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Transcript
Classification of
Organisms
Chapter 14
Categories of Biological Classification
Taxonomy – The
science of naming
and classifying
organisms
 1750s Carl Linnaeus
uses binomial
nomenclature: 2 part
Latin name for each
organism


Apis mellifera –
European honeybee

Now called scientific
names and are made up
of genus and species
name


Genus is capital, comes
first, contains similar
species
Species is lowercase,
particular kind of
organism within a genus
Carcharodon carcharias
Ursus maritimus
Scientific Names

Written



Apis mellifera
Apis mellifera
A. mellifera after full name
is given once

Strigiphilus
garylarsoni


All languages use same
names and system
 Rules set up


2 Latin words or words
following Latin rules
2 different organisms
cannot have same name

Louse named for
Far Side
cartoonist
because he made
science jokes
Masiakasaurus
knopfleri

Dinosaur named
for guitarist
because they
listened to his
music while
digging
Classifying Organisms
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Classification of Honeybees
Animalia
Arthropoda
Insecta
Hymenoptera
Apidae
Apis
Apis mellifera
Humans
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Primata
Hominidae
Homo
sapiens
Monkey
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Primata
Cebidae
Alouatta
pigra
Horse
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Perissodactyla
Equidae
Equus
caballus
Penguin
Animalia
Chordata
Aves
Sphenisciformes
Spheniscidae
Aptenodytes
forsteri
How can you remember?
King
Phillip
Came
Over
For
Good
Soup
14.2 How Biologists Classify
Organisms
Biological species – group of natural populations
that are interbreeding or that could interbreed,
and that are reproductively isolated from other
such groups
 Hybrid – offspring of individuals from different
species that interbreed and produce fertile
offspring

Other Hybrids
Cama
Wolphin
Liger
Goat Boy
Zony
Evolutionary History
– evolutionary history
 When trying to classify organisms based
on similarities, it can be misleading
 Phylogeny

Wing of a bat is different from a wing of a bird
evolution – similarities evolve
in unrelated species
 Convergent

Called analogous characters
Cladistics
 Method
of analysis that reconstructs
phylogenies using relationships based on
shared characters

Believed to show sequence of evolution
Character – evolved from a
common ancestor of both groups
 Ancestral

Backbone – ancestral to both birds and
mammals
Character – evolved in an
ancestor of one group but not of the other
 Derived

Feathers in birds but not in mammals

Cladistics is based on idea that shared derived
characters show that 2 groups are closely
related but ancestral characters don’t


Lizards and dogs have the shared ancestral character
of limbs, whales do not have limbs, but their
ancestors did
But dogs and whales have the shared derived
character of mammary glands; not found in lizards or
lizard ancestors; dogs and whales are closer
Cladogram – branching diagram that shows
evolutionary relationships among groups
 Organisms that share derived characters are
grouped together
 As groups evolve new derived characters
appear that weren’t there before

Evolutionary Systematics
 Different
traits given different degrees of
importance
 Using this produces a phylogenetic tree