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Modern Era Review
AP World History - Klinect
Major Themes
Revolutions and independence movements
Nationalism and the nation-state
Reform and Reaction
Imperialism and its impact
Cultural influences
Revolutions & Independence
• American Revolution (1776-1781)
– Seven Year’s War (1756-1763)
– “no taxation w/out representation”
– Declaration of Independence
– “all men are created equal”
• Reality = no legal and political equality
– Conservative revolution
– Popular sovereignty
Revolutions & Independence
• French Revolution (1789-1815)
– Radical revolution … wanted to replace “old
order” with a completely “new order”
– Three Estates … problems
– National Assembly … Bastille … Declaration of
the Rights of Man and Citizen
– Max Robespierre … “Reign of Terror”
– Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte … Napoleonic Era
& the accomplishments
– Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
Revolutions & Independence
• Haitian Revolution (1802-04)
– French … sugar production
– American & French Revolution impact along with
Enlightenment ideas
– L’Overture … slave revolt … only successful
slave revolt in history
– Many nations, including the USA, refused to
recognize independent Haiti
– Haitian Revolution will inspire other L.A. nations
Revolutions & Independence
• Latin American Revolutions
– Spanish & Portuguese minority (30,000) dominated the
3.5 million creoles, and 10 million less-privileged peoples.
– Creoles began the revolutions
• Did NOT seek social reform, only to remove peninsulares
from power
– Napoleon’s impact
– Father Hidalgo (Mexico); Bolivar (northern South
America); San Martin (southern S.A.); Dom Pedro (Brazil)
– Gran Colombia
Nationalism & the Nation-State
• Unification of Italy
– Roman Catholic Church had discouraged
nationalism. Why?
– Papal states = papal resistance
– Garibaldi & Cavour – Victor Emmanuell
– Italy united by 1870 w/ the help of political
maneuvering … alliances … deals
Nationalism & the Nation-State
• Unification of Germany
– Prussia became increasingly more powerful after
the fall of Napoleon
– Otto von Bismarck … “blood and iron”
– United Germany through wars w/ Denmark,
Austria, and France (Franco-Prussian War)
– Germany quickly approached the UK and USA
as top industrial powers
– Led to Germany wanting to “flex their muscles”
entering the 20th century … World War I??
Nationalism & the Nation-State
• Zionism
– Nationalism’s view of minorities?
– Jews had been the biggest “target” for many
European nations … anti-semitism
– Theodor Herzl (1897)
– Balfour Declaration (1917 - just after this time
Nationalism & the Nation-State
• Latin America
– 1830’s = LA was independent
– Leaders wanted representative gov’t but felt the
mass population was unprepared
– Early constitutions created order and
representation … property & literacy were prerequisites to vote
– Economic problems = rise of caudillos
– Catholic Church remained strong
– Instability led to foreign intervention (Monroe
• Modern industry => scientific activity and invention
of the 17th century
• James Watt – steam engine – change?
Before Industrialization
After Industrialization
Agricultural-rural economy
Capitalist-urban economy
Family-farm economy
Wage earning economy
Asian-based manufacturing
Factory-based manufacturing
Rural-based population
Urban population
• Preconditions for industrialization
– Technical knowledge and invention
– Large population to serve as a workforce
– Possession of natural resources to be turned into
manufactured goods
– Investment capital (money) to build factories
– A stable and capitalist-minded government
• Poorer nations have large population but lack
investment capital
• US and Germany surpassed Britain by 1900
• Technology
– Higher-grade steel => transportation and
– Engine-driven steel ships replaced wooden ships
– Trains revolutionized transportation and were
transplanted into Asian & African colonies
• Impact on gender, family, and social
– Slavery declined & free-wage laborers declined
– Family as an economic moved to production outside
the home
– Men’s status increased because industrial work and
the wage were considered more important than
domestic work
– Middle-class women generally did not work outside
the home
– “cult of domesticity”
• Global effects of industrialization
– Global division of labor emerged
– Industrial societies needed raw materials:
• Cotton (India & Egypt)
• Rubber (Brazil & Congo)
• Cash crops (Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, South
Asia, and SE Asia)
– These areas developed little to no industrialization
– Wealth was concentrated in the hands of a few
– “Dependency Theory”
• Reactions to Industrialization:
– Socialism
• Anti-capitalist reform movements
• Karl Marx
– Overthrow of the moneyed class (bourgeoisie)
– Establish a “workers state”
– Unionism
• Less radical
• Sought better wages and working conditions
• Britain led the way in reforms to better working
Reform and Reaction
• Ottoman Empire
– By the 18th century they had fallen behind the Europeans in strength
and technology … were more vulnerable
– Central gov’t less effective while provinces became more
independent, often controlling their own armies
– Muhammad Ali … seized power in Egypt after the fall of Napoleon
and was only minimally subordinate to the Ottoman sultans
– Ali’s son commissioned the French to build the Suez Canal that
opened in 1869
– Transformed Egypt into a critical strategic location
– Ottomans also lost trade b/c of Europen bypass directly to India &
– Atlantic Ocean now became the focal point away from the Ottomans
– European goods flooded Ottoman market and they became
dependent on foreign loans
– Huge blow to the ego of the Ottomans
Reform and Reaction
• Ottomans (cont.)
– Mahmud II; reformer; reorganized secondary education, built new
roads, telegraph lines, and a postal service along the western models
– Tanzimat Era (1839-1879) … used the French legal system as a
guide … public trials and equality were instituted before Muslim laws
and those of other religious groups … secular
– Obviously these reforms were met with opposition from various
religious groups and the bureaucracy
– Many reformers were exiled (Young Turks) but they returned in 1908
and led a coup and overthrew the sultan.
– Years of internal struggle led Europe to refer to them as “the sick
man of Europe” …
– The Ottomans eventually ally themselves with the Germans
Reform and Reaction
• Russia
– Russia was autocratic, multiethnic, multilingual, and multicultural …
very similar to the Ottomans
– Czars supported boyars and Russian Orthodox Church
– Peasants = majority of population, serfdom
– Expanded vastly > led to Crimean War (1856-58) … defeat
– Czar Alexander II > emancipated serfs in 1861; created zemstovs
(local/district assemblies) but were still subordinate to czar; began
construction of Trans-Siberian Railroad; industrialization
– Was assassinated by radical revolutionaries (Lenin’s brother)
“intelligentsia” … university students and intellectuals (1881)
– Later czars reverted back to repression, not reform, to control the
– Czar Nicholas II & the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)
– Bloody Sunday & Revolution of 1905
Reform and Reaction
• China
– China, like the Ottomans & Russians had to deal with their own
issues of reform and reaction.
– Qing (Manchu) saw massive population growth, new food crops from
the Americas, and new monetary system based on silver
– Opium War (1839) … unequal treaties … extraterritoriality
– Taiping Rebellion (1850’s to 1860’s) … Hong Xiuquan … antiChinese society rebellion … deadliest rebellion in world history
– Reform > Self-Strengthening Movement … “Chinese learning at the
base, Western learning for use.” … shipyards, railroads, & weapon
industries along with science academies
– Hundred Days Reform … Emperor Guangzu … constitutional
monarchy, guarantee civil right liberties, encourage foreign influence
… led to Boxer Rebellion (1899-1900)
– Sun Yat Sen … Pu Yi … end of the Qing Dynasty (1911)
– Three Principles of Sun: Nationalism, Democracy, Socialism
Reform and Reaction
• Japan
– Japan made the most radical reforms and changes in its response to
the challenges of reform and reaction … emerged as a world power
– Commodore Perry (1853) … told to leave … “revere the emperor and
repel the barbarians.”
– Younger samurai (reformers) wanted to undermine the bakufu …
“men of spirit” overthrew the Shogun … wanted to industrialize after
seeing the British defeat China easily in Opium Wars
– Meiji Restoration (Revolution) of 1868 … rapid industrialization and
modernization of Japan … modern infrastructure and military
– Victories against China and Russia heading into the 20th century
gave Japan aspirations of empire in Asia
Imperialism and its Impact
• Three motives: economic, political, and cultural
– Economic: Colonies = sources of raw materials and markets for
manufactured goods.
– Political: colonies were strategic sites with harbors and supply
stations for naval ships
– Culturally: hoped to convert the Asian and African people to
Christianity … “White Man’s Burden”
• India
– UK’s interest was purely a business venture … British East India
Company … took advantage of Mughal weaknesses
– Sepoys … Sepoy Revolt (1857)
– Tea, coffee, and opium were cultivated
– British built railroads, telegraphs, canals, harbors, and irrigation
systems … English-style schools were set up for elite Indians
– Indian National Congress founded in 1885
– Muslim League
– Promised independence if they fought in World War I
Imperialism and its Impact
• Africa
– Europe had little presence in Africa outside coastal trading posts for
most of modern world history ...
– “Scramble for Africa” (1875-1900) … Europe dominates entire
– King Leopold II of Belgium – Congo Free State … holocaust?
– British in Egypt (1882) … seized Suez Canal
– Berlin Conference
• Japan
– After accepting western help seized Korea (1894) and Manchuria
(1904) after military victories
– Japan was now on the world stage
Imperialism and its Impact
• Legacy of Imperialism
– Manufacturers became suppliers of raw materials and consumers of
imported goods
– Migration increased … USA, Canada, Argentina, Australia, South
Africa in search for cheap land and better economic opportunities
– Indentured servants (Asia & Africa) went to tropical lands for
plantation labor
– Scientific racism (Social Darwinism)
• Slavery
– Mid-19th century liberals pushed for abolition …
Enlightenment influence
– Slavery, from an economic sense, became less profitable
• Prices of sugar, cotton, and tobacco fell
– Emancipation:
Britain (1833)
France (1848)
United States (1865)
Brazil (1888)
– Freedom ≠ equality
• Serfdom
– Key to social change in Russia had to be the emancipation of the
– Opposition to serfdom had been growing since the 1700’s
– “obstacle to economic development” as well as source of instability
and revolts
– Czar Alexander II (1861) freed serfs & compensated landowners for
the loss of land and serfs
– Serf labor obligations were gradually cancelled
– Won few political rights and paid huge taxes on their “new land”
– Their emancipation led to very little increase in agricultural production
– Did create a large urban labor force necessary for industrialization
Cultural Influences
• African and Asian Influences on European Art
– European artists took an interest in African & Asian artistic styles
– Impressionism > based on Japanese influences in nature
– Modern art was soon launched, free from traditional constraints
• Cultural Policies of Meiji Japan
– Heavily influenced by the Western culture
– Japanese literature > writers experimented with Western verse
– Architects & artists created large buildings of steel with Greek
columns like those seen in the West
• Leisure & Consumption
– Industrialization brought about higher wages & fewer work hours …
brought about new concept of “leisure time”
– Advertisements > “needed things”
– Newspapers, theaters, and professional sports all became popular