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Transcript
MARKETING
12/10/10
The decline of the American car
industry
The Importance of Marketing
 For decades, motor cars manufactured by
American companies were built on the
principle that the American consumer
preferred a long, roomy vehicle with large
engine capacity. During the 1960s large
heavy vehicles with names like Chevrolet
and Buick, produced by.
The decline of the American car
industry
 American manufacturers, dominated the
market. Roads were seldom graced by the
sight of a foreign motor car and the
American manufacturers tended to ignore
trends taking place in the rest of the world
where small, economical vehicles with lower
engine capacities were capturing an everincreasing share of the market
The decline of the American car
industry
 American manufacturers believed that small cars
would never sell in the US market. Japanese car
manufactures, on the other hand, disagreed and
recognised a major opportunity for market growth
in the US. Marketing strategies were developed,
research and development programmes carried
out, factories built, and a workforce was trained in
order that Japan could enter the American motor
vehicle market.
The decline of the American car
industry
 During the 1970s world oil prices quadrupled,
making fuel much more expensive. Increasing
labour and raw material costs also combined to
make large American cars expensive to buy and to
run. American consumers rapidly switched their
preference to smaller, economical cars, and sales
of Japanese vehicles such as Datsun and Toyota
rocketed because American manufacturers offered
no alternative.
The decline of the American car
industry

Even while this process was taking place, American car
manufacturers decided against changing to small car
production believing that the trend was only temporary and
that their market share would recover when world oil prices
fell. This never happened, and by the time American
manufacturers finally changed to small car production, the
Japanese manufacturers had a powerful grip on the
market. They also faced severe competition from West
Germany, Italy, France and Korea where technological
advances in car production enabled competitors such as
Volkswagen, Fiat and Renault to secure a market share.
The decline of the American car
industry
 Several American car producers went out of
business and thousands of manufacturing
jobs were lost. This led to the United States
having a large balance of payments deficit
with Japan due to the high volume of
imported Japanese motor vehicles. The
domestic American industry failed to
anticipate the changes in consumer needs
and never recovered.
The Importance of Marketing
The Swatch story
 In contrast, the outstanding success of a
Swiss watch manufacturer during the 1980s
was the result of a careful and well-executed
marketing plan, brought on by necessity.
The Swatch story
 For years the Swiss were world leaders in
the watch industry. In 1974 their worldwide
market share was 30%. Then the Japanese
actively began to produce and market quartz
watches, which the Swiss viewed as a
passing fashion. Quartz digital watches
were, however, no fad and by 1983 the
Swiss share of world markets for watches
had fallen dramatically to 9%.
The Swatch story
 The Swiss manufacturer SMH carried out
extensive research in its watch markets and
carefully analysed patterns of consumer
behaviour..
The Swatch story
 Marketing experts advised the company that
a turnaround was possible if an inexpensive,
good-quality quartz analogue watch could
be developed, since the market was
saturated with digitals.
The Swatch story
 Gradually, a marketing plan was devised
and implemented resulting in the
introduction of the Swatch in 1984, which
has since revolutionised the world watch
industry
The Swatch story
 Based on their extensive analysis of
consumer behaviour and lifestyle, SMH
adopted a strategy that completely changed
the concept of a wrist watch. Watches were
to be a fashion accessory first and a watch
second. They would also be analogue
rather than digital.
The Swatch story
 Product planning developed a distinctive
quartz analogue watch in a wide range of
fashionable colours and designs. New
models were introduced rapidly and older
ones quickly dropped.
The Swatch story
 Because Swatches were sold as fashion
accessories, consumers were encouraged
to buy more than one (to match different
sets of clothes or lifestyles). The average
Swatch customer in Britain today owns three
different models.
The Swatch story

In Britain, Swatch watches were distributed mainly
through department stores and speciality shops.
They were not sold in high-street jewellery stores,
which the company believed were an inferior point
of sale for the product. The marketing strategy
was based on carefully controlling distribution to
avoid flooding the market, which would have
resulted in consumers losing their desire to own a
Swatch.
The Swatch story
 Today, Swatch watches sell for a relatively
low price which appeals to a large number
of consumers and encourages multiple
purchases. The watches are highly
distinctive. Extensive product promotion,
which includes advertising on TV and in
magazines, together with sponsorship of
various concerts and sporting events,
generates further sales.
The Swatch story
 Successful marketing has greatly increased
market share and enabled the company to
introduce new product lines, such as
clothing and telephones, using the Swatch
name.
Points to Note
 American car industry were resistant to change
 Ignored the market
 Believed their product was the best and they didn’t
to change
 Believed that the change in consumer trends was
a fad and that consumers would change back
 When they realised that things were going wrong
they were too late
Points to Note
 Swatch realised there was a problem in the market
 They identified the problem
 They found solutions to the problem – analogue
quartz watches and selling them in department
stores
 Continually up dating and changing the watches
 Changed the use of watches and made them
fashion statements
What is a Market?
 A meeting place for buyers and sellers.
 Markets can be set up – in a shop,
restaurant, over the phone, the internet, car
boot sale, market place.
 Markets can consist of individuals or
organisations who are actual or potential
buyers of a product or service.
Consumer Markets
 Made up of individuals who purchase goods
for personal or domestic use. They make
their purchases mainly from retailers and
buy a combination of consumable goods eg
food and durable goods eg cars.
Consumable goods are bought more
frequently than durable goods.
Industrial Markets
 These are made up of organisations which
purchase goods or services to use in the
production of other goods and services.
 They buy a combination of consumable
goods eg raw materials and longer lasting
durable goods eg machinery.
What is Marketing?





Market research
Promotion and advertising
Preparation of publicity material
Responsibility for new product development
Branding etc
Aims of Marketing Department
 To identify consumers’ requirements
 To anticipate consumers’ requirements
 To satisfy consumers’ requirements
 3 verbs
Task
 Find out what these aims mean – how do
marketing departments reach these aims –
what tasks might they carry out and why are
these aims important.
Product Oriented Organisations
 These orgs believe that their product or service is
the best on the market and so will be easy to sell.
 They believe there is no need to change their
product.
 In some cases this may be fine eg with unique
products or new inventions just onto the market.
 For most organisations not taking the market into
consideration could lead to failure.
Market (Customer) Oriented
Organisations
 These organisations are constantly modifying and
adapting their products to suit their customer
needs.
 They make the effort to find out what their
customers want.
 They have had to do this as consumers are far
more aware of their options and competition is
strong.
 Marketing ensures that the needs of the
customers are considered before production takes
place.
The Marketing Environment
Consumer Trends and Behaviour
Competition
The Market
Economy
Government
Technology
The Consumer
 What influences a consumer to purchase
one product rather than another?
 Age distribution of the population – many
organisations respond to the change in age
distribution eg in the UK we are regarded as
having an “ageing” population+--
Task
 Find the reclassification of class tables and
what each reclassification means.