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Chapter 3
Planting Colonies in North America
1588 - 1701
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part One
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter Focus Questions
In what ways were the Spanish, French, and
English colonies in North America similar? In
what ways were they different?
What was the nature of the colonial encounter
between English newcomers and Algonquian
natives in the Chesapeake?
How did religious dissent shape the history of the
New England colonies?
What role did the restored Stuart monarchy play in
the creation of new proprietary colonies?
Why did warfare and internal conflict characterize
the late seventeenth century?
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Two
American Communities:
Communities Struggle with
Diversity in Seventeenth-Century
Santa Fe
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
American Communities: Communities
Struggle with Diversity in SeventeenthCentury Santa Fe
In Santa Fe, the Pueblos clashed with Spanish
authorities over religious practices.
In 1680, Pope, a Pueblo priest, led a successful
revolt that temporarily ended Spanish rule.
In 1692, Spanish regained control, loosening
religious restrictions.
Pueblos observed Catholicism in churches and
missionaries tolerated traditional practices away
from the mission
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Three
The Spanish, The French,
and The Dutch In North
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Acoma Pueblo, the “sky city,” was founded in the thirteenth century and is one of
the oldest continuously inhabited sites in the United States. In 1598, Juan de Ońate
attacked and laid waste to the pueblo, killing some 800 inhabitants and enslaving
another 500.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
New Mexico
Map: New Mexico in the Seventeenth Century
Spanish came to Rio Grande valley in 1598 on a quest
to find gold and save souls.
Brutally put down Indian resistance
Colony of New Mexico centered around Santa Fe.
The Spanish depended on forced Indian labor for
modest farming and sheep raising.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 3.1 New Mexico in the Seventeenth
Century By the end of the seventeenth
century, New Mexico numbered 3,000 colonial
settlers in several towns, surrounded by an
estimated 50,000 Pueblo Indians living in some
fifty farming villages. The isolation and sense
of danger among the Hispanic settlers are
evident in their name for the road linking the
colony with New Spain, Jornada del Muerto,
“Road of Death.”
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
New France
Map: New France in the Seventeenth Century
In 1605, French set up an outpost on the Bay of Fundy to
monopolize fur trade.
Samuel de Champlain was leader and allied with Hurons
against Iroquois.
To exploit fur trade, French lived throughout region.
Only French Catholics were permitted
Quebec City was administrative center of vast French colonial
French had society of inclusion, intermarried with Indians.
Formed alliances with Indians rather than conquering
Missionaries attempted to learn more about Indian customs
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 3.2 New
France in the
Century By the late
seventeenth century,
French settlements
were spread from
the town of Port
Royal in Acadia to
the post and mission
at Sault Ste. Marie
on the Great Lakes.
But the heart of New
France comprised
the communities
stretching along the
St. Lawrence River
between the towns
of Quebec and
SOURCE: The New York Public
Library/Art Resource, NY.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
This drawing, by Samuel de Champlain shows how Huron men funneled deer into
enclosures, where they could be trapped and easily killed.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
This illustration, taken from Samuel de Champlain’s 1613 account of the founding of New
France, depicts him joining the Huron attack on the Iroquois in 1609. The French and their
Huron allies controlled access to the great fur grounds of the West. The Iroquois then
formed an alliance of their own with the Dutch, who had founded a trading colony on the
Hudson River. The palm trees in the background of this drawing suggest that it was not
executed by an eyewitness, but rather by an illustrator more familiar with South American
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
New Netherland
Upon achieving independence, the United
Provinces of the Netherlands developed a global
commercial empire.
Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India
In present-day New York, the Dutch established
settlements, Dutch opened trade with the Iroquois.
Iroquois, through warfare, became the important
middlemen of the fur trade with the Dutch.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Four
The Chesapeake: Virginia
and Maryland
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Jamestown and the Powhatan
King James I issued royal charters to establish colonies.
In 1607, Virginia Company founded Jamestown colony.
Jamestown colonists saw themselves as conquistadors and
were unable to support themselves.
Depended on supplies and new colonists from England
Algonquian people numbered about 14,000 and a powerful
confederacy headed by Powhatan confronted the English.
Seeking trade, Powhatans supplied starving colonists with
food, but soon abandoned that policy.
Warfare ensued until one of Powhatan’s daughters
(Pocahontas) was held captive.
Powhatan called for peace and Pocahontas married a colonist.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
This 1628 engraving depicts the surprise attack of Indians on Virginia colonists in 1622.
While it includes numerous inaccuracies (the Indians did not possess such large knives
and the colonists lived in far more primitive conditions) the image effectively conveys the
surprise and horror of the English.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tobacco, Expansion and, Warfare
The English planting of tobacco supplied cash crop,
stimulating migration.
Tobacco plantations dominated the economy.
Choosing to populate Virginia with English families, the
area became a territory of exclusion.
The colony grew without having to rely on Indian intermarriage
thus pushing the Indians off of their land.
Disease claimed many English settlers.
Conflicts between Algonquians and English occurred from
1622-1632 and again in 1644.
Defeat in 1644 was the last Indian resistance by the
Powhatan Confederacy.
Chart: Population Growth of the British Colonies in the
Seventeenth Century
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 3.1 Population Growth of the British Colonies in the Seventeenth
Century The British colonial population grew steadily through the century, then
increased sharply in the closing decade as a result of the new settlements of the
proprietary colonies.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
In this eighteenth-century engraving, used to promote the sale of tobacco, slaves
pack tobacco leaves into “hogsheads” for shipment to England, overseen by a
Virginia planter and his clerk. Note the incorporation of the Indian motif.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Seeing History John Smith’s Cartoon History of His Adventures in Virginia.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
In 1632, King Charles I granted ten million acres
at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay to the
Calvert family, the Lords Baltimore.
Maryland was a “proprietary colony” and because
the Calverts were Catholic they encouraged
others of the same faith to migrate to America.
The economy was based on tobacco plantations.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Indentured Servants
Three-quarters of English migrants to the
Chesapeake arrived as indentured servants who
exchanged passage in return for two to seven years
of labor.
The first African slaves came to the Chesapeake in
1619 but were more expensive than servants.
In terms of treatment, there was little difference
between indentured labor and slavery.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Community Life in the Chesapeake
Women fared better in the Chesapeake than men.
They were fewer in number, suffered lower mortality
rates, and many women became widows and through
remarriage accumulated wealth.
High mortality rates meant families were small
and kinship bonds were weak.
Little local community life developed and close
ties with England were maintained
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Five
The New England Colonies
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Social and Political Values of
English followers of John Calvin were called
Puritans because they wanted to purify and reform
the English church.
Because of Calvinist emphasis on enterprise,
Puritanism appealed most to merchants,
entrepreneurs, and commercial farmers.
Persecution of the Puritans and disputes between
the kings of England and Parliament provided
context for migration of Puritans to New England.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Early Contacts in New England
Map: European Colonies of the Atlantic Coast,
French and Dutch established trade connections
with Algonquians in region.
From 1616 to 1618, a disease epidemic wiped out
whole villages and disrupted trade.
Native population dropped from an estimated
120,000 to under 70,000.
The remaining Indians societies on the Atlantic
coast were too weak to resist the planting of
English colonies.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 3.3 European
Colonies of the Atlantic
Coast, 1607–39 Virginia, on
Chesapeake Bay, was the
first English colony in North
America, but by the midseventeenth century,
Virginia was joined by
settlements of
Scandinavians on the
Delaware River and Dutch
on the Hudson River, as
well as English religious
dissenters in New England.
The territories indicated
here reflect the vague
boundaries of the early
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Plymouth Colony
The first English colony in New England was founded
by Separatists, better known as the Pilgrims.
Separatists believed they needed to found independent
congregations to separate themselves from the corrupt
English church.
In 1620, they sailed for American and signed the
Mayflower Compact, the first document of selfgovernment in America, before landing at Plymouth.
With help from the Indians, the Plymouth colony
eventually established a community of self-sufficient
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony
In 1629, a group of wealthy Puritans was
granted a royal charter to found the
Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Between 1629 and 1643, approximately
20,000 people relocated to Massachusetts.
Massachusetts was governed locally by a
governor and elected representatives.
This was the origin of democratic suffrage and
bicameral division of legislative authority.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Governor John Winthrop, ca.
1640, a portrait by an unknown
artist. Winthrop was first elected
governor of Massachusetts Bay
Colony in 1629, then was voted
out of office and reelected a total
of twelve times.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Dissent and New Communities
Puritans emigrated for religious freedom but were
not tolerant of other religious viewpoints.
In 1636, when Thomas Hooker disagreed with
church policy, he led his followers west and
founded the beginning of the colony of Connecticut.
In 1636, Roger Williams was banished because of
his views on religious tolerance and founded the
colony of Rhode Island.
In 1638, Ann Hutchinson and her followers moved
to Rhode Island.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Indians and Puritans
Unlike the French and Dutch, the primary interest
of the English was acquiring land.
Disease had depopulated parts of New England
making it seem there was open land.
The English used a variety of tactics to pressure
native leaders into relinquishing their lands.
The English and their Narragansett allies defeated
the Pequots, who were allies of the Dutch.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The first map printed in the English colonies, this view of New England was published in
Boston in 1677. With north oriented to the right, it looks west from Massachusetts Bay, the
two vertical black lines indicating the approximate boundaries of the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts. The territory west of Rhode Island is noted as an Indian stronghold, the
homelands of the Narraganset, Pequot, and Nipmuck peoples.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The New England Merchants
Initially, the New England economy
was based on sales of land and
supplies to migrants.
New England merchants developed
diversified trade of fish, farm products,
and lumber.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Community and Family in
The close-knit, well-ordered families and
communities of New England were not
“puritanical” as the word is used today.
Settlers clustered near the town center,
building churches and schools.
Society was male-dominated and women
were mistrusted as shown by various
witchcraft scares.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Mason Children, by an unknown Boston artist, ca. 1670. These Puritan children—
David, Joanna, and Abigail Mason—are dressed in finery, an indication of the wealth
and prominence of their family. The cane in young David’s hand indicates his position
as the male heir, while the rose held by Abigail is a symbol of childhood innocence.
SOURCE: The Freake-Gibbs Painter (American, Active 1670), “David, Joanna, and Abigail Mason,” 1670. Oil on canvas,39 ½ x 42 ½;
Frame 42 ¾ x 45 ½ x 1 ½ in. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 3 rd to The Fine Art Museums of
San Francisco, 1979.7.3.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Salem Witch Trials
The cultural mistrust of women
manifested in public witch scares.
The Salem witch scare reflected social
The crisis exposed a dark side of
Puritan thinking about women.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Six
The Proprietary Colonies
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Proprietary Colonies
Map: The Proprietary Colonies
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 3.4 The Proprietary
Colonies After the
restoration of the Stuart
monarchy in 1660, King
Charles II of England created
the new proprietary colonies
of Carolina, New York,
Pennsylvania, and New
Jersey. New Hampshire was
set off as a royal colony in
1680, and in 1704, the lower
counties of Pennsylvania
became the colony of
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Early Carolina
King Charles II initiated the founding of
new colonies along the Atlantic Coast.
In 1663, the colony of Carolina was
chartered but soon divided into a
northern and a southern colony.
North Carolina was home to 5,000 small
farmers and large tobacco planters,
many from Virginia.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
From New Netherland to New York
The growth of the English colonies led the Dutch
West India Company to promote migration to their
New Netherland colony.
Competition with England caused a series of three
wars that transferred New Netherland to the
King Charles II gave the colony to his brother the
Duke of York and renamed it New York.
New York boasted the most heterogeneous society
in North America.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The earliest known view of New Amsterdam, published in 1651. Indian traders are shown
arriving with their goods in a dugout canoe of distinctive design known to have been
produced by the native people of Long Island Sound. Twenty-five years after its founding,
the Dutch settlement still occupies only the lower tip of Manhattan Island.
SOURCE: Fort New Amsterdam, New York, 1651. Engraving. Collection of the New York Historical Society, 77354d.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Founding of Pennsylvania
In 1681, King Charles II repaid a debt to William
Penn’s father by granting the younger Penn a huge
territory west of the Delaware River.
Penn traveled to Pennsylvania and oversaw the
organization of Philadelphia.
Penn was a Quaker and established his colony as a
“holy experiment.”
Penn purchased the land from the Algonquians,
dealing fairly with the Indians.
Immigrants flocked to Pennsylvania which later
became America’s breadbasket.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Delawares presented William Penn with this wampum belt after the
Shackamaxon Treaty of 1682. In friendship, a Quaker in distinctive hat clasps
the hand of an Indian. The diagonal stripes on either side of the figures
represent the “open paths” between the English and the Delawares.
Wampum belts like this one, made from strings of white and purple shell
beads, were used to commemorate treaties throughout the colonial period,
and were the most widely accepted form of money in the northeastern
colonies during the seventeenth century.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Seven
Conflict and War
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Conflict and War
In the last quarter of the seventeenth
century, intertribal and inter-colonial rivalry
stimulated violence that extended from
Santa Fe to Hudson’s Bay.
Map: Spread of Settlement: British
Colonies, 1650-1700
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 3.5 Spread of
Settlement: British
Colonies, 1650–
1700 The spread of
settlement in the
English colonies in
the late seventeenth
century created the
conditions for a
number of violent
conflicts, including
King Philip’s War,
Bacon’s Rebellion,
and King William’s
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
King Philip’s War
Relations between the Plymouth colonists and
Pokanokets deteriorated in the 1670s.
The colonists attempted to gain sovereign authority over the
land of King Philip (Metacom).
After peaceful coexistence lasting forty years, the Indians
realized that the colonists were interested in domination.
King Philip led an alliance of Indian peoples against
the United Colonies of New England and New York in
King Philip’s War.
By 1676, in part due to an alliance between the
Iroquois Confederacy and the English, King Philip’s
War ended in defeat.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Indians and New Englanders skirmish during King Philip’s War in a detail from John
Seller’s “A Mapp of New England,” published immediately after the war.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bacon’s Rebellion and Southern
In the 1670s, conflicts erupted between Virginia settlers
and the Susquehannocks on the upper Potomac River.
Nathaniel Bacon demanded the death or removal of all
Indians from the colony.
The governor attempted to suppress unauthorized military
Bacon and his followers rebelled against Virginia’s royal
governor, pillaging the capital of Williamsburg.
When Bacon died of dysentery, his rebellion collapsed.
Planters feared former servants would remain disruptive
and turned to African slave labor.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Glorious Revolution in America
In 1685, King James II attempted to increase royal control
by combining New York, New Jersey, and the New
England colonies into the Dominion of New England.
Colonial governments were disbanded and Anglican forms of
worship were imposed.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 overthrew King James
and colonial revolts broke out in favor of the Glorious
Parliament installed William and Mary as king and queen.
The new rulers abolished the Dominion of New England
and colonists revived assemblies and returned to selfgovernment.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
King William’s War
In 1689, England and France began almost 75 years of
warfare over control of the North American interior.
English gains in the fur trade led to the outbreak of
King William’s War.
The war ended inconclusively in 1697.
England feared loss of control of the colonies and
replaced proprietary rule with royal rule.
This signified the tightening of imperial reigns over the
colonies of North America.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Eight
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.