Download Nature and Nurture

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Nature, Nurture, and
Human Diversity
Chapter 4
1
Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Behavior Genetics: Predicting
Individual Differences

Genes: Our Codes for Life

Twin and Adoption Studies

Temperament and Heredity

Heritability

Gene-Environment Interaction

The New Frontier: Molecular Genetics
2
Parents and Peers

Parents and Early Experiences

Peer Influence
3
Cultural Influences

Variations Across Cultures

Variations Over Time

Culture and the Self

Culture and Child-Rearing

Developmental Similarities Across
Groups
4
Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding
Human Nature

Natural Selection and Adaptation

Evolutionary Success Helps Explain
Similarities

An Evolutionary Explanation of Human
Sexuality
5
Gender Development

Gender Similarities and Differences

The Nature of Gender

The Nurture of Gender
Reflections on Nature and
Nurture
6
Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual
Differences
Behavior Geneticists study our differences and weigh
the relative effects of heredity and environment.
7
Genes: Our Codes for Life
Chromosomes containing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
are situated in the nucleus of a cell.
8
Genes: Our Codes for Life
Segments within DNA consist of genes that make
proteins to determine our development.
9
Down Syndrome





Error in 21st pairing of
chromosomes—extra
chromosome attached
Child more likely to have
Down’s if mother is over 40
Children are highly
educable though challenged
with developmental delays
Congenital heart defects in
over 40%
Life expectancy on average
to age 55
10
Klinefelter’s Syndrome








Affects only men
Extra X chromosome
(47)
Very tall
Less facial and body
hair
Infertile
Language processing
challenges but normal
IQ
Effects 1 in 500-1000
males
Treatment?
11
Turner’s Syndrome








Affects only girls
45 chromosomes (one
less X)
Infertility
Short in stature
Normal IQ but can
have visual-spatial
reasoning challenges
1 in 2000-2500 births
Some visual
Treatment?
12
Genome
Genome is the set of complete instructions for making
an organism, containing all the genes in that
organism. Thus, the human genome makes us
human, and the genome for drosophila makes it a
common house fly.
13
Twin and Adoption Studies
Studying the effects of heredity and environment on
two sets of twins, identical and fraternal, has come in
handy.
14
Separated Twins
A number of studies compared identical twins reared
separately from birth, or close thereafter, and found
numerous similarities.
Separated Twins
Personality, Intelligence
Abilities, Attitudes
Interests, Fears
Brain Waves, Heart Rate
15
Twins Separated at Birth
Critics of separated twin studies note that such
similarities can be found between strangers.
Researchers point out that differences between
fraternal twins are greater than identical twins.
Bob Sacha
16
Biological Versus Adoptive Relatives
Adoption studies, as opposed to twin studies, suggest
that adoptees (who may be biologically unrelated)
tend to be different from their adoptive parents and
siblings.
17
Adoptive Studies
Adoptive studies strongly point to the simple fact
that biologically related children turn out to be
different in a family. So investigators ask:
Do siblings have differing experiences?
Do siblings, despite sharing half of their genes, have
different combinations of the other half of their genes?
Ultimate question: Does parenting have an effect?
18
Parenting
Parenting does have an effect on biologically related
and unrelated children.
Parenting Influences
Children’s
Attitudes, Values
Manners, Beliefs
Faith, Politics
19
Temperament and Heredity
Temperament refers to a person’s stable emotional
reactivity and intensity. Identical twins express
similar temperaments, suggesting heredity
predisposes temperament.
20
Nature and Nurture
Some human traits are fixed, such as having two eyes.
However, most psychological traits are liable to
change with environmental experience.
Genes provide choices for the organism to change its
form or traits when environmental variables change.
Therefore, genes are pliable or self-regulating.
21
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genes can influence traits which affect responses, and
environment can affect gene activity.
A genetic predisposition that makes a child restless
and hyperactive evokes an angry response from his
parents. A stressful environment can trigger genes to
manufacture neurotransmitters leading to depression.
22
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genes and environment affect our traits individually,
but more important are their interactive effects.
Alessia Pierdomenico/Reuters/Corbis
Rex Features
People respond differently to
Rowan Atkinson (Mr. Bean) than Orlando bloom.
23
Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding
Human Nature
Evolutionary psychology studies why we as humans
are alike. In particular, it studies the evolution of
behavior and mind using principles of natural
selection.
24
Natural Selection
Natural selection is an evolutionary process through
which adaptive traits are passed on to ongoing
generations because these traits help animals survive
and reproduce.
25
Artificial Selection
Biologists like Belyaev and Trut (1999) were able to
artificially rear and domesticate wild foxes, selecting
them for friendly traits.
L.N. Trur, American Scientist (1999) 87: 160-169
Any trait that is favored naturally or artificially
spreads to future generations.
26
Human Traits
A number of human traits have been identified as a
result of pressures afforded by natural selection.
Why do infants fear strangers when they become
mobile?
Why do people fear spiders and snakes and not
electricity and guns?
How are men and women alike? How and why do
men’s and women’s sexuality differ?
27
Human Sexuality
Gender Differences in Sexuality
Males and females, to a large extent, behave and
think similarly. Differences in sexes arise in regards to
reproductive behaviors.
Question (summarized)
Male
Female
Casual sex
58%
34%
Sex for affection
25%
48%
Think about sex everyday
54%
19%
28
Natural Selection & Mating Preferences
Natural selection has caused males to send their genes
into the future by mating with multiple females since
males have lower costs involved.
However, females select one mature and caring male
because of the higher costs involved with pregnancy
and nursing.
29
Mating Preferences
Males look for youthful appearing females in order to
pass their genes into the future. Females, on the other
hand, look for maturity, dominance, affluence and
boldness in males.
Data based on 37 cultures.
30
Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective
Evolutionary psychologists take a behavior and work
backward to explain it in terms of natural selection.
Evolutionary psychology proposes genetic determinism
and undercuts morality in establishing society.
Where genders are unequal, gender preferences are
wide, but when they are closely equal, preferences
narrow down.
31
Evolutionary Psychologists Reply
Evolutionary psychologists argue that we need to test
behaviors that expound evolutionary principles.
Evolutionary psychologists remind us how we have
adapted, but do not dictate how we ought to be.
Males and females are more alike than different, and if
we study these differences we can establish their
causes.
32
Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Parents and Peers

Parents and Early Experiences

Peer Influence
33
Parents and Peers
Parents and Early Experiences
We have looked at how genes influence our
developmental differences. What about the
environment? How do our early experiences, our
family, our community and our culture affects these
differences?
34
Experience and Brain Development
Early postnatal experiences affect brain development.
Rosenzweig et al. (1984) showed that rats raised in
enriched environments developed thicker cortices
than those in impoverished environment.
35
Experience and Faculties
Early experiences during development in humans
shows remarkable improvements in music, languages
and the arts.
Courtesy of C. Brune
36
Brain Development and Adulthood
Brain development does not stop when we reach
adulthood. Throughout our life, brain tissue
continues to grow and change.
Both hotos courtesy of Avi Kani and Leslie
Ungerleider, National Institue of Mental Health
A well-learned finger-tapping task leads to
more motor cortical neurons (right) than baseline.
37
How Much Credit (or Blame) Do Parents
Deserve?
Parental influence is largely genetic. This support is
essential in nurturing children. However, other
socializing factors also play an important role.
Miquel L. Fairbanks
Although raised in the same family,
some children are greater risk takers.
38
Peer Influence
Children, like adults, attempt to fit into a group by
conforming. Peers are influential in such areas as
learning to cooperate with others, gaining popularity,
and developing interactions.
Ole Graf/ zefa/ Corbis
39
Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Cultural Influences

Variations Across Cultures

Variations Over Time

Culture and the Self

Culture and Child-Rearing

Developmental Similarities Across
Groups
40
Cultural Influences
Humans have the ability to evolve culture. Culture is
composed of behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and
traditions shared by a group.
Kevin R. Morris/Corbis
41
Variation Across Culture
Cultures differ. Each culture develops norms – rules for
accepted and expected behavior. Men holding hands in
Saudi Arabia is the norm (closer personal space), but not
in American culture.
Jason Reed/ Reuters/Corbis
42
Variation Over Time
Cultures change over time. The rate of this change
may be extremely fast. In many Western countries,
culture has rapidly changed over the past 40 years or
so.
This change cannot be attributed to changes in the
human gene pool because genes evolve very slowly.
43
Culture and the Self
If
a culture nurtures an
individual’s personal
identity, it is said to be
individualist, but if a
group identity is favored
then the culture is
described as collectivist.
A collectivist support system
Kyodo News
can benefit groups who
experience disasters such as
the 2005 earthquake in
Pakistan.
44
Culture and the Self
45
Culture and Child-Rearing
Individualist cultures (European) raise their children
as independent individuals whereas collectivist
cultures (Asian) raise their children as
interdependent.
Jose Luis Palaez, Inc./ Corbis
46
Culture and Child-Rearing
Westernized Cultures
Asian-African
Cultures
Responsible for your
self
Responsible to group
Follow your conscience
Priority to obedience
Discover your gifts
Be true to family-self
Be true to yourself
Be loyal to your group
Be independent
Be interdependent
47
Developmental Similarities Across Groups
Despite
diverse cultural backgrounds, humans are
more similar than different in many ways.
We
share the same genetic profile, life cycle, capacity
for language, and biological needs.
Copyright Steve Reehl
48
Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Gender Development

Gender Similarities and Differences

The Nature of Gender

The Nurture of Gender
49
Gender Development
Based
on genetic makeup, males and females are
alike, since the majority of our inherited genes (45
chromosomes are unisex) are similar.
Males
and females differ biologically in body fat,
muscle, height, onset of puberty, and life expectancy.
50
Gender Differences in Aggression
Men
express themselves and behave in more
aggressive ways than do women. This aggression
gender gap appears in many cultures and at various
ages.
In
males, the nature of this aggression is physical.
51
Gender and Social Power
In
most societies, men are socially dominant and are
perceived as such.
In
2005, men accounted for 84% of the governing
parliaments.
52
Gender Differences and Connectedness
Young and old, women form more connections
(friendships) with people than do men. Men
emphasize freedom and self-reliance.
Dex Image/ Getty Images
Oliver Eltinger/ Zefa/ Corbis
53
Biology of Sex
Biological
sex is determined by the twenty-third pair
of chromosomes.
If the pair is XX, a female is produced. If the pair is XY,
a male child is produced.
54
Sexual Differentiation
In the mother’s womb, the male fetus is exposed to
testosterone (because of the Y chromosome),
which leads to the development of male genitalia.
If low levels of testosterone are released in the
uterus, the result is a female.
55
Sexual Differentiation
Sexual differentiation is not only biological, but
also psychological and social.
However, genes and hormones play a very
important role in defining gender, especially in
altering the brain and influencing gender
differences as a result.
56
Gender Roles
Our culture shapes our gender roles — expectations
of how men and women are supposed to behave.
Gender Identity — means how a person views
himself or herself in terms of gender.
57
Gender Roles: Theories
1.
Social Learning Theory proposes that we learn
gender behavior like any other behavior—
reinforcement, punishment, and observation.
2.
Gender Schema Theory suggests that we learn a
cultural “recipe” of how to be a male or a female,
which influences our gender- based perceptions
and behaviors.
58
Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Reflections on Nature and
Nurture
59
Reflections on Nature and Nurture
60