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Operation Husky (Invasion
of Sicily 1943) was the largest
amphibious operation in
Operation Mincemeat was a
deception plan carried out
by Allied troops. An
unknown corpse was
dressed in an Allied uniform
and sent to sea in Scotland.
Attached to the corpse were
many highly confidential
army plans about an
invasion in Sardinia instead
of Sicily. The Germans found
the corpse and believed the
documents, sending many of
their troops to Greece.
When the US Army landed
in North Africa, among the
equipment brought ashore
were 3 complete Coca Cola
bottling plants.
Gran Sasso, the highest point
in Italy was where Mussolini
was hiding when he
surrendered to the Allies on
Sept.9th, 1943.
No deportation of Jews
occurred in Italy until
Mussolini declared armistice.
The last commander of the
Afrika Corps, General Hans
Cramer, was made a POW in
Wales after the May 13th
surrender of North Africa.
He was very ill and was sent
by train to London, he was
allowed to see all the tanks
and planes being sent off for
D-day but he did not know
where he was in England.
When he went back to
Germany, he told the troops
they were in S.E. England
and attacking Calais, adding
to Allied propaganda.
Just before the Battle of
El-Alamein, the British
army hired men to
build an entire battalion
of paper tanks and
attached them to
regular cars. These
“tanks” were driven
very far north and the
Germans followed. This
aided in the Allies
defeat of German forces.
Battle of Gazala
Was fought between
May 26- June 21, 1942
Fought around the port
of Tobruk
Axis combatants
consisted of German
and Italian Units
Led by “Desert Fox” Colonel-General Erwin
Allied combatants consisted of the Eighth
Led of Major General Neil Ritchie and GeneralSir Claude Auchinleck
Resulted in Tobruk being recaptured by Axis
Rommel makes a flanking attack
Panzer Army Afrika retains the initiative in “the
The British Armour is heavily defeated
Eighth Army withdraws from the Ganzala line
Tobruk falls, and is recaptured by the Axis forces.
Took place between August
30- September 5, 1942.
Last major Axis offensive of
the Western Desert
Rommel planned to defeat
the British Eighth Army
before Allied reinforcements
Would make Axis victory
-The Battle That Wasn’t
British Eighth Army leader Montgomery was forewarned of Rommel’s
Deliberately left a gap in the southern sector at the front
Deployed bulk of his artillery and armor around Alam el Halfa, behind
the front.
Rommel’s supply was precious, and his attacks were failing, causing him
to withdraw.
Montgomery did not exploit this “defensive victory”.
Decided to save his troops for the upcoming Battle of El Alamein.
Was fought between
October 23- November
4, 1942.
Product of “Operation
Allie’s success in this
battle turned the tides
in the North Africa
The Break-in
The Crumbling
The Counter
Operation Supercharge
The Break-Out
Proved the power of the British artillery.
Proved effectiveness of British tanks in large numbers.
Allied victory ended Axis’s hope of occupying Egypt.
Marked the end of Axis expansion in Africa.
Second Battle of
El Alamein
The Second Battle of El Alamein was a major
turning point in the Western Desert Campaign
of World War II. This battle lasted from
October 23rd to November 5th 1942. The
success of this battle ended Axis hopes of
occupying Egypt, gaining access to Middle
Eastern oil fields and controlling access to the
Suez Canal. The defeat of the Axis powers by
Allied powers at El Alamein ended the Axis
expansion in Africa.
German Afrika Korps
Axis Powers
Italy Commanders
Specifically: Erwin Rommel (The Desert Fox)
In charge of Afrika Korps in North Africa.
Lead Afrika Korps to help shore up Italian
On 24 March 1941 Rommel launched a limited
offensive with only the 5th Light Division
supported by two Italian divisions.
Wanted to expand into Africa and successfully
pushed the bounds of Nazi control across the
North African region.