeur took a wrong turn and drove within ten feet of another Black Hand agent, Gavrilo Princip. Princip stepped up to the car and fired two pistol shots. One bullet hit Sophie, killing her instantly. The other hit Francis Ferdinand, who died within minutes. Princip attempted suicide, but was captured before succeeding. Pulled into the Fighting Allied Powers • Russia, an ally of Serbia • France, an ally of Russia • Belgium, brought into the fighting because Germany marched through it to get to France • Great Britain, an ally of Belgium Central Powers • Austria-Hungary • Germany, an ally of Austria-Hungary The Great War- Two Sides • Allied PowersTriple Entente – – – – – – – – – – Serbia Russia France Great Britain Belgium Italy Portugal Greece Japan United States • Central PowersTriple Alliance – – – – – Austria-Hungary Germany Empire Bulgaria Turkish Empire Italy Causes of World War I • No one event or person caused the Great War. There were many factors that contributed to mobilization of the belligerents Five Major factors often identified as causes of World War I (but not causes of U.S. entry) Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Events or Economics World War I Begins - The Great War • Kaiser Wilhelm II on July 5th • • pledged that Germany would fully support Austria-Hungary in any action against Serbia. On July 23, 1914, AustriaHungary presented Serbia with a lengthy list of demands. On July 28, 1914, AustriaHungary declared war on Serbia. World War I had begun. Schlieffen Plan • Both sides originally believed that the Great War would be over quickly. • In Germany, this belief was based on a long established war strategy called the Schlieffen Plan. Start with a German army invading Belgium(avoiding eastern French Forts) to reach Paris. • The German generals were so confident of success that Kaiser Wilhelm II proclaimed that he would have "Paris for lunch, St. Petersburg for dinner." • The plan required precise timing, with no interruptions in the timetable -- its first objective was to capture Paris in precisely 42 days, and force the French to surrender. The German armies would then shift their focus to the eastern front and defeat the Russians before they were fully prepared to fight. • It started quickly on Aug. 2, 1914 with Germany invading Luxembourg and Belgium, but the British, French and Russians mobilized quicker than expected. Outbreak of War • Define- What is nationalism? • Identify Cause and Effect- Why did other countries join the fight between Austria-Hungary and Serbia? • Analyze- How had European Nations prepared for war? Main Idea 2: European nations suffered massive casualties in the war’s early battles. • The French army blocked the German advance at the Marne River, east of Paris, in September 1914. – The First Battle of Marne marked the first major battle of the war. – French and German forces faced each other along a long battle line known as the western front. • Russian and German armies struggled back and forth on the eastern front. • The war became a stalemate– a situation in which neither side can win a decisive victory. • Clear that this war would be longer than expected. The First Battle of the Marne • The German army quickly advanced through northern France and after only one month of fighting were barely 25 miles from Paris. • The French, however, would not give up. The Battle • The French launched a counterattack along the Marne River east of Paris on September 7, 1914. • This battle became known as the First Battle of the Marne. • 2 million men fought on a battlefront that stretched 125 miles. • After five days and 250,000 deaths, the French had rallied and pushed the Germans back some 40 miles. 600 taxicabs were even used to get men to the front. The Aftermath • The French paid a heavy price, as countless redcoated French troops had fallen in the battle. • Despite the loss of life, it helped the Allies by giving Russia more time to mobilize for war. • Once Russia mobilized, Germany had to pull some of its troops out of France and send them to fight Russia on the Eastern Front, which stretched from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea. The War Reaches a Stalemate • The First Battle of the Marne ended in a stalemate, and both French and • • • • German soldiers dug trenches, or deep ditches, to defend their positions and seek shelter from enemy fire. By late 1914, two massive systems of trenches stretched 400 miles across Western Europe, and the battle lines known as the Western Front extended from Switzerland to the North Sea. Trench warfare, or fighting from trenches, was an old strategy that had been used in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. This trench warfare, however, was different because of its scale. – Soldiers lived in trenches, surrounded by machine-gun fire, flying grenades, and exploding artillery shells. – Opposing forces had machine guns pointed at enemy trenches at all times, firing whenever a helmet or rifle appeared over the top. – Thousands of men that ran into the area between the trenches, known as “no-man’s-land,” were chopped down by enemy fire. Neither the Allies nor the Germans were able to make significant advances, creating a stalemate, or deadlock. Realities of War- The Trenches, Weapons and Death – 3:30 Technology of War • Trench warfare, defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches, helped make the war long and deadly. Land – Cold, wet, and muddy – Disease ran rampant • New technologies made land warfare even more deadly – Machine guns – Poison gases – Tanks • Airplanes used in large-scale battle for the first time Air Sea – Fired down on soldiers in the trenches – Gathered information on enemy locations – Battled each other in the air in “dogfights” • Fighting in the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea • Used Naval blockades and mines to block supply lines • U-boats, German submarines, launched torpedoes against Allied supply ships. New Weapons of War Poisonous Gas Tanks Airplanes • German military scientists experimented with gas as a weapon. • Both sides used planes to map and to attack trenches from above. • Gas in battle was risky: Soldiers didn’t know how much to use, and wind changes could backfire the gas. • When soldiers began to carry gas masks, they still faced a stalemate. • British forces soon developed armored tanks to move into no-man’s-land. • Then Germans threw canisters of gas into the Allies’ trenches. • These tanks had limited success because many got stuck in the mud. • Many regretted using gas, but British and French forces began using it too, to keep things even. • Germans soon found ways to destroy the tanks with artillery fire. • Planes first dropped brinks and heavy objects on enemy troops. • Soon they mounted guns and bombs on planes. • Skilled pilots sought in air battles called dogfights. • The German Red Baron downed 80 Allied planes, until he was shot down. A New Kind of Warfare • Word of Germany’s invasion of Belgium quickly spread to France and other • • • European nations. French troops mobilized to meet approaching German divisions. – They looked much as French soldiers did over 40 years earlier, wearing bright red coats and heavy brass helmets. – The German troops dressed in gray uniforms that worked as camouflage on the battlefield. French war strategy had not changed much since the 1800s. – French soldiers marched row by row onto the battlefield, with bayonets mounted to their field rifles, preparing for close combat with the Germans. – The Germans, however, had many machine guns, and mowed down some 15,000 French troops per day in early battle. – A well-trained German machine-gun team could set up equipment in four seconds, and each machine gun matched the firepower of 50 to 100 French rifles. Many Europeans wrongly thought these technological advances would make the war short and that France would be defeated in two months. Trenches • The Allies used four "types" of trenches. The first, the front-line trench (or firing-andattack trench), was located from 50 yards to 1 mile from the German's front trench. Several hundred yards behind the front-line trench was the support trench, with men and supplies that could immediately assist those on the front line. The reserve trench was dug several hundred yards further back and contained men and supplies that were available in emergencies should the first trenches be overrun. • Connecting these trenches were communication trenches, which allowed movement of messages, supplies, and men among the trenches. Some underground networks connected gun emplacements and bunkers with the communication trenches. Trenches • Trenches were not built in straight lines. This was so that if the enemy managed to get into the front line trench they would not have a straight firing line along the trench. Trenches were therefore built with alternating straight and angled lines. The traverse was the name given to the angled parts of the trench. • The typical front-line trench was about 6 to 8 feet deep and wide enough for two men to pass. Dugouts in the sides of the trenches protected men during enemy fire. Barbed wire helped protect the firing trench from surprise attacks. • Between the enemy lines lay a stretch of ground called "no man's land." Soldiers generally served at the front line from a few days to a week and then rotated to the rear for a rest • Every soldier carried iron rations -- emergency food that consisted of a can of bully beef, biscuits and a tin of tea and sugar. Except during an attack, life fell into a dull routine. Some soldiers stood guard. Others repaired the trenches, kept telephone lines in order, brought food from behind the battle lines, or did other jobs. At night, patrols fixed the barbed wire and tried to get information about the enemy. Trenches- Trench Foot • Much of the land where the trenches were dug was either clay or sand. The water could not pass through the clay and because the sand was on top, the trenches became waterlogged when it rained. The trenches were hard to dig and kept on collapsing in the waterlogged sand. As well as trenches the shells from the guns and bombs made big craters in the ground. The rain filled up the craters and then poured into the trenches • Soldiers who spent prolonged periods of time standing in waterlogged trenches were liable to suffer from frostbite and/or trench foot. To prevent trench foot, soldiers were instructed to change their socks frequently, wear waterproof footwear and to cover their feet with whale oil. Trenches- Rats, Lice and Trench Fever • Many men killed in the trenches were buried almost where they fell. If a trench subsided, or new trenches or dugouts were needed, large numbers of decomposing bodies would be found just below the surface. These corpses, as well as the food scraps that littered the trenches, attracted rats. One pair of rats can produce 880 offspring in a year and so the trenches were soon swarming with them. • Men in the trenches suffered from lice. Various methods were used to remove the lice. A lighted candle was fairly effective but the skill of burning the lice without burning your clothes was only learnt with practice. Where possible the army arranged for the men to have baths in huge vats of hot water while their clothes were being put through delousing machines. Unfortunately, this rarely worked. A fair proportion of the eggs remained in the clothes and within two or three hours of the clothes being put on again a man's body heat had hatched them out. • As well as causing frenzied scratching, lice also carried disease. This was known as pyrexia or trench fever. The first symptoms were shooting pains in the shins and was followed by a very high fever. Although the disease did not kill, it did stop soldiers from fighting and accounted for about 15% of all cases of sickness in the British Army. • Soldiers in the trenches often depended on impure water collected from shell-holes or other cavities, causing dysentery. Early Battles of the War • Make Inferences- What effect did having • • • fronts in the west, north and east have on the German and Russian Armies? Evaluate- What is a possible reason that soldiers felt safe in the trenches at the onset of the war? Describe- What was living in a trench like? Identify Cause and Effect- The arrival of tanks ended what type of fighting technique? Submarines - U-Boats 1:15 min. Submarines - U-Boats • Torpedoes were used by submarines. The Germans used torpedoes to blow up ships carrying supplies from America to Britain. • In February 1915 the German government announced its solution to the problem -- unrestricted submarine warfare. The Germans realized they didn't have to capture a merchant ship, just sink it - crew and all. They declared a war zone around the British Isles within which they would sink any allied merchant vessel on sight. • The Germans torpedoed the passenger liner Lusitania on May 1st 1915 which sank with a loss of 1,195 lives. Americans were outraged and joined the war in 1917 on the side of the allies. Early Battles of the War • Explain- How did the Germans respond to the British port blockade? • Predict- What do you think neutral countries might do after German U-boats attacked their ships? Total War on the Western Front In the spring of 1915 the trenches along the western front were filled with millions of soldiers, at the average rate of one soldier per four inches of trench. The job behind the front lines was to keep the men fed, equipped and ready to continue the fighting until the end came. Since both sides targeted both civilians and military personnel, and mobilized men and resources at an unprecedented rate, the Great War was a "total war”. This total war effected the lives of many different people: – in some communities unprecedented casualty rates especially among young officers stripped young women of all their male contemporaries; – West African soldiers were shipped in from the colonies to fight in the trenches; – brave Englishwomen traded other jobs for more dangerous jobs in weapons factories. Everyone was affected. T – he first genocide of the 20th century -- the ultimate form of total war against civilians -- was also part of this conflict. Over the next two years the Armenian population of Ottoman Turkey was uprooted and expelled to the desert regions of Mesopotamia. In the process between 500,000 to one million Armenians where killed or died of exposure or disease. Slaughter on the Western Front Impersonal killing- Hand to hand, sword, rifle, machine gun, bomb and airplane 1914- each side lost a 1/2 million men 1915- British and French advance was less than 3 miles anywhere. France lost 1.5 million men In early 1916, the British had over 1 million men in Belgium and France, while the French and German armies had re-supplied their front line troops. The stage was set for both sides to try to make the breakthrough on the battlefield that would assure each victory. By 1916’s end, both sides would lose nearly one million men with very little change in position of the front line trenches 1916 Battle of the Somme- 5 months. Germans lost over 600,000 men. 20,000 British soldiers died in one day. Before the end of the war over 10 million men would die on both sides. Another 10 million civilians from disease, starvation, and revolutions. 1918- German trenches were 50 miles from Paris, the German hope was to reach Paris and defeat the French before the Americans came into the war. World War I Casualties Allies Central Powers • • • • • • • • • • • • Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 Italy 680,000 • • • • • Japan 1,344 • 65 million mobilized both sides Montenegro 3,000 • 8.5 million killed Portugal 8,145 • 21 million wounded Romania 300,000 • 7.7 million POW’s and missing • 37million total casualties • 57% of all men mobilized Belgium 45,550 British Empire 942,135 France 1,368,000 Greece 23,098 Russia 1,700,000 Serbia 45,000 United States 116,516 Bulgaria 87,495 Germany 1,935,000 Ottoman Empire 725,000 Total Casualties Over the Top - An Interactive Adventure 15 min or the entire period. • Over The Top Weapons of World War I If there is time Rifles • The main weapon used by British soldiers in the trenches was the bolt-action rifle. 15 rounds could be fired in a minute and a person 1,400 meters away could be killed. • The single-shot, bigger-bore rifle was the subject of extensive research and development in the latter portion of the nineteenth century, with the result that the major powers introduced new models that were smallbore, bolt-action weapons capable of firing multiple rounds from a spring-loaded clip inserted into a rifle magazine. Rifles, Bayonets and Hand guns Veterans of the Great War, when interviewed, tended to play down the impact of the bayonet during the war. Many remarked (partly in jest) that the bayonet was used primarily as a splendid means of toasting bread, and for opening cans, to scrape mud off uniforms, poking a trench brazier or even to assist in the preparation of communal latrines In essence a bayonet is simply a simply a blade that is attached to the barrel of a rifle for use in close combat. Most bayonets were of simple design, of the knife variety, although variations existed. For example the French devised a needle blade for use on Lebel rifles. Notoriously, the German army produced a 'saw-back' blade that, as its name suggests, gave the appearance of a saw with its double row of teeth on the back edge. One advantage of using a bayonet in close crowded combat, as opposed to a rifle or handgun, was its avoidance of risk in injuring one's fellow soldiers. A bullet fired at close range into an enemy could well pass through his body and enter a friend standing (or fighting) behind him. There was undeniably psychological value to the infantry in carrying a bayonet, even if in practice it was seldom used. Bayonets continued to be commonly issued in the Second World War. Hand guns • The pistol, originally designed as a cavalry weapon, was the staple weapon for a variety of personnel during World War One (and beyond). Traditionally issued to officers of all armies the pistol was also issued to military police, airmen and tank operators. • Reasons for Pistol Use • For men involved in the latter professions the pistol was essentially the only weapon that would serve under their unique environments: the cramped conditions of both the tank and aircraft dictated that the rifle - which was otherwise issued to virtually all regular soldiers was impractical. French German Luger • Three Basic Types • When war began there were three types of pistol in general use: revolvers, clip-loaded automatics and the so-called 'blow-back' models (where expanding propellant gas caused the gun to reload by forcing the bolt back when fired). Colt 45 Machine Gun • Horses were still being used during WWI, but the machine gun was devastating to both men and horse. This marked the end of the horses usefulness in war, millions of horses would die. • Machine guns, usually positioned on a flat tripod, would require a gun crew of four to six operators. They had the fire-power of 100 guns. • The 1914 machine gun, in theory, could fire 400-600 small-caliber rounds per minute, a figure that was to more than double by the war's end, with rounds fed via a fabric belt or a metal strip. Machine Gun • The reality however was that these early machine guns would rapidly overheat and become inoperative without the aid of cooling mechanisms; they were consequently fired in short rather than sustained bursts. Cooling generally took one of two forms: water cooled and, increasingly as the war developed, air cooled. Water jackets would be provided for the former (which held around one gallon of liquid) and air vents would be built into the machine gun for the latter • Water cooled machine guns would still overheat relatively quickly (sometimes within two minutes), with the consequence that large supplies of water would need to be on hand in the heat of a battle - and, when these ran out, it was not unknown for a machine gun crew to solve the problem by urinating into the jacket. • Whether air or water cooled, machine guns still jammed frequently, especially in hot conditions or when used by inexperienced operators. Consequently machine guns would often be grouped together to maintain a constant defensive position. Poison Gas • Considered uncivilized prior to World War One, the development and use of poison gas was necessitated by the requirement of wartime armies to find new ways of overcoming the stalemate of unexpected trench warfare. • First Use by the French • Although it is popularly believed that the German army was the first to use gas it was in fact initially deployed by the French. In the first month of the war, August 1914, they fired tear-gas grenades (xylyl bromide) against the Germans. Nevertheless the German army was the first to give serious study to the development of chemical weapons and the first to use it on a large scale • • • • • • • • • Country Casualties Deaths Austria-Hungary 100,000 3,000 British Empire 88,706 8,109 France 190,000 8,000 Germany 200,000 9,000 Italy 60,000 4,627 Russia 419,340 56,000 USA 72,807 1,462 Others 10,000 1,000 Poison Gas • The German army were the first to use chlorine gas at the battle of Ypres in 1915. Chlorine gas causes a burning sensation in the throat and chest pains. Death is painful – you suffocate! The problem with chlorine gas is that the weather must be right. If the wind is in the wrong direction it could end up killing your own troops rather than the enemy. • In consequence experiments were undertaken to deliver the gas payload in artillery shells. This provided the additional benefits of increasing the target range as well as the variety of gases released. • Phosgene • Following on the heels of chlorine gas came the use of phosgene. Phosgene as a weapon was more potent than chlorine in that while the latter was potentially deadly it caused the victim to violently cough and choke. Poison Gas • Mustard Gas • Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. It was fired into the trenches in shells. It is colorless and takes 12 hours to take effect. Effects include – blistering skin, vomiting, sore eyes, internal and external bleeding. Death can take up to 5 weeks. • Remaining consistently ahead in terms of gas warfare development, Germany unveiled an enhanced form of gas weaponry against the Russians at Riga in September 1917: mustard gas (or Yperite) contained in artillery shells. • Mustard gas, an almost odorless chemical, was distinguished by the serious blisters it caused both internally and externally, brought on several hours after exposure. Protection against mustard gas proved more difficult than against either chlorine or phosgene gas. • The use of mustard gas - sometimes referred to as Yperite - also proved to have mixed benefits. While inflicting serious injury upon the enemy the chemical remained potent in soil for weeks after release: making capture of infected trenches a dangerous undertaking. Poison Gas- Mustard Gas effects Tanks • Tanks were used for the first time in the First World War at the Battle of the Somme. They were developed to cope with the conditions on the Western Front. The first tank was called ‘Little Willie’ and needed a crew of 3. Its maximum speed was 3mph and it could not cross trenches • The more modern tank was not developed until just before the end of the war. It could carry 10 men, had a revolving turret and could reach 4 mph Tanks • By the time the war drew to a close the British, the first to use them, had produced some 2,636 tanks. The French produced rather more, 3,870. The Germans, never convinced of its merits, and despite their record for technological innovation, produced just 20. Flame-throwers • The basic idea of a flame-thrower is to spread fire by launching burning fuel. The earliest flame-throwers date as far back as the 5th century B.C. These took the form of lengthy tubes filled with burning solids (such as coal or sulfur), and which were used in the same way as blow-guns: by blowing into one end of the tube the solid material inside would be propelled towards the operator's enemies. • Quite aside from the worries of handling the device - it was entirely feasible that the cylinder carrying the fuel might unexpectedly explode - they were marked men; the British and French poured riflefire into the area of attack where Flammenwerfers were used, and their operators could expect no mercy should they be taken prisoner. Their life expectancy was therefore short. During the war the Germans launched in excess of 650 flame-thrower attacks; no numbers exist for British or French attacks. Grenades • The British bombing team usually consisted of nine men at a time: an NCO, two throwers, two carriers, two bayonet-men to defend the team and two 'spare' men for use when casualties were incurred. • As an attack or raid reached an enemy trench the grenadiers would be responsible for racing down the trench and throwing grenades into each dugout they passed: this invariably succeeded in purging dugouts of their human occupants in an attempt at surrender (often not accepted as they were promptly shot or stabbed). • Grenades - either hand or rifle driven - were detonated in one of two ways. They were either detonated on impact (percussion) or via a timed fuse. • Generally speaking, infantrymen preferred timed fuses (of whatever amount of time) to percussion devices, since there remained the constant risk of accidentally jolting a grenade while in a trench and setting off an explosion. Mortars and Artillery • Large field guns had a long range and could deliver devastating blows to the enemy but needed up to 12 men to work them. They fired shells which exploded on impact. • mortar is essentially a short, stumpy tube designed to fire a projectile at a steep angle (by definition higher than 45 degrees) so that it falls straight down on the enemy. • The chief advantage of the mortar was that it could be fired from the (relative) safety of the trench, avoiding exposure of the mortar crews to the enemy. Furthermore, it was notably lighter and more mobile than other, larger artillery pieces. And, of course, the very fact that the mortar bomb fell almost straight down meant that it would (with luck) land smack in the enemy trench. • Mortars were variously used to take out enemy machine gun posts, suspected sniper posts or other designated features. Larger mortars were occasionally used to cut enemy barbed wire, generally in situations were field artillery could not be used. Blimps • The Zeppelin, also known as blimp was an airship that was used during the early part of the war in bombing raids by the Germans. They carried machine guns and bombs. However, they were abandoned because they were easy to shoot out of the sky. Airplanes • Planes were also used for the first time. At first they were used to deliver bombs and for spying work but became fighter aircraft armed with machine guns, bombs and some times cannons. Fights between two planes in the sky became known as ‘dogfights’ • Light machine guns were adopted too for incorporation into aircraft from 1915 onwards, for example the Vickers, particularly with the German adoption of interrupter equipment, which enabled the pilot to fire the gun through the aircraft's propeller blades. World War I Disabilities • Over 1.65 million men in the British Army were wounded during the First World War. Of these, around 240,000 British soldiers suffered total or partial leg or arm amputations as a result of war wounds. Most of these men were fitted with artificial limbs.