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Transcript
World War II
European Theater
Prelude & November 1942-May 1945
GERMAN
EUROPE – 1933
EXPANSION
Apr
1941.
Germany
invaded
Greece
and
then
Yugoslavia
Oct
Italy
attempted
to
invade
Greece
20-31
May
1941.
Germany
seized
Crete
7Sep
Dec
1942.
Pearl
Harbor
attacked
by
the
Japanese.
US
declares war on the Axis Powers.
Mar
1936
–
Germany
occupied
the
Rhineland
June.
Germans
invaded
Norway
10
May
1940
–
The
Germans
invaded
the
Netherlands
and
Belgium.
1938
–1940.
was
annexed
the
Third
Reich
22
Jun
Jun
––German
The
Dec
Battle
1941.
of
Germany
France
ends.
attacked
France
the
Soviet
surrenders.
Union
Jul
922
Apr
–
Oct
–Austria
1940.
Battle
forces
of
occupied
Britain.
The
Denmark
Germans
failed
1939
Germany
invaded
Poland.
Soviets
then
invade
eastern
Poland.
Apr
1939.
Similarly,
Italy
invaded
Albania
Germany,
Sep
27
Oct
Sep
1939-Apr
1938
1939
1940.
Italy,
Munich
The
1940.
Japan.
Axis
Agreement
Germany
seized
Powers
Later
Czechoslovakia
-by
Hungary,
built
formally
up
forces
came
Romania,
(Slovak
to
into
invade
and
being
Republic)
Bulgaria
France
1933
The
Nazi
Party
came
to
power
(the
Third
Reich
forms)
NORTH AFRICA
AND ITALY
July-Nov
43:
After
two
failed
offensives
(Stalingrad
in 1942
andconquer
Kursk
in
July
1943),
16
Sep
815th
Oct
43:
The
British
8th
Army
and
the
US
5th
Army
to
3
Sep
43:
British
8th
Army
successfully
invaded
the
‘toe’
ofmoved
Italy
as
a
10
Jul
––
17
Aug
43:
US
7th
Army
and
British
8th
Army
Sicily
10
Jul
43:
Army
Group,
US
7th
Army
(Patton)
and
British
8th
Army
(Montgomery)
invade
Feb
–Nov
May
1943:
Battle
of Kasserine
Pass.
Initially
a
defeat
for
the
Americans,
but
Nov
1942:
The
allies
advanced
toward
Tunisia
but
the
Germans
halt
the
advance
10
1942:
Germans
occupied
Southern
France
and
Corsica
8
Nov
1942:
Allied
Command
attacked
North
Africa
to
assist
the
British
8th
Army
the
Soviet
Union
begun
the
1st
of
their
major
offensives
to
push
the
Germans
back
Sicily.
505th Parachute
Regt
(82nd
Airborne
Division)
British
Airborne
Division
the
Gustav
line and
the
Germans
withdrew
to1stand
held
thethe
Gustav
line
diversion.
Just
prior
to
the
invasion,
Italy and
surrendered
to
Allies.assist
the8th
Army
arrived
and
the
Germans
surrendered.
to Germany.
Montgomery
515th Army Grp
Clark
Alexander
Western
Task Force
Center
Task Force
Eastern
Task Force
1th Abn Div
7
1
8
Montgomery
Patton
15th
Army Grp
Alexander
INVASION OF EUROPE
6 Jan
JunFeb
44
11 16-19
May–4
June
Jan-Apr
44
22
Jun-Oct
1944
19-25
4444
24
Dec
1943
Fall
1943
Feb
44
Operation
Overlord
3
The Offensive.
15th
AG
Bomber
Montgomery
named
US
Army
Air is
Force
After
the
fall
ofUS
Airborne
Divisions
conducted
another
orients
on
the AG
thethe
21st
AG
conducted
Strategic
The
15th
AG
finally
Soviet
Spring
The
Germans
counterRome,
15th
landed
in
Normandy
major
amphibious
destruction
ofUS
the
commander
(the
US
Bombing
of German
attacked
the
broke
the
Gustav
pushed
the
frees
inOffensive
the
early
hours
toVI
landing
with
the
US
German
aircraft
1st
Army
and
the
industry and
beachhead,
and
Line.
The
5th
Army
Germans
into
north
protect
the
flanks
of
Leningrad
from
Corps
at
Anzio.
The
industry.
Allied
air
British
2nd
Army).
resources.
Raids
almost
pushed
them
the
amphibious
linked
up
with
the
Italy.
The
opposing
drive
by
the
US
5th
superiority
was
Final
preparations
for
consist
of
large,
it’s
two
year
back
to
the
sea,
but
sites.
German
VI
Corps
at
Anzio
forces
settled
into
Army
(to
link
up
with
assured.
The
Germans
the
invasion
of
1000+
bombers
deep
ultimately
failed.
Anzioa
siege
and
reinforcements
VI
Corps)
failed
again
can
now
only
defend
Europe(Operation
and
entered
Rome
into
enemy
territory.
static
line
for
the
now
turned
into
a
prevented
from
pushes
into
the
towinter/spring
break
the
Gustav
their
most
critical
Overlord)
began.
on
4
June.
siege
until
May.
of
arriving
at the
line.
industrial
locations.
Ukraine.
44/45.
beachheads.
8
21th
Army Grp
Montgomery
1
2
15th Army Grp
Alexander
5
Clark
815Montgomery
15th Army Grp
Alexander
BREAKOUT
8
21th
Army Grp
Montgomery
2
1
21th Army
Grp
Montgomery
9
2 1
9
112th Army Grp
Bradley
3
12th Army Grp
Bradley
6th Army Grp
Devers
1
7
17-20
Sep
44
25
Aug
–15
15
Sep
44
Aug
Dec
44
Nov
8 ––
Dec
44
17
Sep
44
1-25
Aug
44
Jun-Aug
44Effort to the 12
15
Aug
44
Eisenhower shifted
the
Main
25
Jul
1944
1
Aug
44
British
Corps
attack
to
link
up
with of
thethe
Eisenhower
takes
over
direct
control
AG.
Both
thebreakout,
3rd and
7th
Armies
attacked
to
Soviet
offensive
to
clear
the
Balkans.
With
this
the
US
12th
Army
101st,
82nd,
and
1st
British
Airborne
Patton’s
3rd
Army
poured
in
and
attacked
in
two
Airborne
(ABN)
units
and
cross
the
captured
ground
battleCobra.
from
Montgomery
and
the
21st
the
German
“West
Wall”.
The
9th
Army,
Operation
The
US
8th
and
9th
Air
The
Soviets
crush
the
German
Army
Operation
Anvil
(Dragoon)
–(Hodges),
US
7th
directions
–The
Brittany
and
the1st
Seine
River.
The
German
Romania
and
Bulgaria
surrender
and
Group
(Bradley),
US
Army
divisions
are
dropped
to
capture
aa
bridges.
British
Corps
are
finally
stopped
and
12th
Army
Groups
attacked
along
a ‘Broad
initially
paced
between
1st
and
3rd
Armies,
forces
(strategic
and
tactical)
conducted
7th
and
5th
Panzer
Armies
are
almost
cut
off
but
Group
Center
and
reach
the
outskirts
of
Army
landed
in
Southern
France
in
join
the
Allies.
and
US
3rd
Army
(Patton)
formed.
after
they
link
up12
with
the
US were
82nd
ABN
just
series
of
bridges
located
between
Front’
toward
the
Rhine
River.
The
9th
Army
was
moved
toa‘carpet
the
AG’s
northern
boundary.
concentrated
bombing’
mission
which
escaped
with
large
portion
of their
men
(but
not
Warsaw.
support
of
the
attack
in
short
ofanticipating
the
British
1st
ABN
atNormandy.
Arnhem.
Only
Arnhem
and
the
British
front
lines.
clears
the
rest
ofFalaise
Brittany.
21st
AG’s
attempt
to
equipment)
at the
the
Gap
when
the
Canadian
1st
Bradley,
a future
transfer
ofUS
forces
assisted
in
breakout
attack
of the
1st
2,200
of that
surrounded
division
escaped
Army
failed
to
rapidly
linkthe
up
with
the
US
3rd
Army.
rapidly
cross
man
rivers/canals
in
the
to
Montgomery,
made
shift
as
he
did
not
Army
through
the
very
difficult
countryside.
Paris
was
liberated
on
25
August.
back
to
British
lines.
Netherlands.
want to lose
his veteran Army.
5
8
15th Army Grp
Alexander
Clark
15
BATTLE OF THE BULGE
AND THE FINAL GERMAN DEFEAT
8
1
21th Army Grp
Montgomery
12th Army Grp
2
1 9
1
Bradley
3
7
6th Army Grp
Devers
1
Ardennes Offensive
22
Feb
15-24
22
& –23
26
Dec
–21
76March
28
March
20-21
Dec
–March
7Feb
May
44 45
Jan
––
Apr
45
15
Apr
May
(Operation Watch on the Rhine) The Germans
Soviets attacked
into
Eastern
Rhineland
All
Army
Groups
massed
the
6th
SS
Panzer,
5th
and
7th
Battle
ofCampaign.
the
Bulge
(1)
–Panzer
Germany
Battle
of
the
Bulge
(2)
3rd
Attack
Army
displaced
and
occupation
from
its
ofOder
front
The
Soviets
pushed
to
the
pushed
forward
to
Germany
and
captured
Berlin.
Armies
for
a final
counter-attack
against
the
attacked
and
created
aattack
‘bulge’
in
The
USand
3rd
and
British
Armies
lines
Germany.
reoriented
The
German
to2nd
Army
into
river
in
the
north,
followed
by
the
Rhine
River.
By
chance,
1st
Western
Allies.
Hitler
planned
tothe
splitUS
the
US
the
allied
line.
As
the
and
9th
conducted
river
crossings
of
the
the
12th
and
21st
AGs
pushed
the
Group
the
B
southern
(Model)
is
portion
captured
of
the
in still
the
from
the
British
atcapture
the
lightest
defended
attacks
in
Hungry
anda1st
Austria
in
Army
was
able
to
bridge
Hitler
committed
suicide
on
30
portion
of
American
line
–
the
Ardennes
Armies
are
cut
off
from
the
12th
Rhine.
intact
onthe
7 March
at
Remagen
and
Germans
back
to
their
starting
Rhur
Pocket.
The
‘bulge’.
15th
AG
made
a
the
south.
(the
same
location
that
they
concentrated
their
AGApril
(due
totothe
‘bulge’)
created
an unexpected
bridgehead
on
and
the
Germans
line.
final
push
capture
thecommand
rest of
panzer forces to defeat the French in 1940).
the
east
side
of
the
Rhine
River.
(The
of
these
two
armies
to coast
the
surrendered
on
7shift
May.
Italy
Patton
and
the
began
US
5th
his
and
attack
7th
Armies
221st
This
attack
would
then
continue
to on
the
Army
wasthe
returned
to
12 AG
the
and
capture
critical
supply
portafter
of Antwerp.
21st
AG.
linked
December.
up
on
4 May.
Battle
of the
Bulge)
This would
become
known
as the Battle of
the Bulge.
5
8
15th Army Grp
Clark
15
Post War Occupation of Germany:
US Sector
British Sector
Soviet Sector
French Sector
All 4 Powers divide Berlin