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Transcript
Chapter 9
Marketing Research And
Information Systems
Objectives
• Describe steps in conducting marketing research
• Explore methods of gathering data for marketing
research
• Describe nature/role of information systems in
marketing decision making
• Understand how tools: databases, decision
support systems, and the Internet facilitate
marketing research
• Identify key ethical and international
considerations in marketing research
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Marketing Research
The systematic design, collection,
interpretation, and reporting of information
to help marketers solve specific marketing
problems or take advantage of marketing
opportunities.
Marketresearch.com
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Benefits Of Market Research
• Facilitates strategic planning
• Assess opportunities/threats
• Ascertain potential for success
• Determine feasibility
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The Marketing
Research Process
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Identifying Need
For Research = Problem
• Departure from normal function
• Typical problems requiring research
• Discover reasons for exceeding goals
• Identify/define opportunities or changes
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Defining Problem
• Nature/scope of situation
• Clear definition of need
• Determine precisely what
research is to determine
• How will research be used?
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Designing the Research Project
Research Design – an overall plan for
obtaining the information needed to
address a research problem or issue.
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Hypothesis
An informed guess or assumption about a
certain problem or set of circumstances.
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Types of Research
• Exploratory Research – research conducted
to gather more information about a problem or to
make a tentative hypothesis more specific
• Conclusive Research – research designed to
verify insights through objective procedures and
to help marketers in making decisions
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Research
Exploratory vs. Conclusive
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Types Of
Conclusive Research
• Descriptive- clarifies characteristics of
certain phenomena to solve a particular
problem
• Experimental- allows marketers to make
casual inferences about relationships
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Descriptive Research
• Demand prior knowledge
• Assume problem/issue is clearly defined
• Some require statistical analysis and
predictive tools
• Marketer’s task
– Choose adequate methods
– Measure data
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Experimental Research
• Allows marketers to make causal
deductions
• Requires
– Independent variable
– Dependent variable
• Provides strong evidence of cause
and effect
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Reliability and Validity
• Reliability – identical results produced in
repeated trials of the same research
technique
• Validity – research method measuring
what it is supposed to measure
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Data
• Primary – observed/recorded or collected
directly from respondents
• Secondary – compiled both inside and
outside the organization for some purpose
other than the current investigation
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Sources Of Secondary Data
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Organization’s database
Accounting records
Competitive information
Trade associations
Periodicals
Gov’t publications
Unpublished sources
Online databases
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Methods Of
Collecting Primary Data
• Population- all elements, units or
individuals of interest to researchers for
a specific study
• Sample- limited number of units chosen
to represent the characteristics of a total
population
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Sampling
• Population – elements, units, or
individuals of interest to researchers for
a specific study
• Sample – a limited number of units
chosen to represent the total population
• Sampling – selecting representative
units from a total population
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Probability Samples
• Probability – every element in the
population has a known chance of being
selected for study
– Random- all units in a population have an
equal chance of appearing in the sample
– Stratified- population is divided into common
attributes and random sample chosen within
each group
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Nonprobability Sampling
• Nonprobability- more subjective than
probability because no way to calculate
likelihood specific element will be chosen
– Quota- researchers divide population into
groups then arbitrarily choose from each
group
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Survey Methods
• Mail – respondents answer questionnaire
through mail
Sample Mail Survey
• Telephone – respondents’ answers are recorded
by interviewer on the phone Sample Phone Survey
• Online – respondents answer questionnaire via
e-mail or website
Sample Online Survey
• Personal Interview Surveys – participants
respond to survey questions face to face
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Comparison of the
Four Basic Survey Methods
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Benefits Of
Personal Interview
• Rapport
• More in-depth
– Probes
– Follow-up
– Tests
• Longer
• Yield more information
• Respondents can be carefully selected,
reasons for nonresponse explored
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Types Of
Personal Interviews
• In-home (door-to-door)
• Focus group
• Customer advisory boards
• Telephone depth
• Shopping mall intercept
• On-site computer
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Questionnaire Construction
• Open-ended
• Dichotomous
• Multiple-Choice
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Observation Methods
• Record individuals’ overt behavior
• Direct contact avoided
• Actions examined
• May be combined with interviews
• Can be biased- devices
• Descriptive
• Sample Observation Method
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Interpreting Research Findings
• Allow for continual evaluation
• Conclusion
– Display data in table format
– Cross-tabulate
• Statistical interpretation- analysis of
what is typical or what deviates from
the average
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Reporting Findings
• Clear, objective look
• Point out deficiencies
• Formal, written document
• Determine level of detail
• Summary/recommendations first
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Technology And Information
Gathering And Analysis
• Increasingly accessible
• Customer relationship management
enhanced
• Permits internal research and quick
information gathering
• Access array of valuable information
sources
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Marketing Information Systems
• Marketing Information Systems (MIS)
– framework for managing and structuring information gathered
from internal and external sources
• Databases
– Single-source data provided by single marketing research firm
• Marketing Decision Support Systems (MDSS)
– customized computer software that aids marketing managers in
decision making
• Internet and Online Information Services
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Resources For
Marketing
Information
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Issues In Marketing Research
• Importance of ethical researchprofessional standards
• International issues- allow for regional
differences
– Secondary to gain understanding of region
– Field research
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Top Marketing Research Firms
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